Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hammerton, G. Zammit, S. Thapar, A. and Collishaw, S. 2016. Explaining risk for suicidal ideation in adolescent offspring of mothers with depression. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 46, Issue. 02, p. 265.


    Zoller, B. Li, X. Sundquist, J. and Sundquist, K. 2015. Familial transmission of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adoptees: a Swedish nationwide family study. BMJ Open, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. e007310.


    Mackrill, Thomas and Hesse, Morten 2012. Suicide behavior in parents with alcohol abuse problems and suicide behavior in their offspring—Adult offspring and counselor perspectives. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 66, Issue. 5, p. 343.


    Turecki, Gustavo 2014. The molecular bases of the suicidal brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol. 15, Issue. 12, p. 802.


    Melle, Ingrid and Ann Barrett, Elizabeth 2012. Insight and suicidal behavior in first-episode schizophrenia. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 353.


    Manchia, Mirko Hajek, Tomas O'Donovan, Claire Deiana, Valeria Chillotti, Caterina Ruzickova, Martina Del Zompo, Maria and Alda, Martin 2013. Genetic risk of suicidal behavior in bipolar spectrum disorder: analysis of 737 pedigrees. Bipolar Disorders, Vol. 15, Issue. 5, p. 496.


    Ljung, T. Sandin, S. Långström, N. Runeson, B. Lichtenstein, P. and Larsson, H. 2014. Offspring death and subsequent psychiatric morbidity in bereaved parents: addressing mechanisms in a total population cohort. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 44, Issue. 09, p. 1879.


    Forster, Anna Foli, Karen J. Abrahamson, Kathleen and Richards, Elizabeth 2016. Adults Who Are Adopted: Implications for Nurse Practitioners. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, Vol. 12, Issue. 8, p. e351.


    Zöller, Bengt Li, Xinjun Sundquist, Jan and Sundquist, Kristina 2014. Familial transmission of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer in adoptees is related to cancer in biological but not in adoptive parents: A nationwide family study. European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 50, Issue. 13, p. 2319.


    Petersen, Liselotte Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. Kragh Andersen, Per Bo Mortensen, Preben and Hawton, Keith 2014. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts: A study of Danish adoptees and their biological and adoptive siblings. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 155, p. 273.


    Coon, H Darlington, T Pimentel, R Smith, K R Huff, C D Hu, H Jerominski, L Hansen, J Klein, M Callor, W B Byrd, J Bakian, A Crowell, S E McMahon, W M Rajamanickam, V Camp, N J McGlade, E Yurgelun-Todd, D Grey, T and Gray, D 2013. Genetic risk factors in two Utah pedigrees at high risk for suicide. Translational Psychiatry, Vol. 3, Issue. 11, p. e325.


    Rostila, Mikael Berg, Lisa Arat, Arzu Vinnerljung, Bo and Hjern, Anders 2016. Parental death in childhood and self-inflicted injuries in young adults-a national cohort study from Sweden. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,


    Ljung, T. Lichtenstein, P. Sandin, S. D'Onofrio, B. Runeson, B. Långström, N. and Larsson, H. 2013. Parental schizophrenia and increased offspring suicide risk: exploring the causal hypothesis using cousin comparisons. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 43, Issue. 03, p. 581.


    Vinnerljung, Bo and Hjern, Anders 2011. Cognitive, educational and self-support outcomes of long-term foster care versus adoption. A Swedish national cohort study. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 33, Issue. 10, p. 1902.


    Kohno, Kunie Niihara, Hiroyuki Li, Xinjun Hamano, Tsuyoshi Nabika, Toru Shiwaku, Kuninori Isomura, Minoru Morita, Eishin Sundquist, Kristina and Zöller, Bengt 2016. Familial Transmission of Hospital-Treated Varicose Veins in Adoptees: A Swedish Family Study. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, Vol. 223, Issue. 3, p. 452.


    ×

Familial factors and suicide: an adoption study in a Swedish National Cohort

  • A. von Borczyskowski (a1) (a2), F. Lindblad (a1) (a3), B. Vinnerljung (a4), R. Reintjes (a2) and A. Hjern (a4) (a5) (a6)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710001315
  • Published online: 07 July 2010
Abstract
Background

Parental characteristics influence the risk of offspring suicide. In this study we wanted to separate the hereditary from the environmental influence of such factors by comparing their effects in the adopted versus non-adopted.

Method

A register study was conducted in a national cohort of 2 471 496 individuals born between 1946 and 1968, including 27 600 national adoptees, followed-up for suicide during 1987–2001. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for suicide of socio-economic indicators of the childhood household and biological parents' suicide, alcohol abuse and psychiatric morbidity separately in the adopted and non-adopted. Differences in effects were tested in interaction analyses.

Results

Suicide and indicators of severe psychiatric disorder in the biological parents had similar effects on offspring suicide in the non-adopted and adopted (HR 1.5–2.3). Biological parents' alcohol abuse was a risk factor for suicide in the non-adopted group only (HR 1.8 v. 0.8, interaction effect: p=0.03). The effects of childhood household socio-economic factors on suicide were similar in adopted and non-adopted individuals, with growing up in a single parent household [HR 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.4–1.5)] as the most important socio-economic risk factor for the non-adopted.

Conclusions

The main familial effects of parental suicide and psychiatric morbidity on offspring suicide are not mediated by the post-natal environment or imitation, in contrast to effects of parental alcohol abuse that are primarily mediated by the post-natal environment. Social drift over generations because of psychiatric disorders does not seem likely to explain the association of socio-economic living conditions in childhood to suicide.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: A. Hjern, Ph.D., Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, 106 91Stockholm, Sweden. (Email: anders.hjern@chess.su.se)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

E Agerbo (2007). High income, employment, postgraduate education, and marriage: a suicidal cocktail among psychiatric patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 13771384, erratum Archives of General Psychiatry2008, 65, 144.

RJ Baldessarini , J Hennen (2004). Genetics of suicide: an overview. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 12, 113.

D Brent (2009). In search of endophenotypes for suicidal behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 10871089.

DA Brent , JJ Mann (2003). Familial factors in adolescent suicidal behavior. In Suicide in Children and Adolescents (ed. R. A. King and A. Apter ), pp. 86–117. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

DA Brent , M Oquendo , B Birmaher , L Greenhill , D Kolko , B Stanley , J Zelazny , B Brodsky , S Firinciogullari , SP Ellis , JJ Mann (2003). Peripubertal suicide attempts in offspring of suicide attempters with siblings concordant for suicidal behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 14861493.

DA Brent , JA Perper , G Moritz , L Liotus , J Schweers , L Balach , C Roth (1994). Familial risk factors for adolescent suicide: a case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 89, 5258.

AK Burke , H Galfalvy , B Everett , D Currier , J Zelazny , MA Oquendo , NM Melhem , D Kolko , JM Harkavy-Friedman , B Birmaher , B Stanley , JJ Mann , DA Brent (2010). Effect of exposure to suicidal behavior on suicide attempt in a high-risk sample of offspring of depressed parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 49, 114121.

JJ Carballo , CP Akamnonu , MA Oquendo (2008). Neurobiology of suicidal behavior. An integration of biological and clinical findings. Archives of Suicide Research 12, 93–110.

H Cho , G Guo , BJ Iritani , DD Hallfors (2006). Genetic contribution to suicidal behaviors and associated risk factors among adolescents in the U. S. Prevention Science 7, 303311.

MN Christoffersen , K Soothill (2003). The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse: a cohort study of children in Denmark. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 25, 107116.

Ch Dalman , J Broms , J Cullberg , P Allebeck (2002). Young cases of schizophrenia identified in a national inpatient register – are the diagnoses valid? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 37, 527531.

M Dong , RF Anda , VJ Felitti , DF Williamson , SR Dube , DW Brown , WH Giles (2005). Childhood residential mobility and multiple health risks during adolescence and adulthood: the hidden role of adverse childhood experiences. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 159, 11041110.

SR Dube , RF Anda , VJ Felitti , DP Chapman , DF Williamson , WH Giles (2001). Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 286, 30893096.

SR Dube , VJ Felitti , M Dong , WH Giles , RF Anda (2003). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Prevention Medicine 37, 268277.

DM Fergusson , JM Boden , LJ Horwood (2007). Exposure to single parenthood in childhood and later mental health, educational, economic, and criminal behavior outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 10891095.

CJ Foster , J Garber , JA Durlak (2008). Current and past maternal depression, maternal interaction behaviors, and children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36, 527537.


AL Glowinski , T Jacob , KK Bucholz , JF Scherrer , W True , AC Heath (2004). Paternal alcohol dependence and offspring suicidal behaviors in a children-of-twins study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 76, 6977.

EM Goldberg , SL Morrison (1963). Schizophrenia and social class. British Journal of Psychiatry 109, 785802.

SH Goodman , IH Gotlib (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: a developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review 106, 458490.

II Gottesman , TD Gould (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 636645.

MS Gould , P Fisher , M Parides , M Flory , D Shaffer (1996). Psychosocial risk factors of child and adolescent completed suicide. Archives of General Psychiatry 53, 11551162.

EC Harris , B Barraclough (1997). Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders. A meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 205228.

A Hjern , B Vinnerljung , F Lindblad (2004). Avoidable mortality among child welfare recipients and intercountry adoptees: a national cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 58, 412417.

G Koller , UW Preuss , M Bottlender , K Wenzel , M Soyka (2002). Impulsivity and aggression as predictors of suicide attempts in alcoholics. European Archives of Psychiatric Clinical Neurosciences 252, 155160.

DZ Lieberman (2000). Children of alcoholics: an update. Current Opinion of Pediatrics 12, 336340.

KR Linsley , K Schapira , TP Kelly (2001). Open verdict v. suicide – importance to research. British Journal of Psychiatry 178, 465468.

MJ Lyons , SA Eisen , J Goldberg , W True , N Lin , JM Meyer , R Toomey , SV Faraone , M Merla-Ramos , MT Tsuang (1998). A registry-based twin study of depression in men. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 468472.

JJ Mann , VA Arango , S Avenevoli , DA Brent , FA Champagne , P Clayton , D Currier , DM Dougherty , F Haghighi , SE Hodge , J Kleinman , T Lehner , F McMahon , EK Mościcki , MA Oquendo , GN Pandey , J Pearson , B Stanley , J Terwilliger , A Wenzel (2009). Candidate endophenotypes for genetic studies of suicidal behavior. Biological Psychiatry 65, 556563.

E Moscicki (1997). Identification of suicide risk factors using epidemiologic studies. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 20, 499517.

DA Nielsen , M Virkkunen , J Lappalainen , M Eggert , GL Brown , JC Long , D Goldman , M Linnoila (1998). A tryptophan hydroxylase gene marker for suicidality and alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 593602.

P Qin , E Agerbo , PB Mortensen (2002). Suicide risk in relation to family history of completed suicide and psychiatric disorders: a nested case-control study based on longitudinal registers. Lancet 360, 11261130.

A Roy , XZ Hu , MN Janal , D Goldman (2007). Interaction between childhood trauma and serotonin transporter gene variation in suicide. Neuropsychopharmacology 32, 20462052.

A Roy , M Sarchiopone , V Carli (2009). Gene–environment interaction and suicidal behavior. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 15, 282288.

A Roy , NL Segal , BS Centerwall , CD Robinette (1991). Suicide in twins. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 2932.

D Rujescu , A Thalmeier , HJ Möller , T Bronisch , I Giegling (2007). Molecular genetic findings in suicidal behavior: what is beyond the serotonergic system? Archives of Suicide Research 11, 1740.

DJ Statham , AC Heath , PA Madden , KK Bucholz , L Bierut , SH Dinwiddie , WS Slutske , MP Dunne , NG Martin (1998). Suicidal behaviour: an epidemiological and genetic study. Psychological Medicine 28, 839855.

K Stenager , P Qin (2008). Individual and parental psychiatric history and risk for suicide among adolescents and young adults in Denmark: a population-based study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 43, 920926.

HJ Sørensen , EL Mortensen , AG Wang , K Juel , L Silverton , SA Mednick (2009). Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 44, 748751.

AH Thompson (2008). Younger onset of depression is associated with greater suicidal intent. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 43, 538544.

D Timms (1998). Gender, social mobility and psychiatric diagnoses. Social Science and Medicine 46, 12351247.

B Vinnerljung , A Hjern , F Lindblad (2006). Suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity among former child welfare clients – a national cohort study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47, 723733.

A von Borczyskowski , A Hjern , F Lindblad , B Vinnerljung (2006). Suicidal behaviour in national and international adult adoptees. A Swedish cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41, 95–102.

GR Weitoft , B Haglund , A Hjern , M Rosen (2002). Mortality, severe morbidity and injury among long-term lone mothers in Sweden. International Journal of Epidemiology 31, 573580.

GR Weitoft , A Hjern , B Haglund , M Rosen (2003). Mortality, severe morbidity, and injury in children living with single parents in Sweden: a population-based study. Lancet 361, 289295.

PH Wender , SS Kety , D Rosenthal , F Schulsinger , J Ortmann , I Lunde (1986). Psychiatric disorders in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals with affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 43, 923929.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: