American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised) (DSM-III-R). APA Washington: DC.
Arya, D. K. (1991). Anorexia nervosa across cultures. British Journal of Psychiatry 158, 285–286.
Bernstein, R. L. & Gaw, A. C. (1990). Koro: proposed classification for DSM-IV. American Journal of Psychiatry 147, 1670–1674.
Berrios, G. E. & Morley, S. J. (1984). Koro-like symptom in a non-Chinese subject. British Journal of Psychiatry 145, 331–334.
Bhadrinath, B. R. (1990). Anorexia nervosa in adolescents of Asian extraction. British Journal of Psychiatry 156, 565–568.
Bruch, H. (1973). Eating Disorders: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa, and the Person Within. Basic Books: New York.
Bruch, H. (1980). Preconditions for the development of anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychoanalysis 40, 169–172.
Brumberg, J. J. (1988). Fasting Girls: The Emergence of Anorexia Nervosa as a Modern Disease. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
Buhrich, N. (1981). Frequency of presentation of anorexia nervosa in Malaysia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 15, 153–155.
Bynum, C. W. (1988). Holy anorexia in modern Portugal. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 12, 239–248.
Cantwell, D. P., Sturzenberger, S., Burroughs, J., Salkin, B. & Green, J. K. (1977). Anorexia nervosa: an affective disorder? Archives of General Psychiatry 34, 1087–1093.
Casper, R. C. (1983). On the emergence of bulimia nervosa as a syndrome: a historical view. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2, 3–16.
Chen, C. N., Wong, J., Lee, N., Chan-Ho, M. W., Lau, J. & Fung, M. (1993). The Shatin community mental health survey in Hong Kong. II. Major findings. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 125–133.
Chen, J. (1990). Behavioural therapy of seven cases of childhood anorexia nervosa. Chinese Mental Health Journal 4, 26.
Cheng, T. A. (1989). Symptomatology of minor psychiatric morbidity: a crosscultural comparison. Psychological Medicine 19, 697–708.
Chiu, C. H. (1978). Standard weights for Chinese adults. Journal of the Chinese Nutrition Society (Taiwan) 3, 85–94.
Chiu, L. P. W. (1989). Anorexia nervosa in a young Chinese woman in Hong Kong. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 34, 162–163.
Cooper, P. J. & Fairburn, C. G. (1987). The eating disorder examination: a semi-structured interview for the assessment of the specific psychopathology of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders 6, 1–8.
Crisp, A. H. (1980). Anorexia Nervosa: Let Me Be. Plenum Press: London.
Crisp, A. H., Callender, J. S., Halek, C. & Hsu, L. K. G. (1992). Long-term mortality in anorexia nervosa: a 20-year follow-up of the St George's and Aberdeen cohorts. British Journal of Psychiatry 161, 104–107.
Davis, C. & Yager, J. (1992). Transcultural aspects of eating disorders: a critical literature review. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 16, 377–394.
DiNicola, V. F. (1990). Anorexia multiforme: self-starvation in historical and cultural context. Part II: anorexia nervosa as a culture-reactive syndrome. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review 27, 245–286.
Dolan, B. (1991). Cross-cultural aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia: a review. International Journal of Eating Disorders 10, 67–78.
Dolan, B. M., Birtchnell, S. A. & Lacey, J. H. (1987). Body image distortion in non-eating disordered women and men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 31, 513–520.
Erikson, E. H. (1955). The problem of ego identity. Journal of Psychoanalytic Association 4, 56–121.
Fabrega, H. Jr. (1992). Diagnosis interminable: toward a culturally sensitive DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 180, 5–7.
Fahy, T. A., Robinson, P. H., Russell, G. F. M. & Sheinman, B. (1988). Anorexia nervosa following torture in a young African woman. British Journal of Psychiatry 153, 385–387.
Fairburn, C. G. & Hope, R. A. (1988). Disorders of eating and weight. In Comparison to Psychiatric Studies, 4th edn (ed. Kendell, R. E. and Zealley, A. K.), p. 589. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.
Gandhi, D. H., Appaya, M. P. & Machado, T. (1991). Anorexia nervosa in Asian children. British Journal of Psychiatry 159, 591–592.
Garfinkel, P. E. & Garner, D. M. (1982). Anorexia Nervosa: A Multidimensional Perspective. Basic Books: New York.
Garner, D. M. & Garfinkel, P. E. (1979). The Eating Attitudes Test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine 9, 273–279.
Garner, D. M. & Garfinkel, P. E. (1981). Body image in anorexia nervosa: measurement, theory and clinical implications. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 11, 263–284.
Goh, S. E., Ong, S. B. Y. & Subramaniam, M. (1993). Eating disorders in Hong Kong. British Journal of Psychiatry 162, 276–277.
Gull, W. W. (1874). Anorexia nervosa (apepsia hysterica, anorexia hysterica). Transactions of the Clinical Society (London) 7, 22–28.
Habermas, T. H. (1989). The psychiatric history of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: weight concerns and bulimic symptoms in early case reports. International Journal of Eating Disorders 8, 259–273.
Hamilton, M. (1985). Fish's Clinical Psychopathology, 2nd edn.Wright: Bristol.
Hsu, F. L. K. (1971). Psychosocial homeostasis and Jen: concepts for advancing psychological anthropology. American Anthropologist 73, 23–44.
Hsu, L. K. G. & Sobkiewicz, T. A. (1991). Body image disturbance: time to abandon the concept for eating disorders? International Journal of Eating Disorders 10, 15–30.
Jellinek, E. M. (1960). The Disease Concept of Alcoholism. Hill House Press: New Haven, Connecticut.
Kaptchuk, T. K. (1983). Chinese Medicine – The Web that has no Weaver. Rider: London.
Kay, D. W. K. & Leigh, D. (1954). The natural history, treatment, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa based on a study of 38 patients. Journal of Mental Science 100, 411–431.
Kendell, R. E. (1989). Clinical validity. Psychological Medicine 19, 45–55.
Khandelwal, S. K. & Saxena, S. (1990). Anorexia nervosa in people of Asian extraction. British Journal of Psychiatry 157, 784.
King, M. B. (1989). Eating disorders in a general practice population: prevalence, characteristics and follow-up at 12 to 18 months. Psychological Medicine, Supplement 14, 1–34.
Kiriike, N., Nagata, T., Tanaka, M., Nishiwaki, S., Takeuchi, N. & Kawakita, Y. (1988). Prevalence of binge-eating and bulimia among adolescent women in Japan. Psychiatry Research 26, 163–169.
Kirmayer, L. J. (1991). The place of culture in psychiatric nosology: Taijin Kyofusho and DSM-III-R. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 179, 19–28.
Kirmayer, L. J. & Robbins, J. M. (1989). Three forms of somatization in primary care: prevalence, co-occurrence, and sociodemographic characteristics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 179, 647–655.
Kleinman, A. M. (1987). Anthropology and psychiatry: the role of culture in cross-cultural research on illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 151 447–454.
Lee, S. (1991). Anorexia nervosa in Hong Kong – A Chinese perspective. Psychological Medicine 21, 703–711.
Lee, S. (1993). How abnormal is the desire for slimness? A survey of eating attitudes and behaviour among Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong. Psychological Medicine 23, 437–451.
Lee, S., Chiu, H. F. K. & Chen, C. N. (1989). Anorexia nervosa in Hong Kong: why not more in Chinese? British Journal of Psychiatry 154, 683–688.
Lee, S., Leung, C. M., Wing, Y. K., Chiu, H. F. K. & Chen, C. N. (1991). Acne as a risk factor for anorexia nervosa in Chinese. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 25, 134–137.
Lee, S., Hsu, G. L. K. & Wing, Y. K. (1992). Bulimia nervosa in Hong Kong Chinese patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 161, 545–551.
Littlewood, R. (1990). From categories to contexts: a decade of the ‘New Cross-Cultural Psychiatry’. British Journal of Psychiatry 156, 308–327.
Lucas, A. (1981). Toward the understanding of anorexia nervosa as a disease entity. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 56, 254–264.
Mead, M. (1947). Concept of culture and psychosomatic approach. Psychiatry 10, 57–76.
Mezzich, J. E., Fabrega, H. Jr. & Kleinman, K. (1992). Cultural validity and DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 180, 4.
Millon, T. (1991). Classification in psychopathology: rationale, alternatives and standards. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100, 145–261.
Mizushima, N. & Ishii, Y. (1983). The epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in junior and senior high-school students in Ishikawa Prefecture. Japanese Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine 23, 311–319.
Mumford, D. B., Whitehouse, A. M. & Choudry, I. Y. (1991). Sociocultural correlates of eating disorders among Asian school-girls in Bradford. British Journal of Psychiatry 158, 222–228.
Murphy, H. B. M. (1977). Transcultural psychiatry should begin at home. Psychological Medicine 7, 369–371.
Nasser, M. (1986). Comparative study of the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Arab female students of both London and Cairo Universities. Psychological Medicine 16, 621–625.
Nicolle, G. (1939). Prepsychotic anorexia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 32, 153–162.
Ong, Y. L. & Tsoi, W. F. (1982). A clinical and psychosocial study of seven cases of anorexia nervosa in Singapore. Singapore Medical Journal 23, 255–261.
Palmer, R. L. & Jones, M. S. (1939). Anorexia nervosa as a manifestation of compulsion neurosis. Archives of Neurological Psychiatry 41, 856–861.
Parry-Jones, B. (1991). Historical terminology of eating disorders. Psychological Medicine 21, 21–28.
Parry-Jones, W. L. (1985). Archival exploration of anorexia nervosa. Journal of Psychiatric Research 19, 95–100.
Patton, G. C., Johnson-Sabine, E., Wood, K., Mann, A. H. & Wakeling, A. (1990). Abnormal eating attitudes in London schoolgirls – a prospective epidemiological study: outcome at twelve-month follow-up. Psychological Medicine 20, 383–394.
Prince, R. (1992). A symposium on the vulnerable male: cultural variations on the castration theme. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review 29, 87–90.
Prince, R. & T., Cheng-Laroche, F. (1987). Culture-bound syndromes and international disease classifications. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 11, 3–19.
Robinson, P. H. (1989). Perceptivity and paraceptivity during measurement of gastric emptying in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. British Journal of Psychiatry 154, 400–405.
Rosen, J. C. (1990). Body image disturbances and the eating disorders. In Body Images: Development, Deviance and Change (ed. Lach, T. and Pruzinsky, T.), pp. 190–216. Guilford Press: New York.
Russell, G. F. M. (1970). Anorexia nervosa: its identity as an illness and its treatment. In Modern Trends in Psychological Medicine, vol. 2 (ed. Price, J. H.), pp. 131–164. Butterworths: London.
Russell, G. F. M. (1983). Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In The Neuroses and Personality Disorders (ed. Russell, G. F. M. and Hersov, L.), pp. 285–298. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Russell, G. F. M. (1985). The changing nature of anorexia nervosa: an introduction to the conference. Journal of Psychiatric Research 19, 101–109.
Russell, G. F. M. & Treasure, J. (1989). The modern history of anorexia nervosa – an interpretation of why the illness has changed. In The Psychobiology of Human Eating Disorders: Preclinical and Clinical Perspectives (ed. Schneider, L. H., Cooper, S. J. and Halmi, K. A.), pp. 13–30. The New York Academy of Sciences: New York.
Shirai, K., Shinomiya, M., Saito, Y., Umenzono, T., Takahashi, K. & Yoshida, S. (1990). Incidence of childhood obesity over the last 10 years in Japan. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 10, Supplement 1, 65–70.
Shorter, E. (1987). The first great increase in anorexia nervosa. Journal of Social History 21, 69–96.
Silverman, J. A. (1989). Louis-Victor Marcé, 1828–1864: anorexia nervosa's forgotten man. Psychological Medicine 19, 833–835.
Skrabanek, P. (1983). Notes towards the history of anorexia nervosa. Janus 70, 109–128.
Society of Actuaries and Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors of America (1979). Build and Blood Pressure Study. Author: Chicago IL.
Song, Y. P. & Fang, Y. K. (1990). A clinical report of 9 cases of anorexia nervosa. Chinese Mental Health Journal 4, 24–25.
Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M. & First, M. B. (1988). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute: New York.
Spitzer, R. L., Delvin, M., Walsh, B. T., Hasin, D., Wing, R.Marcus, M., Stunkard, A., Wadden, T., Yanovski, S. & Agras, S. (1992). Binge eating disorder – a multisite field trial of the diagnostic criteria. International Journal of Eating Disorders 11, 191–203.
Stacher, G., Abatzi-Wenzel, T.-A., Weisnagrotzki, S., Bergmann, H., Schneider, C. & Gaupmann, G. (1993). Gastric emptying, body weight and symptoms in primary anorexia nervosa: long-term effects of cisapride. British Journal of Psychiatry 162, 398–402.
Steinhausen, H.-C., Rauss-Mason, C. & Seidel, R. (1991). Follow-up studies of anorexia nervosa: a review of four decades of outcome research. Psychological Medicine 21, 447–454.
Suematsu, H., Ishikawa, H., Kuboki, T. & Ito, T. (1985). Statistical studies on anorexia nervosa in Japan: detailed clinical data on 1.011 patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 43, 96–103.
Swartz, L. (1985) Anorexia nervosa as a culture-bound syndrome. Social Science and Medicine 20, 725–730.
Tseng, M. C., Lee, M. B. & Lee, Y. J. (1989). A clinical study of Chinese patients with eating disorders. Chinese Psychiatry 3, 17–28.
Tseng, W. S. (1975). The nature of somatic complaints among psychiatric patients: the Chinese case. Comprehensive Psychiatry 16, 237–245.
Vandereycken, W. (1990). The relevance of body-image disturbances for the treatment of bulimia. In Bulimia Nervosa: Basic Research, Diagnosis and Therapy (ed. Fichter, M. M.), pp. 321–330. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester.
Vandereycken, W. & van Deth, R. (1990). A tribute to Lasègue's description of anorexia nervosa (1873), with completion of its English translation. British Journal of Psychiatry 157, 902–908.
van Deth, R. & Vandereycken, W. (1991). Was nervous consumption a precursor of anorexia nervosa? Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 46, 3–19.
Weiss, M. G., Doongaji, D. R., Siddahartha, S., Wypij, D., Pathare, S., Bhatawdekar, M., Bhave, A., Sheth, A. & Fernandes, R. (1992). The explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC) – contribution to cross-cultural research methods from a study of leprosy and mental health. British Journal of Psychiatry 160, 819–830.
Whitaker, A., Davies, M., Shaffer, D., Johnson, J., Abrams, S., Walsh, B. T. & Kalikow, K. (1989). The struggle to be thin: a survey of anorexic and bulimic symptoms in a non-referred adolescent population. Psychological Medicine 19, 143–163.
WHO (1992). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders – Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. World Health Organization: Geneva.