Aas, M, Dazzan, P, Mondelli, V, Toulopoulou, T, Reichenberg, A, Di Forti, M, Fisher, HL, Handley, R, Hepgul, N, Marques, T, Miorelli, A, Taylor, H, Russo, M, Wiffen, B, Papadopoulos, A, Aitchison, KJ, Morgan, C, Murray, RM and Pariante, CM (2011) Abnormal cortisol awakening response predicts worse cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. Psychological Medicine 41, 463–476.
Allen, KM, Fung, SJ and Shannon Weickert, C (2016) Cell proliferation is reduced in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 50, 473–480.
Amaral, DG, Scharfman, HE and Lavenex, P (2007) The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for dummies). Progress in Brain Research 163, 3–22.
Amaral, RSC, Park, MTM, Devenyi, GA, Lynn, V, Pipitone, J, Winterburn, J, Chavez, S, Schira, M, Lobaugh, NJ, Voineskos, AN, Pruessner, JC and Chakravarty, MM (2018) Manual segmentation of the fornix, fimbria, and alveus on high-resolution 3 T MRI: application via fully-automated mapping of the human memory circuit white and grey matter in healthy and pathological aging. NeuroImage 170, 132–150.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edn. Washington, DC.
Andreasen, NC (1983) Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, vol 155. Iowa City: University of Iowa.
Avants, BB, Epstein, CL, Grossman, M and Gee, JC (2008) Symmetric diffeomorphic image registration with cross-correlation: evaluating automated labeling of elderly and neurodegenerative brain. Medical Image Analysis 12, 26–41.
Baglivo, V, Cao, B, Mwangi, B, Bellani, M, Perlini, C, Lasalvia, A, Dusi, N, Bonetto, C, Cristofalo, D, Alessandrini, F and Zoccatelli, G (2018) Hippocampal subfield volumes in patients with first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 44, 552–559.
Barnett, JH, Sahakian, BJ, Werners, U, Hill, KE, Brazil, R, Gallagher, O, Bullmore, ET and Jones, PB (2005) Visuospatial learning and executive function are independently impaired in first-episode psychosis. Psychological Medicine 35, 1031–1041.
Barnett, JH, Blackwell, AD, Sahakian, BJ and Robbins, TW (2016) The Paired Associates Learning (PAL) test: 30 years of CANTAB translational neuroscience from laboratory to bedside in dementia research. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience 28, 449–474.
Bartholomeusz, CF, Cropley, V, Wannan, C, Di Biase, M, McGorry, PD and Pantelis, C (2017) Structural neuroimaging across early stage psychosis: aberrations in neurobiological trajectories and implications for the staging model. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 51, 455–476.
Benarroch, EE (2013) Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus: general concepts and potential implications. Neurology 15, 1443–1452.
Benjamini, Y and Hochberg, Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 57, 289–300.
Bora, E and Murray, RM (2013) Meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in ultra-high risk to psychosis and first-episode psychosis: do the cognitive deficits progress over, or after, the onset of psychosis? Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 744–755.
Buckner, RL, Head, D, Parker, J, Fotenos, AF, Marcus, D, Morris, JC and Snyder, AZ (2004) A unified approach for morphometric and functional data analysis in young, old, and demented adults using automated atlas-based head size normalization: reliability and validation against manual measurement of total intracranial volume. NeuroImage 23, 724–738.
Cambridge Cognition (2012) CANTAB eclipse Test Administration Guide. Bottisham: Cambridge Cognition Limited.
Cambridge Cognition (2018) CANTAB® [Cognitive assessment software]. All rights reserved. www.cantab.com.
Carr, VA, Bernstein, JD, Favila, SE, Rutt, BK, Kerchner, GA and Wagner, AD (2017) Individual differences in associative memory among older adults explained by hippocampal subfield structure and function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, 12075–12080.
Chakravarty, MM, Steadman, P, van Eede, MC, Calcott, RD, Gu, V, Shaw, P, Raznahan, A, Collins, DL and Lerch, JP (2013) Performing label-fusion-based segmentation using multiple automatically generated templates. Human Brain Mapping 34, 2635–2654.
Chen, Y, Rex, CS, Rice, CJ, Dube, CM, Gall, CM, Lynch, G and Baram, TZ (2010) Correlated memory defects and hippocampal dendritic spine loss after acute stress involve corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 13123–13128.
Conrad, CD (2006) What is the functional significance of chronic stress-induced CA3 dendritic retraction within the hippocampus? Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews 5, 41–60.
Copolov, D, Velakoulis, D, McGorry, P, Mallard, C, Yung, A, Rees, S, Jackson, G, Rehn, A, Brewer, W and Pantelis, C (2000) Neurobiological findings in early phase schizophrenia. Brain Research Reviews 31, 157–165.
De Rover, M, Pironti, VA, McCabe, JA, Acosta-Cabronero, J, Arana, FS, Morein-Zamir, S, Hodges, JR, Robbins, TW, Fletcher, PC, Nestor, PJ and Sahakian, BJ (2011) Hippocampal dysfunction in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a functional neuroimaging study of a visuospatial paired associates learning task. Neuropsychologia 49, 2060–2070.
Den Heijer, T, van der Lijn, F, Vernooij, MW, de Groot, M, Koudstaal, PJ, van der Lugt, A, Krestin, GP, Hofman, A, Niessen, WJ and Breteler, MMB (2012) Structural and diffusion MRI measures of the hippocampus and memory performance. NeuroImage 63, 1782–1789.
Dennis, M, Francis, D, Cirino, P, Barnes, M and Fletcher, J (2009) Why IQ is not a covariate in cognitive studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society 15, 331–343.
Donohoe, G, Spoletini, I, McGlade, N, Behan, C, Hayden, J, O'Donoghue, T, Peel, R, Haq, F, Walker, C, O'Callaghan, E, Spalletta, G, Gill, M and Corvin, A (2008) Are relational style and neuropsychological performance predictors of social attributions in chronic schizophrenia? Psychiatry Research 161, 19–27.
Drew, LJ, Fusi, S and Hen, R (2013) Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus: why the dentate gyrus? Learning & Memory 20, 710–729.
Duvernoy, HM (1998) The Human Hippocampus. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Exner, C, Nehrkorn, B, Martin, V, Huber, M, Shiratori, K and Rief, W (2008) Sex-dependent hippocampal volume reductions in schizophrenia relate to episodic memory deficit. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 20, 227–230.
First, M, Spitzer, R, Gibbon, M and Williams, J (2002) Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders, research version Patient Edition, New York State Psychiatric Institute: New York, NY.
Fischl, B, Van Der Kouwe, A, Destrieux, C, Halgren, E, Ségonne, F, Salat, DH, Busa, E, Seidman, LJ, Goldstein, J, Kennedy, D, Caviness, V, Makris, N, Rosen, B and Dale, AM (2004) Automatically parcellating the human cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex 14, 11–22.
Fornito, A, Yucel, M, Patti, J, Wood, SJ and Pantelis, C (2009) Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Schizophrenia Research 108, 104–113.
Gao, XM, Sakai, K, Roberts, RC, Conley, RR, Dean, B and Tamminga, CA (2000) Ionotropic glutamate receptors and expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits in subregions of human hippocampus: effects of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 1141–1149.
Goldman, HH, Skodol, A and Lave, TR (1992) Revising axis V for DSM-IV: a review of measures of social functioning. American Journal of Psychiatry 149, 1148–1156.
Gonçalves, JT, Schafer, ST and Gage, FH (2016) Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus: from stem cells to behavior. Cell 167, 897–914.
Gould, RL, Brown, RG, Owen, AM, Bullmore, ET, Williams, SCR and Howard, RJ (2005) Functional neuroanatomy of successful paired associate learning in Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 2049–2060.
Gur, REC, Turetsky, BI, Cowell, PE, Finkelman, C, Maany, V, Grossman, RI, Arnold, SE, Bilker, WB and Gur, REC (2000) Temporolimbic volume reductions in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 769–775.
Haring, L, Mottus, R, Kajalaid, K, Koch, K, Uppin, K, Maron, E and Vasar, E (2017) The course of cognitive functioning after first-episode of psychosis: a six month follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research 182, 31–41.
Hasan, A, Wobrock, T, Falkai, P, Schneider-Axmann, T, Guse, B, Backens, M, Ecker, UKH, Heimes, J, Galea, JM, Gruber, O and Scherk, H (2011) Hippocampal integrity and neurocognition in first-episode schizophrenia: a multidimensional study. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 15, 1–12.
Haukvik, UK, Westlye, LT, Mørch-Johnsen, L, Jørgensen, KN, Lange, EH, Dale, AM, Melle, I, Andreassen, OA and Agartz, I (2015) In vivo hippocampal subfield volumes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 77, 581–588.
Ho, NF, Iglesias, JE, Sum, MY, Kuswanto, CN, Sitoh, YY, De Souza, J, Hong, Z, Fischl, B, Roffman, JL, Zhou, J, Sim, K and Holt, DJ (2017) Progression from selective to general involvement of hippocampal subfields in schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry, 22, 142–152.
Kahn, RS and Keefe, RSE (2013) Schizophrenia is a cognitive illness: time for a change in focus. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 1107–1112.
Kay, S, Fiszbein, A and Opler, L (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13, 261–267.
Kesner, RP (2007) Behavioral functions of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus. Learning & Memory 14, 771–781.
Lappin, JM, Morgan, C, Chalavi, S, Morgan, KD, Reinders, AATS, Fearon, P, Heslin, M, Zanelli, J, Jones, PB, Murray, RM and Dazzan, P (2014) Bilateral hippocampal increase following first-episode psychosis is associated with good clinical, functional and cognitive outcomes. Psychological Medicine 44, 1279–1291.
Lavenex, P and Amaral, DG (2000) Hippocampal-neocortical interaction: a hierarchy of associativity. Hippocampus 10, 420–430.
Law, AJ and Deakin, JFW (2001) Asymmetrical reductions of hippocampal NMDAR1 glutamate receptor mRNA in the psychoses. Neuroreport 12, 2971–2974.
Leucht, S, Rothe, P, Davis, JM and Engel, RR (2013) Equipercentile linking of the BPRS and the PANSS. European Neuropsychopharmacology 23, 956–959.
Lupien, SJ (2000) Stress and schizophrenia: the importance of cognition. Biological Psychiatry 48, 1119–1120.
Malone, IB, Leung, KK, Clegg, S, Barnes, J, Whitwell, JL, Ashburner, J, Fox, NC and Ridgway, GR (2015) Accurate automatic estimation of total intracranial volume: a nuisance variable with less nuisance. NeuroImage 104, 366–372.
Mathew, I, Gardin, TM, Tandon, N, Eack, S, Francis, AN, Seidman, LJ, Clementz, B, Pearlson, GD, Sweeney, JA, Tamminga, CA and Keshavan, MS (2014) Medial temporal lobe structures and hippocampal subfields in psychotic disorders. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 769.
McEwen, BS (2000) Effects of early adverse experiences on brain structure and function: clinical implications. Biological Psychiatry 48, 721–731.
Miller, GA and Chapman, J (2001) Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110, 40–48.
Nestor, PG, Kubicki, M, Kuroki, N, Gurrera, RJ, Niznikiewicz, M, Shenton, ME and McCarley, RW (2007) Episodic memory and neuroimaging of hippocampus and fornix in chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research – Neuroimaging 155, 21–28.
Overall, J and Gorham, D (1962) The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychological Reports 10, 799–812.
Owen, AM, Sahakian, BJ, Semple, J, Polkey, CE and Robbins, TW (1995) Visuo-spatial short-term recognition memory and learning after temporal lobe excisions, frontal lobe excisions or amydalo-hippocampectomy in man. Neuropsychologia 33, 1–24.
Pipitone, J, Park, MTM, Winterburn, J, Lett, TA, Lerch, JP, Pruessner, JC, Lepage, M, Voineskos, AN and Chakravarty, MM (2014) Multi-atlas segmentation of the whole hippocampus and subfields using multiple automatically generated templates. NeuroImage 101, 494–512.
Prouteau, A, Verdoux, H, Briand, C, Lesage, A, Lalonde, P, Nicole, L, Reinharz, D and Stip, E (2005) Cognitive predictors of psychosocial functioning outcome in schizophrenia: a follow-up study of subjects participating in a rehabilitation program. Schizophrenia Research 77, 343–353.
Reif, A, Fritzen, S, Finger, M, Strobel, A, Lauer, M, Schmitt, A and Lesch, K-P (2006) Neural stem cell proliferation is decreased in schizophrenia, but not in depression. Molecular Psychiatry 11, 514–522.
Sánchez-Benavides, G, Gómez-Ansón, B, Sainz, A, Vives, Y, Delfino, M and Peña-Casanova, J (2010) Manual validation of FreeSurfer's automated hippocampal segmentation in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer Disease subjects. Psychiatry Research – Neuroimaging 181, 219–225.
Sanfilipo, M, Lafargue, T, Rusinek, H, Arena, L, Loneragan, C, Lautin, A, Rotrosen, J and Wolkin, A (2002) Cognitive performance in schizophrenia: relationship to regional brain volumes and psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatry Research – Neuroimaging 116, 1–23.
Schmidt, MF, Storrs, JM, Freeman, KB, Jack, CR, Turner, ST, Griswold, ME and Mosley, TH (2018) A comparison of manual tracing and FreeSurfer for estimating hippocampal volume over the adult lifespan. Human Brain Mapping 39, 2500–2513.
Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, MD, Sheehan, KH, Amorim, P, Janavs, J, Weiller, E, Hergueta, T, Baker, R and Dunbar, GC (1998) The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 59, 22–33.
Shepherd, AM, Laurens, KR, Matheson, SL, Carr, VJ and Green, MJ (2012) Systematic meta-review and quality assessment of the structural brain alterations in schizophrenia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 36, 1342–1356.
Snyder, JS, Hong, NS, McDonald, RJ and Wojtowicz, JM (2005) A role for adult neurogenesis in spatial long-term memory. Neuroscience 130, 843–852.
Stan, AD, Ghose, S, Zhao, C, Hulsey, K, Mihalakos, P, Yanagi, M, Morris, SU, Bartko, JJ, Choi, C and Tamminga, CA (2015) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and tissue protein concentrations together suggest lower glutamate signaling in dentate gyrus in schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 20, 433–439.
Steen, RG, Mull, C, McClure, R, Hamer, RM and Lieberman, JA (2006) Brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. The British Journal of Psychiatry 188, 510–518.
Stip, E, Sepehry, AA, Prouteau, A, Briand, C, Nicole, L, Lalonde, P and Lesage, A (2005) Cognitive discernible factors between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Brain and Cognition 59, 292–295.
Tamminga, CA, Southcott, S, Sacco, C, Wagner, AD and Ghose, S (2012) Glutamate dysfunction in hippocampus: relevance of dentate gyrus and CA3 signaling. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 927–935.
Thoma, RJ, Monnig, M, Hanlon, FM, Miller, GA, Mayer, AR, Yeo, R, Euler, M, Lysne, P, Sandra, N and Cañive, JM (2009) Hippocampus volume and episodic memory in schizophrenia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 15, 182–195.
Toulopoulou, T, Grech, A, Morris, RG, Schulze, K, McDonald, C, Chapple, B, Rabe-Hesketh, S and Murray, RM (2004) The relationship between volumetric brain changes and cognitive function: a family study on schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 56, 447–453.
Tupper, DE and Rosenblood, LK (1984) Methodological considerations in the use of attribute variables in neuropsychological research. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology 6, 441–453.
van Erp, TGM, Hibar, DP, Rasmussen, JM, Glahn, DC, Pearlson, GD, Andreassen, OA, Agartz, I, Westlye, LT, Haukvik, UK, Dale, AM, Melle, I, Hartberg, CB, Gruber, O, Kraemer, B, Zilles, D, Donohoe, G, Kelly, S, McDonald, C, Morris, DW, Cannon, DM, Corvin, A, Machielsen, MWJ, Koenders, L, de Haan, L, Veltman, DJ, Satterthwaite, TD, Wolf, DH, Gur, RC, Gur, RE, Potkin, SG, Mathalon, DH, Mueller, BA, Preda, A, Macciardi, F, Ehrlich, S, Walton, E, Hass, J, Calhoun, VD, Bockholt, HJ, Sponheim, SR, Shoemaker, JM, van Haren, NEM, Pol, HEH, Ophoff, RA, Kahn, RS, Roiz-Santiañez, R, Crespo-Facorro, B, Wang, L, Alpert, KI, Jönsson, EG, Dimitrova, R, Bois, C, Whalley, HC, McIntosh, AM, Lawrie, SM, Hashimoto, R, Thompson, PM and Turner, JA (2016) Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 547–553.
Van Petten, C (2004) Relationship between hippocampal volume and memory ability in healthy individuals across the lifespan: review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia 42, 1394–1413.
Velakoulis, D, Pantelis, C, McGorry, PD, Dudgeon, P, Brewer, W, Cook, M, Desmond, P, Bridle, N, Tierney, P, Murrie, V, Singh, B and Copolov, D (1999) Hippocampal volume in first-episode psychoses and chronic schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 133.
Velakoulis, D, Wood, SJ, Wong, MTH, McGorry, PD, Yung, A, Phillips, L, Brewer, W, Proffitt, T, Desmond, P and Pantelis, C (2006) Hippocampal and amygdala volumes according to psychosis stage and diagnosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 139–149.
Vita, A, De Peri, L, Silenzi, C and Dieci, M (2006) Brain morphology in first-episode schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging studies. Schizophrenia Research 82, 75–88.
Walder, DJ, Walker, EF and Lewine, RJ (2000) Cognitive functioning, cortisol release, and symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 48, 1121–1132.
Wannan, CMJ, Bartholomeusz, CF, Cropley, VL, Van Rheenen, TE, Panayiotou, A, Brewer, WJ, Proffitt, TM, Henry, L, Harris, MG, Velakoulis, D, McGorry, P, Pantelis, C and Wood, SJ (2018) Deterioration of visuospatial associative memory following a first psychotic episode: a long-term follow-up study. Psychological Medicine, 48, 132–141.
Wechsler, D (1997) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd Edn. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D (2001) Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation (Harcourt Assessment).
Wenger, E, Mårtensson, J, Noack, H, Bodammer, NC, Kühn, S, Schaefer, S, Heinze, HJ, Düzel, E, Bäckman, L, Lindenberger, U and Lövdén, M (2014) Comparing manual and automatic segmentation of hippocampal volumes: reliability and validity issues in younger and older brains. Human Brain Mapping 35, 4236–4248.
Winterburn, JL, Pruessner, JC, Chavez, S, Schira, MM, Lobaugh, NJ, Voineskos, AN and Chakravarty, MM (2013) A novel in vivo atlas of human hippocampal subfields using high-resolution 3T magnetic resonance imaging. NeuroImage 74, 254–265.
Witter, MP (2007) The perforant path: projections from the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus. Progress in Brain Research 163, 43–61.
Wood, SJ, Velakoulis, D, Smith, DJ, Bond, D, Stuart, GW, McGorry, PD, Brewer, WJ, Bridle, N, Eritaia, J, Desmond, P, Singh, B, Copolov, D and Pantelis, C (2001) A longitudinal study of hippocampal volume in first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 52, 37–46.
Wood, SJ, Proffitt, T, Mahony, K, Smith, DJ, Buchanan, JA, Brewer, W, Stuart, GW, Velakoulis, D, McGorry, PD and Pantelis, C (2002) Visuospatial memory and learning in first-episode schizophreniform psychosis and established schizophrenia: a functional correlate of hippocampal pathology? Psychological Medicine 32, 429–438.
Woolley, CS, Gould, E and Mcewen, BSBS (1990) Exposure to excess glucocorticoids alter dendritic morphology of adult hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Brain Research 531, 225–231.
Wright, IC, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Woodruff, PWR, David, AS, Murray, RM and Bullmore, ET (2000) Meta – analysis of regional brain volumes in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 16–25.
Zakzanis, KK, Poulin, P, Hansen, KT and Jolic, D (2000) Searching the schizophrenic brain for temporal lobe deficits: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 30, 491–504.
Zola-Morgan, S and Squire, LR (1993) Neuroanatomy of memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience 16, 547–563.