Abler, B, Greenhouse, I, Ongur, D, Walter, H, Heckers, S (2008). Abnormal reward system activation in mania. Neuropsychopharmacology 33, 2217–2227.
Bellebaum, C, Koch, B, Schwarz, M, Daum, I (2008). Focal basal ganglia lesions are associated with impairments in reward-based reversal learning. Brain 131, 829–841.
Ben Pazi, H, Gross-Tsur, V, Bergman, H, Shalev, RS (2003). Abnormal rhythmic motor response in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 45, 743–745.
Birmaher, B, Axelson, DA, Monk, K, Kalas, C, Clark, DB, Ehmann, M, Bridge, J, Heo, J, Brent, DA (2003). Fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42, 415–423.
Blair, RJ (2004). The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior. Brain and Cognition 55, 198–208.
Blair, RJ, Cipolotti, L (2000). Impaired social response reversal. A case of ‘acquired sociopathy’. Brain 123, 1122–1141.
Blair, RJ, Colledge, E, Mitchell, DG (2001). Somatic markers and response reversal: is there orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in boys with psychopathic tendencies? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29, 499–511.
Blair, RJR (2009). Psychopathy, frustration, and reactive aggression: the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. British Journal of Psychology. Published online: 24 March 2009. doi: 10.1348/000712609X418480.
Blumberg, HP, Charney, DS, Krystal, JH (2002). Frontotemporal neural systems in bipolar disorder. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry 7, 243–254.
Blumberg, HP, Martin, A, Kaufman, J, Leung, HC, Skudlarski, P, Lacadie, C, Fulbright, RK, Gore, JC, Charney, DS, Krystal, JH, Peterson, BS (2003). Frontostriatal abnormalities in adolescents with bipolar disorder: preliminary observations from functional MRI. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 1345–1347.
Brotman, MA, Kassem, L, Reising, MM, Guyer, AE, Dickstein, DP, Rich, BA, Towbin, KE, Pine, DS, McMahon, FJ, Leibenluft, E (2007). Parental diagnoses in youth with narrow phenotype bipolar disorder or severe mood dysregulation. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 1238–1241.
Brotman, MA, Schmajuk, M, Rich, BA, Dickstein, DP, Guyer, AE, Costello, EJ, Egger, HL, Angold, A, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E (2006). Prevalence, clinical correlates, and longitudinal course of severe mood dysregulation in children. Biological Psychiatry 60, 991–997.
Budhani, S, Marsh, AA, Pine, DS, Blair, RJ (2007). Neural correlates of response reversal: considering acquisition. NeuroImage 34, 1754–1765.
Budhani, S, Richell, RA, Blair, RJ (2006). Impaired reversal but intact acquisition: probabilistic response reversal deficits in adult individuals with psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 552–558.
Carlson, GA (1998). Mania and ADHD: comorbidity or confusion. Journal of Affective Disorders 51, 177–187.
Chamberlain, SR, Menzies, L, Hampshire, A, Suckling, J, Fineberg, NA, del Campo, N, Aitken, M, Craig, K, Owen, AM, Bullmore, ET, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ (2008). Orbitofrontal dysfunction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected relatives. Science 321, 421–422.
Chamberlain, SR, Muller, U, Blackwell, AD, Clark, L, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ (2006). Neurochemical modulation of response inhibition and probabilistic learning in humans. Science 311, 861–863.
Clark, L, Cools, R, Robbins, TW (2004). The neuropsychology of ventral prefrontal cortex: decision-making and reversal learning. Brain and Cognition 55, 41–53.
Cools, R, Clark, L, Owen, AM, Robbins, TW (2002). Defining the neural mechanisms of probabilistic reversal learning using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neuroscience 22, 4563–4567.
Cools, R, Clark, L, Robbins, TW (2004). Differential responses in human striatum and prefrontal cortex to changes in object and rule relevance. Journal of Neuroscience 24, 1129–1135.
Devido, J, Jones, M, Geraci, M, Hollon, N, Blair, RJ, Pine, DS, Blair, K (2008). Stimulus-reinforcement-based decision making and anxiety: impairment in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) but not in generalized social phobia (GSP). Psychological Medicine 39, 1153–1161.
Dickstein, DP, Nelson, EE, McClure, EB, Grimley, ME, Knopf, L, Brotman, MA, Rich, BA, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E (2007 a). Cognitive flexibility in phenotypes of pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46, 341–355.
Dickstein, DP, Rich, BA, Roberson-Nay, R, Berghorst, L, Vinton, D, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E (2007 b). Neural activation during encoding of emotional faces in pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders 9, 679–692.
Dickstein, DP, Treland, JE, Snow, J, McClure, EB, Mehta, MS, Towbin, KE, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E (2004). Neuropsychological performance in pediatric bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 55, 32–39.
Doyle, AE (2006). Executive functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67 (Suppl. 8), 21–26.
Drevets, WC (2000). Functional anatomical abnormalities in limbic and prefrontal cortical structures in major depression. Progress in Brain Research 126, 413–431.
Eysenck, MW, Derakshan, N, Santos, R, Calvo, MG (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory. Emotion 7, 336–353.
Fellows, LK, Farah, MJ (2003). Ventromedial frontal cortex mediates affective shifting in humans: evidence from a reversal learning paradigm. Brain 126, 1830–1837.
Finger, EC, Marsh, AA, Mitchell, DG, Reid, ME, Sims, C, Budhani, S, Kosson, DS, Chen, G, Towbin, KE, Leibenluft, E, Pine, DS, Blair, JR (2008). Abnormal ventromedial prefrontal cortex function in children with psychopathic traits during reversal learning. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 586–594.
Geller, B, Williams, M, Zimerman, B, Frazier, J, Beringer, L, Warner, KL (1998). Prepubertal and early adolescent bipolarity differentiate from ADHD by manic symptoms, grandiose delusions, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Journal of Affective Disorders 51, 81–91.
Gorrindo, T, Blair, RJ, Budhani, S, Dickstein, DP, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E (2005). Deficits on a probabilistic response-reversal task in patients with pediatric bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1975–1977.
Guyer, AE, McClure, EB, Adler, AD, Brotman, MA, Rich, BA, Kimes, AS, Pine, DS, Ernst, M, Leibenluft, E (2007). Specificity of facial expression labeling deficits in childhood psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 48, 863–871.
Huettel, SA (2006). Behavioral, but not reward, risk modulates activation of prefrontal, parietal, and insular cortices. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience 6, 141–151.
Izquierdo, A, Murray, EA (2004). Combined unilateral lesions of the amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex impair affective processing in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 91, 2023–2039.
Kaufman, J, Birmaher, B, Brent, D, Rao, U, Flynn, C, Moreci, P, Williamson, D, Ryan, N (1997). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 980–988.
Kempton, S, Vance, A, Maruff, P, Luk, E, Costin, J, Pantelis, C (1999). Executive function and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: stimulant medication and better executive function performance in children. Psychological Medicine 29, 527–538.
Knutson, B, Westdorp, A, Kaiser, E, Hommer, D (2000). FMRI visualization of brain activity during a monetary incentive delay task. NeuroImage 12, 20–27.
Krain, AL, Gotimer, K, Hefton, S, Ernst, M, Castellanos, FX, Pine, DS, Milham, MP (2008). A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of uncertainty in adolescents with anxiety disorders. Biological Psychiatry 63, 563–568.
Kyte, ZA, Goodyer, IM, Sahakian, BJ (2005). Selected executive skills in adolescents with recent first episode major depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46, 995–1005.
Leibenluft, E, Charney, DS, Towbin, KE, Bhangoo, RK, Pine, DS (2003). Defining clinical phenotypes of juvenile mania. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 430–437.
Leibenluft, E, Rich, BA, Vinton, DT, Nelson, EE, Fromm, SJ, Berghorst, LH, Joshi, P, Robb, A, Schachar, RJ, Dickstein, DP, McClure, EB, Pine, DS (2007). Neural circuitry engaged during unsuccessful motor inhibition in pediatric bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 52–60.
McClure, EB, Monk, CS, Nelson, EE, Parrish, JM, Adler, A, Blair, RJ, Fromm, S, Charney, DS, Leibenluft, E, Ernst, M, Pine, DS (2007). Abnormal attention modulation of fear circuit function in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 97–106.
Milham, MP, Nugent, AC, Drevets, WC, Dickstein, DS, Leibenluft, E, Ernst, M, Charney, D, Pine, DS (2005). Selective reduction in amygdala volume in pediatric anxiety disorders: a voxel-based morphometry investigation. Biological Psychiatry 57, 961–966.
Mitchell, DG, Rhodes, RA, Pine, DS, Blair, RJ (2008). The contribution of ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to response reversal. Behavioural Brain Research 187, 80–87.
Monk, CS, Nelson, EE, McClure, EB, Mogg, K, Bradley, BP, Leibenluft, E, Blair, RJ, Chen, G, Charney, DS, Ernst, M, Pine, DS (2006). Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation and attentional bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 1091–1097.
Nelson, EE, Vinton, DT, Berghorst, L, Towbin, KE, Hommer, RE, Dickstein, DP, Rich, BA, Brotman, MA, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E (2007). Brain systems underlying response flexibility in healthy and bipolar adolescents: an event-related fMRI study. Bipolar Disorders 9, 810–819.
NIMH (2001). National Institute of Mental Health research roundtable on prepubertal bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 871–878.
O'Doherty, J, Dayan, P, Schultz, J, Deichmann, R, Friston, K, Dolan, RJ (2004). Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning. Science 304, 452–454.
Paulus, MP, Hozack, N, Zauscher, B, McDowell, JE, Frank, L, Brown, GG, Braff, DL (2001). Prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortex networks underlie decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. NeuroImage 13, 91–100.
Pavuluri, MN, O'Connor, MM, Harral, E, Sweeney, JA (2007). Affective neural circuitry during facial emotion processing in pediatric bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 62, 158–167.
Pavuluri, MN, O'Connor, MM, Harral, EM, Sweeney, JA (2008). An fMRI study of the interface between affective and cognitive neural circuitry in pediatric bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Research 162, 244–255.
Pfeifer, JC, Welge, J, Strakowski, SM, Adler, CM, DelBello, MP (2008). Meta-analysis of amygdala volumes in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47, 1289–1298.
Poznanski, EO, Freeman, LN, Mokros, HB (1985). Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 21, 979–984.
Ramnani, N, Elliott, R, Athwal, BS, Passingham, RE (2004). Prediction error for free monetary reward in the human prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage 23, 777–786.
Rich, BA, Grimley, ME, Schmajuk, M, Blair, KS, Blair, RJ, Leibenluft, E (2008). Face emotion labeling deficits in children with bipolar disorder and severe mood dysregulation. Development and Psychopathology 20, 529–546.
Rich, BA, Vinton, DT, Roberson-Nay, R, Hommer, RE, Berghorst, LH, McClure, EB, Fromm, SJ, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E (2006). Limbic hyperactivation during processing of neutral facial expressions in children with bipolar disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103, 8900–8905.
Robbins, TW, James, M, Owen, AM, Sahakian, BJ, Lawrence, AD, McInnes, L, Rabbitt, PM (1998). A study of performance on tests from the CANTAB battery sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in a large sample of normal volunteers: implications for theories of executive functioning and cognitive aging. Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 4, 474–490.
Roberson-Nay, R, McClure, EB, Monk, CS, Nelson, EE, Guyer, AE, Fromm, SJ, Charney, DS, Leibenluft, E, Blair, J, Ernst, M, Pine, DS (2006). Increased amygdala activity during successful memory encoding in adolescent major depressive disorder: an fMRI study. Biological Psychiatry 60, 966–973.
Rosenberg, DR, MacMaster, FP, Mirza, Y, Smith, JM, Easter, PC, Banerjee, SP, Bhandari, R, Boyd, C, Lynch, M, Rose, M, Ivey, J, Villafuerte, RA, Moore, GJ, Renshaw, P (2005). Reduced anterior cingulate glutamate in pediatric major depression: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Biological Psychiatry 58, 700–704.
RUPP (2001). Fluvoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Anxiety Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 344, 1279–1285.
RUPP (2002). The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS): development and psychometric properties. The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Anxiety Study Group. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 41, 1061–1069.
Shaffer, D, Gould, MS, Brasic, J, Ambrosini, P, Fisher, P, Bird, H, Aluwahlia, S (1983). A Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Archives of General Psychiatry 40, 1228–1231.
Stemme, A, Deco, G, Busch, A, Schneider, WX (2005). Neurons and the synaptic basis of the fMRI signal associated with cognitive flexibility. NeuroImage 26, 454–470.
Thomas, KM, Drevets, WC, Dahl, RE, Ryan, ND, Birmaher, B, Eccard, CH, Axelson, D, Whalen, PJ, Casey, BJ (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 1057–1063.
Xue, G, Ghahremani, DG, Poldrack, RA (2008). Neural substrates for reversing stimulus-outcome and stimulus-response associations. Journal of Neuroscience 28, 11196–11204.
Young, RC, Biggs, JT, Ziegler, VE, Meyer, DA (1978). A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. British Journal of Psychiatry 133, 429–435.