Adelstein, AM, Downham, DY, Stein, Z and Susser, MW (1968) The epidemiology of mental illness in an English city. Social Psychiatry 3, 47–59.
Ajdacic-Gross, V, Lauber, C, Warnke, I, Haker, H, Murray, RM and Rössler, W (2007) Changing incidence of psychotic disorders among the young in Zurich. Schizophrenia Research 95, 9–18.
Allardyce, J, Morrison, G, McCreadie, RG, van Os, J, Kelly, J and Murray, RM (2000) Schizophrenia is not disappearing in south-west Scotland. The British Journal of Psychiatry 177, 38–41.
Almeida, OP, Howard, RJ, Levy, R and David, AS (1995) Psychotic states arising in late life (late paraphrenia) psychopathology and nosology. The British Journal of Psychiatry 166, 205–214.
Andersen, JE and Hynnekleiv, T (2007) Hospital-treated psychosis and suicide in a rural community (1877–2005). Part 1: Incidence rates. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116, 6–19.
Baldwin, P, Browne, D, Scully, PJ, Quinn, JF, Morgan, MG, Kinsella, A et al. (2005) Epidemiology of first-episode psychosis: illustrating the challenges across diagnostic boundaries through the Cavan-Monaghan study at 8 years. Schizophrenia Bulletin 31, 624–638.
Bamrah, JS, Freeman, HL and Goldberg, DP (1991) Epidemiology of schizophrenia in Salford, 1974–84. Changes in an urban community over ten years. The British Journal of Psychiatry 159, 802–810.
Bland, RC (1977) Demographic aspects of functional psychoses in Canada. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 55, 369–380.
Bogren, M, Mattisson, C, Horstmann, V, Bhugra, D, Munk-Jørgensen, P and Nettelbladt, P (2007) Lundby revisited: first incidence of mental disorders 1947–1997. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 41, 178–186.
Bogren, M, Mattisson, C, Isberg, PE, Munk-Jørgensen, P and Nettelbladt, P (2010) Incidence of psychotic disorders in the 50 year follow up of the Lundby population. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 44, 31–39.
Boydell, J, van Os, J, Lambri, M, Castle, D, Allardyce, J, McCreadie, RG et al. (2003) Incidence of schizophrenia in south-east London between 1965 and 1997. The British Journal of Psychiatry 182, 45–49.
Brunelle, S, Cole, MG and Elie, M (2012) Risk factors for the late-onset psychoses: a systematic review of cohort studies. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 27, 240–252.
Cantor-Graae, E, Pedersen, CB, McNeil, TF and Mortensen, PB 2003. Migration as a risk factor for schizophrenia: a Danish population-based cohort study. The British Journal of Psychiatry 182, 117–122.
Castle, DJ and Murray, RM (1991) The neurodevelopmental basis of sex differences in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 21, 565–575.
Castle, DJ and Murray, RM (1993) The epidemiology of late-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 19, 691–700.
Castle, DJ, Wessely, S, Howard, R and Murray, RM (1997) Schizophrenia with onset at the extremes of adult life. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12, 712–717.
Castle, DJ, Wessely, S and Murray, RM (1993) Sex and schizophrenia: effects of diagnostic stringency, and associations with and premorbid variables. The British Journal of Psychiatry 162, 658–664.
Cochrane, R and Bal, SS (1987) Migration and schizophrenia: an examination of five hypotheses. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 22, 181–191.
Cochrane, R and Bal, SS (1989) Mental hospital admission rates of immigrants to England: a comparison of 1971 and 1981. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 24, 2–11.
Coid, JW, Kirkbride, JB, Barker, D, Cowden, F, Stamps, R, Yang, M et al. (2008) Raised incidence rates of all psychoses amongst migrant groups: findings from the East London first episode psychosis study. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 1250–1258.
Cooper, AF and Curry, AR (1976) The pathology of deafness in the paranoid and affective psychoses of later life. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 20, 97–105.
Cooper, AF, Kay, DWK, Curry, AR, Garside, RF and Roth, M (1974) Hearing loss in paranoid and affective psychoses of the elderly. The Lancet 304, 851–854.
Cooper, AF and Porter, R (1976) Visual acuity and ocular pathology in the paranoid and affective psychoses of later life. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 20, 107–114.
Copeland, JR, Dewey, ME, Scott, A, Gilmore, C, Larkin, BA, Cleave, N et al. (1998) Schizophrenia and delusional disorder in older age: community prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, and outcome. Schizophrenia bulletin 24, 153.
de Alarcon, J, Seagroatt, V, Sellar, C and Goldacre, M (1993) Population-based trends in treatment rates in psychiatry in Oxfordshire, 1975–1986. Journal of Public Health 15, 93–102.
DerSimonian, R and Laird, N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clinical Trials 7, 177–188.
De Salvia, D, Barbato, A, Salvo, P and Zadro, F (1993) Prevalence and incidence of schizophrenic disorders in Portogruaro: an Italian case register study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 181, 275–282.
Eagles, JM and Whalley, LJ (1985) Ageing and affective disorders: the age at first onset of affective disorders in Scotland, 1969–1978. The British Journal of Psychiatry 147, 180–187.
Fuchs, T (1994) Uprooting and late-life psychosis. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 244, 126–130.
Fuchs, T (1999) Life events in late paraphrenia and depression. Psychopathology 32, 60–69.
Gater, R, Amaddeo, F, Tansella, M, Jackson, G and Goldberg, D (1995) A comparison of community-based care for schizophrenia in south Verona and south Manchester. The British Journal of Psychiatry 166, 344–352.
Geddes, JR, Black, RJ, Whalley, LJ and Eagles, JM (1993) Persistence of the decline in the diagnosis of schizophrenia amongst first admissions to Scottish hospitals from 1969 to 1988. The British Journal of Psychiatry 163, 620–626.
Goldacre, M, Shiwach, R and Yeates, D (1994) Estimating incidence and prevalence of treated psychiatric disorders from routine statistics: the example of schizophrenia in Oxfordshire. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 48, 318–322.
Gurian, BS, Wexler, D and Baker, EH (1992) Late-life paranoia: possible association with early trauma and infertility. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 7, 277–284.
Häfner, H (2003) Gender differences in schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28, 17–54.
Häfner, H, Riecher-Rössler, AA, Der Heiden, WA, Maurer, K, Fätkenheuer, B and Löffler, W (1993) Generating and testing a causal explanation of the gender difference in age at first onset of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 23, 925–940.
Helgason, L (1977) Psychiatric services and mental illness in Iceland: incidence study (1966–1967) with 6–7 year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 268, 11–140.
Holden, NL (1987) Late paraphrenia or the paraphrenias? A descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up. The British Journal of Psychiatry 150, 635–639.
Howard, R, Almeida, O and Levy, R (1994) Phenomenology, demography and diagnosis in late paraphrenia. Psychological Medicine 24, 397–410.
Howard, R, Rabins, PV, Seeman, MV and Jeste, DV (2000) Late-onset schizophrenia and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis: an international consensus. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 172–178.
Howard, RJ, Graham, C, Sham, P, Dennehey, J, Castle, DJ, Levy, R et al. (1997) A controlled family study of late-onset non-affective psychosis (late paraphrenia). The British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 511–514.
Kay, DWK and Roth, M (1961) Environmental and hereditary factors in the schizophrenias of old age (‘late paraphrenia’) and their bearing on the general problem of causation in schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry 107, 649–686.
Kessler, RC, Amminger, GP, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Lee, S and Ustun, TB (2007) Age-at-onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 20, 359–364.
Kirkbride, JB, Errazuriz, A, Croudace, TJ, Morgan, C, Jackson, D, Boydell, J et al. (2012) Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950–2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses. PLoS ONE 7, e31660.
Malzberg, B (1967) Internal migration and mental disease among the white population of New York State, 1960–1961. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 13, 184–191.
McCabe, MS (1975) Demographic differences in functional psychoses. The British Journal of Psychiatry 127, 320–323.
McGrath, J, Saha, S, Welham, J, El Saadi, O, MacCauley, C and Chant, D (2004) A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology. BMC Medicine 2, 13.
Mitford, E, Reay, R, McCabe, K, Paxton, R and Turkington, D (2010) Ageism in first episode psychosis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 25, 1112–1118.
Mitter, P, Reeves, S, Romero-Rubiales, F, Bell, P, Stewart, R and Howard, R (2005) Migrant status, age, gender and social isolation in very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 20, 1046–1051.
Mitter, PR, Krishnan, S, Bell, P, Stewart, R and Howard, RJ (2004) The effect of ethnicity and gender on first-contact rates for schizophrenia-like psychosis in Bangladeshi, black and white elders in Tower Hamlets, London. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 19, 286–290.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J and Altman, DG, Prisma Group (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine 6, e1000097.
Morgan, C and Hutchinson, G (2009) The social determinants of psychosis in migrant and ethnic minority populations: a public health tragedy. Psychological Medicine 1, 1–5.
Munk-Jørgensen, P (1986) Schizophrenia in Denmark: incidence and utilization of psychiatric institutions. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 73, 172–180.
Munk-Jørgensen, P and Jørgensen, P (1986) Decreasing rates of first-admission diagnoses of schizophrenia amongst women in Denmark 1970–84. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 74, 379–383.
Omer, S, Kirkbride, JB, Pringle, DG, Russell, V, O'Callaghan, E and Waddington, JL (2014) Neighbourhood-level socio-environmental factors and incidence of first episode psychosis by place at onset in rural Ireland: the Cavan–Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study [CAMFEPS]. Schizophrenia Research 152, 152–157.
Pearlson, GD, Kreger, L, Rabins, PV, Chase, GA, Cohen, B, Wirth, JB et al. (1989) A chart review study of late-onset and early-onset schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1568–1574.
Pedersen, CB, Mors, O, Bertelsen, A, Waltoft, BL, Agerbo, E, McGrath, JJ et al. (2014) A comprehensive nationwide study of the incidence rate and lifetime risk for treated mental disorders. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 573–581.
Proctor, SE, Mitford, E and Paxton, R (2004) First episode psychosis: a novel methodology reveals higher than expected incidence; a reality-based population profile in Northumberland, UK. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10, 539–547.
Reeves, SJ, Sauer, J, Stewart, R, Granger, A and Howard, RJ (2001) Increased first-contact rates for very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis in African- and Caribbean-born elders. The British Journal of Psychiatry 179, 172–174.
Reulbach, U, Bleich, S, Biermann, T, Pfahlberg, A and Sperling, W (2007) Late-onset schizophrenia in child survivors of the Holocaust. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195, 315–319.
Riecher-Rössler, A and Häfner, H (1993) Schizophrenia and oestrogens – is there an association? European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 242, 323–328.
Salokangas, RKR (1979) First admissions for psychosis in Turku – a time trend study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 60, 249–262.
Spicer, CC, Hare, EH and Slater, E (1973) Neurotic and psychotic forms of depressive illness: evidence from age-incidence in a national sample. The British Journal of Psychiatry 123, 535–541.
Thornicroft, G, Bisoffi, G, De Salvia, D and Tansella, M (1993) Urban–rural differences in the associations between social deprivation and psychiatric service utilization in schizophrenia and all diagnoses: a case-register study in Northern Italy. Psychological Medicine 23, 487–496.
Thorup, A, Waltoft, BL, Pedersen, CB, Mortensen, PB and Nordentoft, M (2007) Young men have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia: a Danish register study. Psychological Medicine 37, 479–484.
Van der Werf, M, Hanssen, M, Köhler, S, Verkaaik, M, Verhey, FR, RISE Investigators, van Winkel, R et al. (2012) Systematic review and collaborative recalculation of 133 693 incident cases of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 44, 9–16.
Van Os, J, Galdos, P, Lewis, G, Bourgeois, M and Mann, A (1993) Schizophrenia sans frontiers: concepts of schizophrenia among French and British psychiatrists. BMJ 307, 489–492.
Van Os, J, Howard, R, Takei, N and Murray, R (1995) Increasing age is a risk factor for psychosis in the elderly. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 30, 161–164.
Veling, W, Selten, JP, Susser, E, Laan, W, Mackenbach, JP and Hoek, HW (2007) Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders amongst ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. International Journal of Epidemiology 36, 761–768.
Welham, JL, Thomis, RJ and McGrath, JJ (2004) Age-at-first-registration for affective psychosis and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 30, 849–853.