Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 40
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bali, Vishal Holmes, Holly M. Johnson, Michael L. Chen, Hua Fleming, Marc L. and Aparasu, Rajender R. 2016. Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Generation Antidepressants in Reducing the Risk of Dementia in Elderly Nursing Home Residents with Depression. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, Vol. 36, Issue. 1, p. 38.


    Kida, Jiro Nemoto, Kiyotaka Ikejima, Chiaki Bun, Shogyoku Kakuma, Tatsuyuki Mizukami, Katsuyoshi Asada, Takashi and Butters, Meryl 2016. Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment Subtypes to Alzheimer’s Disease: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol. 51, Issue. 2, p. 405.


    Kim, Sangha Woo, Sook Young Kang, Hyo Shin Lim, Shin Won Choi, Seong Hye Myung, Woojae Jeong, Jee Hyang Lee, Yunhwan Hong, Chang Hyung Kim, Jong Hun Na, HaeRi Carroll, Bernard J. and Kim, Doh Kwan 2016. Factors related to prevalence, persistence, and incidence of depressive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment: vascular depression construct. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 31, Issue. 7, p. 818.


    Lu, Yang Arthur, David Hu, Lili Cheng, Gen An, Fengrong and Li, Zheng 2016. Beliefs about antidepressant medication and associated adherence among older Chinese patients with major depression: A cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 71.


    Park, Jong-Il Park, Tae Won Yang, Jong-Chul and Chung, Sang-Keun 2016. Factors associated with depression among elderly Koreans: the role of chronic illness, subjective health status, and cognitive impairment. Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 62.


    Smart, Colette M. Segalowitz, Sidney J. Mulligan, Bryce P. Koudys, Jacob Gawryluk, Jodie R. and Gifford, Katherine 2016. Mindfulness Training for Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol. 52, Issue. 2, p. 757.


    Tsuruoka, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Michio Suzuki, Masatoshi Sato, Koichi and Shirayama, Yukihiko 2016. Utility of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (COGNISTAT) in differentiating between depressive states in late-life depression and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease: a preliminary study. Annals of General Psychiatry, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,


    Geerlings, Mirjam I. Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Eiriksdottir, Gudny Garcia, Melissa E. Harris, Tamara B. Gudnason, Vilmundur and Launer, Lenore J. 2015. Salivary cortisol, brain volumes, and cognition in community-dwelling elderly without dementia. Neurology, Vol. 85, Issue. 11, p. 976.


    Konrad, C. Losekam, S. and Zavorotnyy, M. 2015. Kognitive Störungen bei unipolarer Depression. Der Nervenarzt, Vol. 86, Issue. 1, p. 99.


    Potter, Guy G. McQuoid, Douglas R. and Steffens, David C. 2015. Appetite loss and neurocognitive deficits in late-life depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 647.


    Rabin, Laura A. Smart, Colette M. Crane, Paul K. Amariglio, Rebecca E. Berman, Lorin M. Boada, Mercé Buckley, Rachel F. Chételat, Gaël Dubois, Bruno Ellis, Kathryn A. Gifford, Katherine A. Jefferson, Angela L. Jessen, Frank Katz, Mindy J. Lipton, Richard B. Luck, Tobias Maruff, Paul Mielke, Michelle M. Molinuevo, José Luis Naeem, Farnia Perrotin, Audrey Petersen, Ronald C. Rami, Lorena Reisberg, Barry Rentz, Dorene M. Riedel-Heller, Steffi G. Risacher, Shannon L. Rodriguez, Octavio Sachdev, Perminder S. Saykin, Andrew J. Slavin, Melissa J. Snitz, Beth E. Sperling, Reisa A. Tandetnik, Caroline van der Flier, Wiesje M. Wagner, Michael Wolfsgruber, Steffen Sikkes, Sietske A.M. Tales, Andrea Jessen, Frank Butler, Christopher Wilcock, Gordon Phillips, Judith and Bayer, Tony 2015. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol. 48, Issue. s1, p. S63.


    Rotomskis, Augustinas Margevičiūtė, Ramunė Germanavičius, Arūnas Kaubrys, Gintaras Budrys, Valmantas and Bagdonas, Albinas 2015. Differential diagnosis of depression and Alzheimer’s disease with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). BMC Neurology, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,


    Yue, Yingying Jia, Xize Hou, Zhenghua Zang, Yufeng and Yuan, Yonggui 2015. Frequency-Dependent Amplitude Alterations of Resting-State Spontaneous Fluctuations in Late-Onset Depression. BioMed Research International, Vol. 2015, p. 1.


    Andreasen, P. Lonnroos, E. and von Euler-Chelpin, M. C. 2014. Prevalence of depression among older adults with dementia living in low- and middle-income countries: a cross-sectional study. The European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 40.


    Byers, Amy L. and Yaffe, Kristine 2014. Depression and dementias among military veterans. Alzheimer's & Dementia, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. S166.


    O'Sullivan, Roisin Inouye, Sharon K and Meagher, David 2014. Delirium and depression: inter-relationship and clinical overlap in elderly people. The Lancet Psychiatry, Vol. 1, Issue. 4, p. 303.


    Park, Boyoung Jun, Jae Kwan and Park, Jonghan 2014. Cognitive impairment and depression in the early 60s: which is more problematic in terms of instrumental activities of daily living?. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 62.


    Leggett, Amanda Zarit, Steven H. Hoang, Chuong N. and Nguyen, Ha T. 2013. Correlates of cognitive impairment in older Vietnamese. Aging & Mental Health, Vol. 17, Issue. 8, p. 915.


    Michikawa, Takehiro Nishiwaki, Yuji Nakano, Makiko Iwasawa, Satoko Yamada, Mutsuko Asakura, Keiko Yoshioka, Noriyuki Kuwahara, Erika and Takebayashi, Toru 2013. Higher Serum Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels Are Protectively Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Men, But Not in Women: A Community-Based Cohort Study of Older Japanese. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 21, Issue. 11, p. 1154.


    Millán-Calenti, José C. Sánchez, Alba Lorenzo-López, Laura Cao, Ricardo and Maseda, Ana 2013. Influence of Social Support on Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment, Depressive Symptoms, or Both Coexisting. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, Vol. 76, Issue. 3, p. 199.


    ×

Geriatric depression and cognitive impairment

  • D. C. Steffens (a1) and G. G. Potter (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329170700102X
  • Published online: 01 June 2007
Abstract

Cognitive impairment is common in geriatric depression, and depressed individuals with co-morbid cognitive impairment are at increased risk for a number of adverse medical, psychiatric and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on clinical issues surrounding the co-occurrence of these two conditions within the context of current research. We (1) review the clinical criteria and prevalence of depression, as well as co-morbid cognitive impairment, (2) discuss factors associated with persistent cognitive impairment in depression, including dementia, and (3) review research relevant to the assessment and treatment of cognitive impairment and dementia in the context of depression. We conclude that current research on depression and cognition can inform clinical decisions that reduce the occurrence of adverse outcomes. Clinicians are encouraged to develop proactive approaches for treatment, which may include combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: D. C. Steffens, M.D., M.H.S., Professor of Psychiatry and Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3903, Durham, NC27710, USA. (Email: steff001@mc.duke.edu)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G Adler , K Chwalek , A Jajcevic (2004). Six-month course of mild cognitive impairment and affective symptoms in late-life depression. European Psychiatry 19, 502505.

G Adler , A Jajcevic (2001). Post-dexamethasone cortisol level and memory performance in elderly depressed patients. Neuroscience Letters 298, 142144.

GS Alexopoulos , BS Meyers , RC Young , B Kalayam , T Kakuma , M Gabrielle , J Sirey , J Hull (2000). Executive dysfunction and long-term outcomes of geriatric depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 285290.

GS Alexopoulos , P Raue , P Arean (2003). Problem-solving therapy versus supportive therapy in geriatric major depression with executive dysfunction. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11, 4652.

MP Austin , P Mitchell , K Wilhelm , G Parker , I Hickie , H Brodaty , J Chan , K Eyers , M Milic , D Hadzi-Pavlovic (1999). Cognitive function in depression: a distinct pattern of frontal impairment in melancholia? Psychological Medicine 29, 7385.

M Ballmaier , AW Toga , RE Blanton , ER Sowell , H Lavretsky , J Peterson , D Pham , A Kumar (2004). Anterior cingulate, gyrus rectus, and orbitofrontal abnormalities in elderly depressed patients: an MRI-based parcellation of the prefrontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 99108.

M Bartolini , M Coccia , S Luzzi , L Provinciali , MG Ceravolo (2005). Motivational symptoms of depression mask preclinical Alzheimer's disease in elderly subjects. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 19, 3136.

F Biver , S Goldman , V Delvenne , A Luxen , V De Maertelaer , P Hubain , J Mendlewicz , F Lotstra (1994). Frontal and parietal metabolic disturbances in unipolar major depression. Biological Psychiatry 36, 381388.

SJ Blakemore , G Rees , CD Frith (1998). How do we predict the consequences of our actions? A functional imaging study. Neuropsychologia 36, 521529.

K Boone , B Lesser , B Miller , M Wohl , N Berman , A Lee , B Palmer (1995). Cognitive functioning in a geriatric depressed population: relationship of presence and severity of depression to neuropsychological scores. Neuropsychology 9, 390398.

GA Broe , AS Henderson , H Creasey , E McCusker , AE Korten , AF Jorm , W Longley , JC Anthony (1990). A case-control study of Alzheimer's disease in Australia. Neurology 40, 16981707.

MA Butters , JT Becker , RD Nebes , MD Zmuda , BH Mulsant , BG Pollock , CF Reynolds (2000). Changes in cognitive functioning following treatment of late-life depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 19491954.

MA Butters , RK Bhalla , BH Mulsant , S Mazumdar , PR Houck , AE Begley , MA Dew , BG Pollock , RD Nebes , JT Becker , CF Reynolds (2004). Executive functioning, illness course, and relapse/recurrence in continuation and maintenance treatment of late-life depression: is there a relationship? American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12, 387394.

MA Butters , DP Salmon , N Butters (1994). Neuropsychological assessment of dementia. In Neuropsychological Assessment of Dementia and Depression in Older Adults: A Clinicians Guide (ed. M Storandt and G. R. VandenBos ), pp. 3359. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC.

ML Chaves , I Izquierdo (1992). Differential diagnosis between dementia and depression: a study of efficiency increment. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 85, 378382.

P Chen , M Ganguli , BH Mulsant , ST DeKosky (1999). The temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and dementia: a community-based prospective study. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 261266.

A Dagher , AM Owen , H Boecker , DJ Brooks (1999). Mapping the network for planning: a correlational PET activation study with the Tower of London task. Brain 122, 19731987.

JC de Groot , FE de Leeuw , M Oudkerk , A Hofman , J Jolles , MM Breteler (2000). Cerebral white matter lesions and depressive symptoms in elderly adults. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 10711076.

O Devinsky , MJ Morrell , BA Vogt (1995). Contributions of anterior cingulate cortex to behaviour. Brain 118, 279306.

WC Drevets , W Bogers , ME Raichle (2002). Functional anatomical correlates of antidepressant drug treatment assessed using PET measures of regional glucose metabolism. European Neuropsychopharmacology 12, 527544.

K Duff , RJ McCaffrey , GS Solomon (2002). The Pocket Smell Test: successfully discriminating probable Alzheimer's dementia from vascular dementia and major depression. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 14, 197201.

R Elliott , SC Baker , RD Rogers , DA O'Leary , ES Paykel , CD Frith , RJ Dolan , BJ Sahakian (1997). Prefrontal dysfunction in depressed patients performing a complex planning task: a study using positron emission tomography. Psychological Medicine 27, 931942.

R Elliott , JS Rubinsztein , BJ Sahakian , RJ Dolan (2002). The neural basis of mood-congruent processing biases in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 597604.

WO Faustman , JA Moses , JG Csernansky (1990). Limitations of the Mini-Mental State Examination in predicting neuropsychological functioning in a psychiatric sample. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 81, 126131.

D Feil , J Razani , K Boone , I Lesser (2003). Apathy and cognitive performance in older adults with depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 18, 479488.

S Folstein , MH Abbott , GA Chase , BA Jensen , MF Folstein (1983). The association of affective disorder with Huntington's disease in a case series and in families. Psychological Medicine 13, 537542.

T Frodl , EM Meisenzahl , T Zetzsche , T Hohne , S Banac , C Schorr , M Jager , G Leinsinger , R Bottlender , M Reiser , HJ Moller (2004). Hippocampal and amygdala changes in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls during a 1-year follow-up. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65, 492499.

JJ Gallo , BD Lebowitz (1999). The epidemiology of common late-life mental disorders in the community: themes for the new century. Psychiatric Services 50, 11581166.

M Ganguli , HH Dodge , C Shen , ST DeKosky (2004). Mild cognitive impairment, amnestic type: an epidemiologic study. Neurology 63, 115121.

DW Gilley , RS Wilson , JL Bienias , DA Bennett , DA Evans (2004). Predictors of depressive symptoms in persons with Alzheimer's disease. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 59, 7583.

I Goethals , K Audenaert , F Jacobs , C Van de Wiele , H Ham , H Pyck , A Vandierendonck , C Van Heeringen , R Dierckx (2005). Blunted prefrontal perfusion in depressed patients performing the Tower of London task. Psychiatry Research 139, 3140.

A Graciani , JR Banegas , P Guallar-Castillon , V Dominguez-Rojas , F Rodriguez-Artalejo (2006). Cognitive assessment of the non-demented elderly community dwellers in Spain. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 21, 104112.

RC Green , LA Cupples , A Kurz , S Auerbach , R Go , D Sadovnick , R Duara , WA Kukull , H Chui , T Edeki , PA Griffith , RP Friedland , D Bachman , L Farrer (2003). Depression as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: the MIRAGE study. Archives of Neurology 60, 753759.

RS Hastings , RV Parsey , MA Oquendo , V Arango , JJ Mann (2004). Volumetric analysis of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus in major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 29, 952959.

I Hickie , S Naismith , PB Ward , K Turner , E Scott , P Mitchell , K Wilhelm , G Parker (2005). Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 197202.

I Hickie , E Scott , P Mitchell , K Wilhelm , MP Austin , B Bennett (1995). Subcortical hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging: clinical correlates and prognostic significance in patients with severe depression. Biological Psychiatry 37, 151160.

AF Jorm (2001). History of depression as a risk factor for dementia: an updated review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 35, 776781.

B Kalayam , GS Alexopoulos (1999). Prefrontal dysfunction and treatment response in geriatric depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 713718.

DN Kiosses , S Klimstra , C Murphy , GS Alexopoulos (2001). Executive dysfunction and disability in elderly patients with major depression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 9, 269274.

MB Keller , JP McCullough , DN Klein , B Arnow , DL Dunner , AJ Gelenberg , JC Markowitz , CB Nemeroff , JM Russell , ME Thase , MH Trivedi , J Zajecka (2000). A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination for the treatment of chronic depression. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 14621470.

SL Kivela , K Pahkala , P Laippala (1988). Prevalence of depression in an elderly population in Finland. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 78, 401413.

LA Klatka , ED Louis , RB Schiffer (1996). Psychiatric features in diffuse Lewy body disease: a clinicopathologic study using Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease comparison groups. Neurology 47, 11481152.

HG Koenig , DG Blazer (2004). Mood disorders. In Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry (ed. D. G. Blazer , D. C. Steffens and E. W. Busse ), p. 241. American Psychiatric Publishing: Arlington, VA.

KR Krishnan , WD Taylor , DR McQuoid , JR MacFall , ME Payne , JM Provenzale , DC Steffens (2004). Clinical characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging-defined subcortical ischemic depression. Biological Psychiatry 55, 390397.

KRR Krishnan , Z Goli , EH Ellinwood , RD Franz , DG Blazer , CB Nemeroff (1988). Leukoencephalopathy in patients diagnosed as major depressive. Biological Psychiatry 23, 519522.

A Kumar , W Bilker , Z Jin , J Udupa , G Gottleib (1999). Age of onset of depression and quantitative neuroanatomic measures: absence of specific correlates. Psychiatry Research 91, 101110.

T-J Lai , M Payne , CE Byrum , DC Steffens , KRR Krishnan (2000). Reduction of orbital frontal cortex volume in geriatric depression. Biological Psychiatry 48, 971975.

Y Lee , S Shinkai (2005). Correlates of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms among older adults in Korea and Japan. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 20, 576586.

EJ Lenze , MA Dew , S Mazumdar , AE Begley , C Cornes , MD Miller , SD Imber , E Frank , DJ Kupfer , CF Reynolds (2002). Combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy as maintenance treatment for late-life depression: effects on social adjustment. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 466468.

ML Levy , JL Cummings , LA Fairbanks , D Masterman , BL Miller , AH Craig , JS Paulsen , I Litvan (1998). Apathy is not depression. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 10, 314319.

RM Levy , DC Steffens , DR McQuoid , JM Provenzale , JR MacFall , KRR Krishnan (2003). MRI lesion severity and mortality in geriatric depression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11, 678682.

ED London , SL Simon , SM Berman , MA Mandelkern , AM Lichtman , J Bramen , AK Shinn , K Miotto , J Learn , Y Dong , JA Matochik , V Kurian , T Newton , R Woods , R Rawson , W Ling (2004). Mood disturbances and regional cerebral metabolic abnormalities in recently abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry 61, 7384.

OL Lopez , JT Becker , RA Sweet , W Klunk , DI Kaufer , J Saxton , M Habeych , ST DeKosky (2003 a). Psychiatric symptoms vary with the severity of dementia in probable Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 15, 346353.

OL Lopez , WJ Jagust , ST DeKosky , JT Becker , A Fitzpatrick , C Dulberg , J Breitner , C Lyketsos , B Jones , C Kawas , M Carlson , LH Kuller (2003 b). Prevalence and classification of mild cognitive impairment in the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study: Part 1. Archives of Neurology 60, 13851389.

SJ Lupien , NP Nair , S Briere , F Maheu , MT Tu , M Lemay , BS McEwen , MJ Meaney (1999). Increased cortisol levels and impaired cognition in human aging: implication for depression and dementia in later life. Reviews in Neurosciences 10, 117139.

CG Lyketsos , O Lopez , B Jones , AL Fitzpatrick , J Breitner , S DeKosky (2002). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: results from the cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American Medical Association 288, 14751483.

TR Lynch , JS Cheavens , KC Cukrowicz , SR Thorp , L Bronner , J Beyer (2007). Treatment of older adults with co-morbid personality disorder and depression: a dialectical behavior therapy approach. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 22, 131143.

SA Lyness , C Zarow , HC Chui (2003). Neuron loss in key cholinergic and aminergic nuclei in Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis. Neurobiology of Aging 24, 123.

JR MacFall , ME Payne , JM Provenzale , KRR Krishnan (2001). Medial orbital frontal lesions in late-onset depression. Biological Psychiatry 49, 803806.

GM MacQueen , S Campbell , BS McEwen , K Macdonald , S Amano , RT Joffe , C Nahmias , LT Young (2003). Course of illness, hippocampal function, and hippocampal volume in major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100, 13871392.

BT Mast , B Yochim , SE MacNeill , PA Lichtenberg (2004). Risk factors for geriatric depression: the importance of executive functioning within the vascular depression hypothesis. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 59, 12901294.

KM Mehta , K Yaffe , KM Langa , L Sands , MA Whooley , KE Covinsky (2003). Additive effects of cognitive function and depressive symptoms on mortality in elderly community-living adults. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 58, M461M467.

AJ Mitchell , TR Dening (1996). Depression-related cognitive impairment: possibilities for its pharmacological treatment. Journal of Affective Disorders 36, 7987.

CF Murphy , GS Alexopoulos (2004). Longitudinal association of initiation/perseveration and severity of geriatric depression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12, 5056.

RD Nebes , MA Butters , BH Mulsant , BG Pollock , MD Zmuda , PR Houck , CF Reynolds (2000). Decreased working memory and processing speed mediate cognitive impairment in geriatric depression. Psychological Medicine 30, 679691.

RD Nebes , BG Pollock , PR Houck , MA Butters , BH Mulsant , MD Zmuda , CF Reynolds 3rd (2003). Persistence of cognitive impairment in geriatric patients following antidepressant treatment: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial with nortriptyline and paroxetine. Journal of Psychiatric Research 37, 99108.

G Nemeth , K Hegedus , L Molnar (1988). Akinetic mutism associated with bicingular lesions: clinicopathological and functional anatomical correlates. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 237, 218222.

JT O'Brien , A Lloyd , I McKeith , A Gholkar , N Ferrier (2004). A longitudinal study of hippocampal volume, cortisol levels, and cognition in older depressed subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 20812090.

JT Olin , IR Katz , BS Meyers , LS Schneider , BD Lebowitz (2002 a). Provisional diagnostic criteria for depression of Alzheimer disease: rationale and background. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10, 129141.

AM Owen , NJ Herrod , DK Menon , JC Clark , SP Downey , TA Carpenter , PS Minhas , FE Turkheimer , EJ Williams , TW Robbins , BJ Sahakian , M Petrides , JD Pickard (1999). Redefining the functional organization of working memory processes within human lateral prefrontal cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 11, 567574.

BW Palmer , KB Boone , IM Lesser , MA Wohl , N Berman , BL Miller (1996). Neuropsychological deficits among older depressed patients with predominantly psychological or vegetative symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders 41, 1724.

M Papka , A Rubio , RB Schiffer (1998). A review of Lewy body disease, an emerging concept of cortical dementia. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 10, 267279.

JH Park , SB Lee , TJ Lee , DY Lee , JH Jhoo , JC Youn , IH Choo , EA Choi , JW Jeong , JY Choe , JI Woo , KW Kim (2007). Depression in vascular dementia is quantitatively and qualitatively different from depression in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 23, 6773.

SB Patten , EJ Love (1994). Drug-induced depression. Incidence, avoidance and management. Drug Safety 10, 203219.

ML Phillips , WC Drevets , SL Rauch , R Lane (2003). Neurobiology of emotion perception. I: The neural basis of normal emotion perception. Biological Psychiatry 54, 504514.

GG Potter , JD Kittinger , HR Wagner , DC Steffens , KR Krishnan (2004). Prefrontal neuropsychological predictors of treatment remission in late-life depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 29, 22662271.

GG Potter , DC Steffens (2007). Contribution of depression to cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults. The Neurologist 13, 105117.

G Rait , A Fletcher , L Smeeth , C Brayne , S Stirling , M Nunes , E Breeze , ES Ng , CJ Bulpitt , D Jones , AJ Tulloch (2005). Prevalence of cognitive impairment: results from the MRC trial of assessment and management of older people in the community. Age and Aging 34, 242248.

MA Rapp , K Dahlman , M Sano , HT Grossman , V Haroutunian , JM Gorman (2005). Neuropsychological differences between late-onset and recurrent geriatric major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 691698.

PH Robert , S Schuck , B Dubois , JP Olie , JP Lepine , T Gallarda , S Goni , S Troy (2003). Screening for Alzheimer's disease with the short cognitive evaluation battery. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 15, 9298.

MD Rugg , PC Fletcher , PM Chua , RJ Dolan (1999). The role of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory and memory for source: an fMRI study. Neuroimage 10, 520529.

S Salloway , P Malloy , R Kohn , E Gillard , J Duffy , J Rogg , G Tung , E Richardson , C Thomas , R Westlake (1996). MRI and neuropsychological differences in early- and late-life-onset geriatric depression. Neurology 46, 15671574.

PJ Shah , KP Ebmeier , MF Glabus , GM Godwin (1998). Cortical grey matter reductions associated with treatment-resistant chronic unipolar depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 172, 527532.

YI Sheline , DM Barch , K Garcia , K Gersing , C Pieper , K Welsh-Bohmer , DC Steffens , PM Doraiswamy (2006). Cognitive function in late life depression: relationships to depression severity, cerebrovascular risk factors and processing speed. Biological Psychiatry 60, 5865.

YI Sheline , MH Gado , HC Kraemer (2003). Untreated depression and hippocampal volume loss. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 15161518.

YI Sheline , PW Wang , MH Gado , JG Csernansky , MW Vannier (1996). Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 39083913.

SE Starkstein , G Petracca , E Chemerinski , J Kremer (2001). Syndromic validity of apathy in Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 872877.

DC Steffens , HB Bosworth , JM Provenzale , JR MacFall (2002). Subcortical white matter lesions and functional impairment in geriatric depression. Depression and Anxiety 15, 2328.

DC Steffens , CR Conway , CB Dombeck , HR Wagner , LA Tupler , RD Weiner (2001). Severity of subcortical gray matter hyperintensity predicts ECT response in geriatric depression. Journal of ECT 17, 4549.

DC Steffens , KRR Krishnan (1998). Structural neuroimaging and mood disorders: recent findings, implications for classification, and future directions. Biological Psychiatry 43, 705712.

DC Steffens , BL Plassman , MJ Helms , KA Welsh-Bohmer , AM Saunders , JC Breitner (1997). A twin study of late-onset depression and apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Biological Psychiatry 41, 851856.

DC Steffens , I Skoog , MC Norton , AD Hart , JT Tschanz , BL Plassman , BW Wyse , KA Welsh-Bohmer , JC Breitner (2000). Prevalence of depression and its treatment in an elderly population: the Cache County study. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 601607.

E Tandberg , JP Larsen , D Aarsland , JL Cummings (1996). The occurrence of depression in Parkinson's disease. A community-based study. Archives of Neurology 53, 175179.

WD Taylor , JR MacFall , ME Payne , DR McQuoid , JM Provenzale , DC Steffens , KR Krishnan (2004). Late-life depression and microstructural abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex white matter. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 12931296.

WD Taylor , DC Steffens , KR Krishnan (2006). Psychiatric disease in the twenty-first century: the case for subcortical ischemic depression. Biological Psychiatry 60, 12991303.

TN Tombaugh , NJ McIntyre (1992). The Mini-Mental State Examination: a comprehensive review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 40, 922935.

HOF Veiel (1997). A preliminary profile of neuropsychological deficits associated with major depression. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 19, 587603.

D Weintraub , MB Stern (2005). Psychiatric complications in Parkinson disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 13, 844851.

I Yanai , T Fujikawa , J Horiguchi , S Yamawaki , Y Touhouda (1998). The 3-year course and outcome of patients with major depression and silent cerebral infarction. Journal of Affective Disorders 47, 2530.

GS Zubenko , WN Zubenko , S McPherson , E Spoor , DB Marin , MR Farlow , GE Smith , YE Geda , JL Cummings , RC Petersen , T Sunderland (2003). A collaborative study of the emergence and clinical features of the major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 857866.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: