Alati, R, Lawlor, DA, Mamun, AA, Williams, GM, Najman, JM, O'Callaghan, M, Bor, W (2007). Is there a fetal origin of depression? Evidence from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy and its outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology 165, 575–582.
Anonymous (1984). Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies. The Caerphilly and Speedwell Collaborative Group. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 38, 259–262.
Baldwin, RC, O'Brien, J (2002). Vascular basis of late-onset depressive disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 180, 157–160.
Beekman, AT, Copeland, JR, Prince, MJ (1999). Review of community prevalence of depression in later life. British Journal of Psychiatry 174, 307–311.
Beekman, ATF, de Beurs, E, van Balkom, AJ, Deeg, DJH, van Dyck, R, van Tilburg, W (2000). Anxiety and depression in later life: co-occurrence and communality of risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 89–95.
Beekman, ATF, Penninx, BWJH, Deeg, DJH, Ormel, J, Braam, AW, van Tilburg, W (1997). Depression and physical health in later life: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Journal of Affective Disorders 46, 219–231.
Bohnert, KM, Breslau, N (2008). Stability of psychiatric outcomes of low birth weight: a longitudinal investigation. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 1080–1086.
Bokov, A, Chaudhuri, A, Richardson, A (2004). The role of oxidative damage and stress in aging. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 125, 811–826.
Bosma, H, van de Mheen, HD, Mackenbach, JP (1999). Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes. British Medical Journal 318, 18–22.
Braam, AW, Prince, MJ, Beekman, AT, Delespaul, P, Dewey, ME, Geerlings, SW, Kivela, S-L, Lawlor, BA, Magnusson, H, Meller, I, Peres, K, Reischies, FM, Roelands, M, Schoevers, RA, Saz, P, Skoog, I, Turrina, C, Versporten, A, Copeland, JR (2005). Physical health and depressive symptoms in older Europeans. Results from EURODEP. British Journal of Psychiatry 187, 35–42.
Brenes, GA, Kritchevsky, SB, Mehta, KM, Yaffe, K, Simonsick, EM, Ayonayon, HN, Rosano, C, Rubin, SM, Satterfield, S, Penninx, BW (2007). Scared to death: results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 15, 262–265.
Briggs, RC, Gossman, MR, Birch, R, Drews, JE, Shaddeau, SA (1989). Balance performance among noninstitutionalized elderly women. Physical Therapy 69, 748–756.
Bryant, C, Jackson, H, Ames, D (2008). The prevalence of anxiety in older adults: methodological issues and a review of the literature. Journal of Affective Disorders 109, 233–250.
Cole, MG, Dendukuri, N (2003). Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 1147–1156.
Colman, I, Ploubidis, GB, Wadsworth, ME, Jones, PB, Croudace, TJ (2007). A longitudinal typology of symptoms of depression and anxiety over the life course. Biological Psychiatry 62, 1265–1271.
Costa, PT, McCrae, RR (1992). NEO PI-R Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources: Odessa, FL.
Crawford, JR, Deary, IJ, Starr, J, Whalley, LJ (2001). The NART as an index of prior intellectual functioning: a retrospective validity study covering a 66-year interval. Psychological Medicine 31, 451–458.
de Beurs, E, Beekman, A, Geerlings, S, Deeg, DJ, van Dyck, R, van Tilburg, W (2001). On becoming depressed or anxious in late life: similar vulnerability factors but different effects of stressful life events. British Journal of Psychiatry 179, 426–431.
de Beurs, E, Beekman, AT, Deeg, DJ, van Dyck, R, van Tilburg, W (2000). Predictors of change in anxiety symptoms of older persons: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Psychological Medicine 30, 515–527.
Deary, IJ, Whiteman, MC, Starr, JM, Whalley, LJ, Fox, HC (2004). The impact of childhood intelligence on later life: following up the Scottish Mental Surveys of 1932 and 1947. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86, 130–147.
Deeks, JJ, Altman, DG, Bradburn, MJ (2001). Statistical methods for examining heterogeneity and combining results from several studies in meta-analysis. In Systematic Reviews in Health Care. Meta-analysis in Context (ed. Egger, M., Davey Smith, G. and Altman, D. G.), pp. 285–312. BMJ Books: London.
Dufouil, C, Fuhrer, R, Dartigues, JF, Alperovitch, A (1996). Longitudinal analysis of the association between depressive symptomatology and cognitive deterioration. American Journal of Epidemiology 144, 634–641.
Gale, CR, Allerhand, M, Sayer, AA, Cooper, C, Dennison, EM, Starr, JM, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Gallacher, JE, Kuh, D, Deary, IJ (2010). The structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in four cohorts of community-based, healthy older people: the HALCyon program. International Psychogeriatrics 22, 559–571.
Gale, CR, Deary, IJ, Boyle, SH, Barefoot, J, Mortensen, LH, Batty, GD (2008). Cognitive ability in early adulthood and risk of five specific psychiatric disorders in mid life: the Vietnam Experience Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 1410–1418.
Gale, CR, Hatch, SL, Batty, GD, Deary, IJ (2009). Intelligence in childhood and risk of psychological distress in adulthood: the 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort Study. Intelligence 37, 592–599.
Gale, CR, Martyn, CN (2004). Birth weight and later risk of depression in a national birth cohort. British Journal of Psychiatry 184, 28–33.
Gallo, JJ, Lebowitz, BD (1999). The epidemiology of common late-life mental disorders in the community: themes for the new century. Psychiatric Services 50, 1158–1166.
Gaysina, D, Hotopf, M, Richards, M, Colman, I, Kuh, D, Hardy, R (2011). Symptoms of depression and anxiety and change in body mass index from adolescence to adulthood: results from a British birth cohort. Psychological Medicine 41, 175–184.
Heim, A (1968). The AH4 test. NFER-Nelson: Windsor.
Hendrie, HC, Albert, MS, Butters, MA, Gao, S, Knopman, DS, Launer, LJ, Yaffe, K, Cuthbert, BN, Edwards, E, Wagster, MV (2006). The NIH Cognitive and Emotional Health Project. Report of the Critical Evaluation Study Committee. Alzheimer's and Dementia 2, 12–32.
Hettema, JM, Neale, MC, Myers, JM, Prescott, CA, Kendler, KS (2006). A population-based twin study of the relationship between neuroticism and internalizing disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 857–864.
Higgins, JP, Thompson, SG, Deeks, JJ, Altman, DG (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. British Medical Journal 327, 557–560.
Holt, RI, Phillips, DI, Jameson, KA, Cooper, C, Dennison, EM, Peveler, RC (2009). The relationship between depression and diabetes mellitus: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Diabetic Medicine 26, 641–648.
Inskip, HM, Dunn, N, Godfrey, KM, Cooper, C, Kendrick, T (2008). Is birth weight associated with risk of depressive symptoms in young women? Evidence from the Southampton Women's Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology 167, 164–168.
Jacka, FN, Overland, S, Stewart, R, Tell, GS, Bjelland, I, Mykletun, A (2009). Association between magnesium intake and depression and anxiety in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland Health Study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 43, 45–52.
Kennedy, GJ, Kelman, HR, Wisniewsky, W, Metz, H, Bijur, P (1989). Hierarchy of characteristics associated with depressive symptoms in an urban elderly sample. American Journal of Psychiatry 146, 220–225.
Kivimäki, M, Lawlor, DA, Singh-Manoux, A, Batty, GD, Ferrie, JE, Shipley, MJ, Nabi, H, Sabia, S, Marmot, MG, Jokela, M (2009). Common mental disorder and obesity: insight from four repeat measures over 19 years: prospective Whitehall II cohort study. British Medical Journal 339, b3765.
Lahey, BB (2009). Public health significance of neuroticism. American Psychologist 64, 241–256.
Lenze, EJ, Rogers, JC, Martire, LM, Mulsant, BH, Rollman, BL, Dew, MA, Schulz, R, Reynolds, CF (2001). The association of late-life depression and anxiety with physical disability: a review of the literature and prospectus for future research. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 9, 113–135.
Malouff, JM, Thorsteinsson, EB, Schutte, NS (2005). The relationship between the five-factor model of personality and symptoms of clinical disorders: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 27, 101–114.
Martin, LT, Kubzansky, LD, Lewinn, KZ, Lipsitt, LP, Satz, P, Buka, SL (2007). Childhood cognitive performance and risk of generalized anxiety disorder. International Journal of Epidemiology 36, 769–775.
Mather, AA, Cox, BJ, Enns, MW, Sareen, J (2009). Associations of obesity with psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 66, 277–285.
McEwen, BS (2006). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: the role of the brain. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 8, 367–381.
Mehta, KM, Simonsick, EM, Penninx, BW, Schulz, R, Rubin, SM, Satterfield, S, Yaffe, K (2003). Prevalence and correlates of anxiety symptoms in well-functioning older adults: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 51, 499–504.
Mehta, KM, Yaffe, K, Brenes, GA, Newman, AB, Shorr, RI, Simonsick, EM, Ayonayon, HN, Rubin, SM, Covinsky, KE (2007). Anxiety symptoms and decline in physical function over 5 years in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 55, 265–270.
Nelson, HE, Willison, JR (1991). National Adult Reading Test (NART), 2nd edn. NFER-Nelson: Windsor, UK.
Ng, F, Berk, M, Dean, O, Bush, AI (2008). Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 11, 851–876.
OPCS (1990). Standard Occupational Classification, Vol. 1 Structure and Definition of Major, Minor and Unit Groups. HMSO: London.
Osler, M, Nordentoft, M, Andersen, AM (2005). Birth dimensions and risk of depression in adulthood: cohort study of Danish men born in 1953. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 400–403.
Penninx, BW, Guralnik, J, Ferrucci, L, Simonsick, EM, Deeg, DJ, Wallace, RB (1998). Depressive symptoms and physical decline in community-dwelling older persons. Journal of the American Medical Association 279, 1720–1726.
Poulton, R, Caspi, A, Milne, BJ, Thomson, WM, Taylor, A, Sears, MR, Moffitt, TE (2002). Association between children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study. Lancet 360, 1640–1645.
Raven, JC (1965). Guide to Using the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale with Progressive Matrices. H. K. Lewis: London.
Raven, JC, Court, JH, Raven, J (1977). Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales. H. K. Lewis: London.
Rivenes, AC, Harvey, SB, Mykletun, A (2009). The relationship between abdominal fat, obesity, and common mental disorders: results from the HUNT study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 66, 269–275.
Schoevers, RA, Beekman, AT, Deeg, DJ, Jonker, C, van Tilburg, W (2003). Comorbidity and risk-patterns of depression, generalised anxiety disorder and mixed anxiety-depression in later life: results from the AMSTEL study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 18, 994–1001.
Schoon, I, Sacker, A, Bartley, M (2003). Socio-economic adversity and psychosocial adjustment: a developmental-contextual perspective. Social Science and Medicine 57, 1001–1015.
Spielberger, CD, Gorsuch, RL, Lushene, PR, Vagg, PR, Jacobs, AG (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Consulting Psychologists Press Inc.: Palo Alto, CA.
Syddall, HE, Sayer, AA, Dennison, EM, Martin, HJ, Barker, DJ, Cooper, C (2005). Cohort Profile: The Hertfordshire Cohort Study. International Journal of Epidemiology 34, 1234–1242.
Syddall, HE, Simmonds, SJ, Martin, HJ, Watson, C, Dennison, EM, Cooper, C, Sayer, AA (2009). Cohort profile: The Hertfordshire Ageing Study (HAS). International Journal of Epidemiology 39, 36–43.
Thompson, C, Syddall, H, Rodin, I, Osmond, C, Barker, DJ (2001). Birthweight and risk of depressive disorder in late life. British Journal of Psychiatry 179, 450–455.
Townsend, P (1979). Poverty in the United Kingdom. Pelican: Harmondsworth.
Vink, D, Aartsen, MJ, Schoevers, RA (2008). Risk factors for anxiety and depression in the elderly: a review. Journal of Affective Disorders 106, 29–44.
Wulsin, LR, Vaillant, GE, Wells, VE (1999). A systematic review of the mortality of depression. Psychosomatic Medicine 61, 6–17.
Yang, Y, George, LK (2005). Functional disability, disability transitions, and depressive symptoms in late life. Journal of Aging and Health 17, 263–292.
Zigmond, AS, Snaith, RP (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 67, 361–370.