Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Linkage scan of nicotine dependence in the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study

  • I. R. Gizer (a1) (a2), C. L. Ehlers (a3), C. Vieten (a4), K. L. Seaton-Smith (a1), H. S. Feiler (a5), J. V. Lee (a6), S. K. Segall (a1), D. A. Gilder (a3) and K. C. Wilhelmsen (a1) (a2) (a7)...

Nicotine dependence has been shown to represent a heritable condition, and several research groups have performed linkage analysis to identify genomic regions influencing this disorder though only a limited number of the findings have been replicated.


In the present study, a genome-wide linkage scan for nicotine dependence was conducted in a community sample of 950 probands and 1204 relatives recruited through the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. A modified version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) with additional questions that probe nicotine use was used to derive DSM-IV nicotine dependence diagnoses.


A locus on chromosome 2q31.1 at 184 centiMorgans nearest to marker D2S2188 yielded a logarithm (base 10) of odds (LOD) score of 3.54 (point-wise empirical p=0.000012). Additional peaks of interest were identified on chromosomes 2q13, 4p15.33-31, 11q25 and 12p11.23-21. Follow-up analyses were conducted examining the contributions of individual nicotine dependence symptoms to the chromosome 2q31.1 linkage peak as well as examining the relationship of this chromosomal region to alcohol dependence.


The present report suggests that chromosome 2q31.1 confers risk to the development of nicotine dependence and that this region influences a broad range of nicotine dependence symptoms rather than a specific facet of the disorder. Further, the results show that this region is not linked to alcohol dependence in this population, and thus may influence nicotine dependence specifically.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: I. R. Gizer, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 120 Mason Farm Road, Room 5015 Genetic Medicine Building CB 7264, Chapel Hill, NC27599-7264, USA. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

AC Heath , PA Madden (1995). Genetic influences on smoking behavior. In Behavior Genetic Approaches in Behavioral Medicine (ed. J. R. Turner , L. R. Cardon and J. K. Hewitt ), pp. 4566. New York: Plenum.

TF Heatherton , LT Kozlowski , RC Frecker , KO Fagerström (1991). The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction 86, 11191127.

J Jia , Q Han , N Borregaard , K Lollike , M Cygler (2000). Crystal structure of human grancalcin, a member of the penta-EF-hand protein family. Journal of Molecular Biology 300, 12711281.

J Jung , DE Weeks , E Feingold (2006). Gene-dropping vs. empirical variance estimation for allele-sharing linkage statistics. Genetic Epidemiology 30, 652665.

KI Morley , SE Medland , MA Ferreira , MT Lynskey , GW Montgomery , AC Heath , PA Madden , NG Martin (2006). A possible smoking susceptibility locus on chromosome 11p12: evidence from sex-limitation linkage analyses in a sample of Australian Twin Families. Behavior Genetics 36, 8799.

PF Sullivan , KS Kendler (1999). The genetic epidemiology of smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1, S51–57.

AI Su , T Wiltshire , S Batalov , H Lapp , KA Ching , D Block , J Zhang , R Soden , M Hayakawa , G Kreiman , MP Cooke , JR Walker , JB Hogenesch (2004). A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101, 60626067.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 3 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 116 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.