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Inflammatory markers are altered in severe mental disorders independent of comorbid cardiometabolic disease risk factors

  • Ragni H. Mørch (a1) (a2), Ingrid Dieset (a1) (a2) (a3), Ann Færden (a3), Elina J. Reponen (a1) (a2), Sigrun Hope (a1) (a2) (a4), Eva Z. Hoseth (a1) (a2) (a5), Erlend S. Gardsjord (a1) (a2), Monica Aas (a1) (a2), Trude Iversen (a1) (a2), Inge Joa (a6) (a7), Gunnar Morken (a8) (a9), Ingrid Agartz (a1) (a2) (a10), Ingrid Melle (a1) (a2), Pål Aukrust (a11) (a12) (a13), Srdjan Djurovic (a14) (a15), Thor Ueland (a11) (a12) (a13) and Ole A. Andreassen (a1) (a2)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Abstract

Background

Inflammation and immune activation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite high level of comorbidity, many studies of the immune system in severe mental disorders have not systematically taken cardiometabolic risk factors into account.

Methods

We investigated if inflammatory markers were increased in schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective (AFF) disorders independently of comorbid CVD risk factors. Cardiometabolic risk factors (blood lipids, body mass index and glucose) and CVD-related inflammatory markers CXCL16, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble CD14 (sCD14), macrophage inhibitory factor and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) were measured in n = 992 patients (SCZ, AFF), and n = 647 healthy controls. We analyzed the inflammatory markers before and after controlling for comorbid cardiometabolic risk factors, and tested for association with psychotropic medication and symptom levels.

Results

CXCL16 (p = 0.03) and sIL-2R (p = 7.8 × 10−5) were higher, while sCD14 (p = 0.05) were lower in patients compared to controls after controlling for confounders, with significant differences in SCZ for CXCL16 (p = 0.04) and sIL-2R (p = 1.1 × 10−5). After adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors higher levels of sIL-2R (p = 0.001) and lower sCD14 (p = 0.002) remained, also in SCZ (sIL-2R, p = 3.0 × 10−4 and sCD14, p = 0.01). The adjustment revealed lower ALCAM levels (p = 0.03) in patients. We found no significant associations with psychotropic medication or symptom levels.

Conclusion

The results indicate that inflammation, in particular enhanced T cell activation and impaired monocyte activation, are associated with severe mental disorders independent of comorbid cardiometabolic risk factors. This suggests a role of novel pathophysiological mechanisms in severe mental disorders, particularly SCZ.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Ragni H. Mørch, E-mail: ragnihm@medisin.uio.no

References

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Inflammatory markers are altered in severe mental disorders independent of comorbid cardiometabolic disease risk factors

  • Ragni H. Mørch (a1) (a2), Ingrid Dieset (a1) (a2) (a3), Ann Færden (a3), Elina J. Reponen (a1) (a2), Sigrun Hope (a1) (a2) (a4), Eva Z. Hoseth (a1) (a2) (a5), Erlend S. Gardsjord (a1) (a2), Monica Aas (a1) (a2), Trude Iversen (a1) (a2), Inge Joa (a6) (a7), Gunnar Morken (a8) (a9), Ingrid Agartz (a1) (a2) (a10), Ingrid Melle (a1) (a2), Pål Aukrust (a11) (a12) (a13), Srdjan Djurovic (a14) (a15), Thor Ueland (a11) (a12) (a13) and Ole A. Andreassen (a1) (a2)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

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