Skip to main content Accessibility help

Neurodevelopmental disorders: Cluster 2 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11: Paper 3 of 7 of the thematic section: ‘A proposal for a meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11’

  • G. Andrews (a1), D. S. Pine (a2), M. J. Hobbs (a1), T. M. Anderson (a1) and M. Sunderland (a1)...

DSM-IV and ICD-10 are atheoretical and largely descriptive. Although this achieves good reliability, the validity of diagnoses can be increased by an understanding of risk factors and other clinical features. In an effort to group mental disorders on this basis, five clusters have been proposed. We now consider the second cluster, namely neurodevelopmental disorders.


We reviewed the literature in relation to 11 validating criteria proposed by a DSM-V Task Force Study Group.


This cluster reflects disorders of neurodevelopment rather than a ‘childhood’ disorders cluster. It comprises disorders subcategorized in DSM-IV and ICD-10 as Mental Retardation; Learning, Motor, and Communication Disorders; and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Although these disorders seem to be heterogeneous, they share similarities on some risk and clinical factors. There is evidence of a neurodevelopmental genetic phenotype, the disorders have an early emerging and continuing course, and all have salient cognitive symptoms. Within-cluster co-morbidity also supports grouping these disorders together. Other childhood disorders currently listed in DSM-IV share similarities with the Externalizing and Emotional clusters. These include Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Separation Anxiety Disorder. The Tic, Eating/Feeding and Elimination disorders, and Selective Mutisms were allocated to the ‘Not Yet Assigned’ group.


Neurodevelopmental disorders meet some of the salient criteria proposed by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) to suggest a classification cluster.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Professor G. Andrews, 299 Forbes Street, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia2010. (Email:
Hide All
Adrien, JL, Lenoir, P, Martineau, J, Perrot, A, Hameury, L, Larmande, C, Sauvage, D (1993). Blind ratings of early symptoms of autism based upon family home movies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32, 617626.
Alarcon, M, DeFries, JC, Light, JG, Pennington, BF (1997). A twin study of mathematics disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities 30, 617623.
Amir, RE, van den Veyver, IB, Wan, M, Tran, CQ, Francke, U, Zoghbi, HY (1999). Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2, encoding methyl- CpG-binding protein 2. Nature Genetics 23, 185188.
Andrews, G, Goldberg, DP, Krueger, RF, Carpenter, WT Jr., Hyman, SE, Sachdev, P, Pine, DS (2009). Exploring the feasibility of a meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11: could it improve utility and validity? Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990250.
Andrews, G, Harris, M (1964). The Syndrome of Stuttering. Lavenham Press: London, UK.
Andrews, G, Morris-Yates, A, Howie, P, Martin, NG (1991). Genetic factors in stuttering confirmed. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 10341035.
APA (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn.American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
Bailey, A, Le Couteur, A, Gottesman, I, Bolton, P, Simonoff, E, Yuzda, E, Rutter, M (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study. Psychological Medicine 25, 6378.
Baranek, GT (1999). Autism during infancy: a retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29, 213224.
Bethea, TC, Sikich, L (2007). Early pharmacological treatment of autism: a rationale for developmental treatment. Biological Psychiatry 61, 521537.
Biederman, J, Petty, CR, Wilens, TE, Fraire, MG, Purcell, CA, Mick, E, Monteaux, MC, Faraone, SV (2008). Familial risk analyses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 107115.
Biederman, J, Rosenbaum, JF, Bolduc-Murphy, EA, Faraone, SV, Chaloff, J, Hirshfeld, DR, Kagan, J (1993). A 3-year follow-up of children with and without behavioral inhibition. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32, 814821.
Bloodstein, O, Ratner, NB (2008). A Handbook on Stuttering, 6th edn.Thomson: Canada.
Bolton, P, MacDonald, H, Pickles, A, Rios, P, Goode, S, Crowson, M, Bailey, A, Rutter, M (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 35, 877900.
Bothe, AK, Davidow, JH, Bramlett, RE (2006). Stuttering treatment research 1970–2005: I. Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of behavioral, cognitive and related approaches. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 15, 321341.
Cantell, MH, Smyth, MM, Ahonen, TP (1994). Clumsiness in adolescence: educational, motor and social outcomes of motor delay detected at 5 years. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 11, 115129.
Cantell, MH, Smyth, MM, Ahonen, TP (2003). Two distinct pathways for developmental coordination disorder: persistence and resolution. Human Movement Science 22, 413431.
Carpenter, WT Jr., Bustillo, JR, Thaker, GK, van Os, J, Krueger, RF, Green, MJ (2009). Psychoses: Cluster 3 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990286.
Cederlund, M, Gillberg, C (2004). One hundred males with Asperger syndrome: a clinical study of background and associated factors. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 46, 652660.
Cederlund, M, Hagberg, B, Billstedt, E, Gillberg, IC, Gillberg, C (2008). Asperger syndrome and autism: a comparative longitudinal follow-up study more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38, 7285.
Chakrabarti, S, Fombonne, E (2001). Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. Journal of the American Medical Association 285, 30933099.
Chez, MG, Aimonovitch, M, Buchanan, T, Mrazek, S, Tremb, RJ (2004). Treating autistic spectrum disorders in children: utility of the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine tartrate. Journal of Child Neurology 19, 165169.
Chugani, DC, Muzik, O, Behen, M, Rothermel, R, Janisse, JJ, Lee, J, Chugani, HT (1999). Developmental changes in brain serotonin synthesis capacity in autistic and non-autistic children. Annals of Neurology 45, 287295.
Clegg, J, Hollis, C, Mawhood, L, Rutter, M (2005). Developmental language disorders – a follow-up in later adult life: cognitive, language and psychosocial outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46, 128149.
Coben, R, Clarke, AR, Hudspeth, W, Barry, RJ (2008). EEG power and coherence in autistic spectrum disorder. Clinical Neurophysiology 119, 10021009.
Constantino, JN, Todd, RD (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: a twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 524530.
Courchesne, E, Carper, R, Akshoomoff, N (2003). Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism. Journal of the American Medical Association 290, 337344.
Courchesne, E, Karns, CM, Davis, HR, Ziccardi, R, Carper, RA, Tigue, ZD, Chisum, HJ, Moses, P, Pierce, K, Lord, C, Lincoln, AJ, Pizzo, S, Schreibman, L, Haas, RH, Akshoomoff, NA, Courchesne, RY (2001). Unusual brain growth patterns in early life in patients with autistic disorder. Neurology 57, 245254.
DeFries, JC, Alarcon, M (1996). Genetics of specific reading disability. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 2, 3947.
De Giacomo, A, Fombonne, E (1998). Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 7, 131136.
DeSoto, MC, Hitlan, RT (2007). Blood levels of mercury are related to diagnosis of autism: a reanalysis of an important data set. Journal of Child Neurology 22, 13081311.
Eley, TC, Rijsdijk, FV, Perrin, S, O'Connor, TG, Bolton, D (2008). A multivariate genetic analysis of specific phobia, separation anxiety and social phobia in early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36, 839848.
Faraone, SV, Biederman, J, Mick, E (2006). The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychological Medicine 36, 159165.
Faraone, SV, Biederman, J, Monuteaux, MC (2000). Attention-deficit disorder and conduct disorder in girls: evidence for a familial subtype. Biological Psychiatry 48, 2129.
Feigon, SA, Waldman, ID, Levy, F, Hay, DA (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on separation anxiety disorder symptoms and their moderation by age and sex. Behavior Genetics 31, 403411.
Folstein, S, Rutter, M (1977). Genetic influences and infantile autism. Nature 285, 726728.
Fombonne, E (1999). The epidemiology of autism: a review. Psychological Medicine 29, 769786.
Fombonne, E (2003). Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: an update. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33, 365382.
Ghaziuddin, M (2005). A family history study of Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35, 177182.
Gillberg, C, Cederlund, M (2005). Asperger syndrome: familial and pre- and perinatal factors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35, 159166.
Goldberg, DP, Krueger, RF, Andrews, G, Hobbs, MJ (2009). Emotional disorders: Cluster 4 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990298.
Happé, F, Ronald, A (2008). The ‘fractionable autism triad’: a review of the evidence from behavioural, genetic, cognitive and neural research. Neuropsychological Reviews 18, 287304.
Hazlett, HC, Poe, M, Gerig, G, Smith, RG, Provenzale, J, Ross, A, Gilmore, J, Piven, J (2005). Magnetic resonance imaging and head circumference study of brain size in autism: birth through age 2 years. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 13661376.
Hirshfeld-Beker, DR, Micco, JA, Simoes, NA, Henin, A (2008). High risk studies and developmental antecedents of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics 148C, 99117.
Howlin, P, Asgharian, A (1999). The diagnosis of autism and Asperger syndrome: findings from a survey of 770 families. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 41, 834839.
Howlin, P, Goode, S, Hutton, J, Rutter, M (2004). Adult outcome for children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45, 212229.
Howlin, P, Mawhood, L, Rutter, M (2000). Autism and developmental receptive language disorder – a follow-up comparison in early adult life. II: Social, behavioural and psychiatric outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41, 561578.
Howlin, P, Moore, A (1997). Diagnosis in autism: a survey of over 1200 patients in the UK. Autism 1, 135162.
Johnson, CJ, Beitchman, JH, Young, A, Escobar, M, Atkinson, L, Wilson, B, Brownlie, EB, Douglas, L, Taback, N, Lam, I, Wang, M (1999). Fourteen-year follow-up of children with and without speech/language impairments: speech/language stability and outcomes. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 42, 744760.
Kagan-Kushnir, T, Roberts, S, Snead, O (2005). Screening electroencephalograms in autism spectrum disorders: evidence-based guideline. Journal of Child Neurology 20, 197206.
Kanner, L (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child 2, 217250.
Kaufmann, WE, Moser, HW (2000). Dendritic anomalies in disorders associated with mental retardation. Cerebral Cortex 10, 981991.
Kendler, KS, Prescott, CA, Myers, J, Neale, MC (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 929937.
Kim, JA, Szatmari, P, Bryson, SE, Striner, DL, Wilson, FJ (2000). The prevalence of anxiety and mood problems among children with Autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism 4, 117132.
Kloth, SAM, Kraaimaat, FW, Janssen, P, Brutten, GJ (1999). Persistence and remission of incipient stuttering among high-risk children. Journal of Fluency Disorders 24, 253265.
Kovas, Y, Haworth, CMA, Harlaar, N, Petrill, SA, Dale, PS, Plomin, R (2007). Overlap and specificity of genetic and environmental influences on mathematics and reading disability in 10-year-old twins. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 48, 914922.
Krueger, RF, South, SC (2009). Externalizing disorders: Cluster 5 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990328.
Lainhart, JE, Piven, J, Wzorek, M, Landa, R, Santangelo, SL, Coon, H, Folstein, SE (1997). Macrocephaly in children and adults with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 282290.
Lanphear, BP, Hornung, R, Khoury, J, Yolton, K, Baghurst, P, Bellinger, DC, Canfield, RL, Dietrich, KN, Bornschein, R, Greene, T, Rothenberg, SJ, Needleman, HL, Schnaas, L, Wasserman, G, Graziano, J, Roberts, R (2005). Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 113, 894899.
Lara, C, Fayyad, J, de Graaf, R, Kessler, RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Angermeyer, M, Demytteneare, K, de Girolamo, G, Haro, JM, Jin, R, Karam, EG, Lépine, J-P, Mora, MEM, Ormel, J, Posada-Villa, J, Sampson, N (2009). Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biological Psychiatry 65, 4654.
Larsson, HJ, Eaton, WW, Madsen, KM, Vestergaard, M, Olesen, AV, Agerbo, E, Schendel, D, Thorsen, P, Mortensen, PB (2005). Risk factors for autism: perinatal factors, parental psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status. American Journal of Epidemiology 161, 916925.
Lauritsen, MB, Pedersen, CB, Mortensen, PB (2005). Effects of familial risk factors and place of birth on the risk of autism: a nationwide register-based study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 46, 963971.
Le Couteur, A, Bailey, A, Goode, S, Pickles, A, Robertson, S, Gottesman, I, Robertson, S, Rutter, M (1996). A broader phenotype of autism: the clinical spectrum in twins. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 37, 785801.
Lord, C, Rutter, M, Goode, S, Heemsbergen, J, Jordan, H, Mawhood, L, Schopler, E (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: a standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 19, 185212.
Markowitz, EM, Willemsen, G, Trumbetta, SL, van Beijsterveldt, TCEM, Boomsma, DI (2005). The etiology of mathematical and reading (dis) ability covariation in a sample of Dutch twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics 8, 585593.
Mattison, RE, Hooper, SR, Glassberg, LA (2002). Three-year course of learning disorders in special education students classified as behavioural disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 41, 14541461.
Maughan, B, Hagell, A (1996). Poor readers in adulthood: psychosocial functioning. Development and Psychopathology 8, 457476.
Mawhood, L, Howlin, P, Rutter, M (2000). Autism and developmental receptive language disorder – a comparative follow-up in early adult life. I: Cognitive and language outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41, 547559.
Nigg, JT, Blaskey, LG, Huang-Pollock, CL, Hinshaw, SP, John, OP, Wilcutt, EG, Pennington, B (2002). Big five dimensions and ADHD symptoms: links between personality traits and clinical symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83, 451469.
Osterling, J, Dawson, G (1994). Early recognition of children with autism: a study of first birthday home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24, 247257.
Paracchini, S, Scerri, T, Monaco, AP (2007). The genetic lexicon of dyslexia. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 8, 5779.
Pennington, BF, Olson, RK (2005). Genetics of dyslexia. In The Science of Reading: A Handbook (ed. Snowling, M. J. and Hulme, C.), pp. 453472. Blackwell: Malden, MA.
Peterson, BS, Pine, DS, Cohen, P, Brook, JS (2001). Prospective, longitudinal study of tic, obsessive-compulsive, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in an epidemiological. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 685695.
Pine, DS, Cohen, P, Gurley, D, Brook, J, Ma, Y (1998). The risk for early adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 5664.
Piven, J, Palmer, P, Jacohbi, D, Childress, D, Arndt, S (1997). Broader autism phenotype: evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Psychiatry 154, 185190.
Pless, M, Carlsson, M (2000). Effects of motor skill intervention on developmental coordination disorder: a meta-analysis. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 17, 381401.
Plomin, R, Dale, PS (2001). Genetics and early language development: a UK study of twins. In Speech and Language Impairments in Children: Causes, Characteristics and Outcomes (ed. Bishop, D. V. M. and Leonard, L. B.), pp. 3552. Psychology Press: Philadelphia, PA.
Plomin, R, Kovas, Y (2005). Generalist genes and learning disabilities. Psychological Bulletin 131, 592617.
Rasmussen, ER, Neuman, RJ, Heath, AC, Levy, F, Hay, DA, Todd, RD (2004). Familial clustering of latent class and DSM-IV defined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 45, 589598.
Remington, B, Hastings, RP, Kovshoff, H, degli Espinosa, F, Jahr, E, Brown, T, Alsford, P, Lemaic, M, Ward, N (2007). Early intensive behavioral intervention: outcomes for children with autism and their parents after two years. American Journal on Mental Retardation 112, 418438.
Reynolds, D, Nicolson, RI, Hambly, H (2003). Evaluation of an exercise-based treatment for children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia 9, 4871.
Robins, E, Guze, SB (1970). Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: its application to schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 126, 107111.
Ronald, A, Happé, F, Bolton, P, Butcher, LM, Price, TS, Wheelwright, S, Baron-Cohen, S, Plomin, R (2006 a). Genetic heterogeneity between the three components of the autism spectrum: a twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45, 691699.
Ronald, A, Happé, F, Plomin, R (2005). The genetic relationship between individual differences in social and nonsocial behaviours characteristic of autism. Developmental Science 8, 444458.
Ronald, A, Happé, F, Price, TS, Baron-Cohen, S, Plomin, R (2006 b). Phenotypic and genetic overlap between autistic traits at the extremes of the general population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45, 12061214.
Ronald, A, Simonoff, E, Kuntsi, J, Asherson, P, Plomin, R (2008). Evidence for overlapping genetic influences on autistic and ADHD behaviours in a community twin sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 49, 535542.
Rutter, M (2005). Genetic influences and autism. In Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Volume 1: Diagnosis, Development, Neurobiology, and Behavior, 3rd edn. (ed. Volkmar, F. R., Paul, R., Klin, A. and Cohen, D.), pp. 425451. John Wiley & Sons: New York.
Rutter, M, Kim-Cohen, J, Maughan, B (2006). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life. Journal of Child Psychological and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 47, 276295.
Sachdev, P, Andrews, G, Hobbs, MJ, Sunderland, M, Anderson, TM (2009). Neurocognitive disorders: Cluster 1 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990262.
Sallows, GO, Graupner, TD (2005). Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: four-year outcome and predictors. American Journal on Mental Retardation 110, 417438.
Sattler, JM (1992). Assessment of Children, 3rd edn.Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.: San Diego, CA.
Sattler, JM, Hoge, RD (ed.) (2006). Assessment of Children: Behavioural, Social, and Clinical Foundations, 5th edn.Sattler Publisher Inc.: San Diego, CA.
Shaywitz, SE, Fletcher, JM, Holahan, JM, Shneider, AE, Marchione, KE, Stuebing, KK, Francis, DJ, Pugh, KR, Shaywitz, BA (1999). Persistence of dyslexia: the Connecticut Longitudinal Study. Pediatrics 104, 13511359.
Slutske, WS, Heath, AC, Dinwiddie, SH, Madden, PAF, Bucholz, KK, Dunne, MP, Statham, DJ, Martin, NG (1998). Common genetic factors for conduct disorder and alcohol dependence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 107, 363374.
Stanfield, AC, McIntosh, AM, Spencer, MD, Philip, R, Gaur, S, Larie, SM (2008). Towards a neuroanatomy of autism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies. European Psychiatry 23, 289299.
Steffenburg, S, Gillberg, C, Hellgren, L, Andersson, L, Gillberg, L, Jakobsson, G, Bohman, M (1989). A twin study of autism in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30, 405416.
Stevenson, RE, Schroer, RJ, Skinner, C, Fender, D, Simensen, RJ (1997). Autism and macrocephaly. Lancet 349, 17441745.
Stone, WL, Hoffman, EL, Lewis, SE, Ousley, OY (1994). Early recognition of autism: parental reports vs clinical observation. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 148, 174179.
Stothard, S, Snowling, M, Bishop, D, Chipcase, B, Kaplan, C (1998). Language-impaired preschoolers: a follow-up into adolescence. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 41, 407418.
Sugden, DA, Chambers, ME (2007). Stability and change in children with developmental coordination disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development 33, 520528.
Szatmari, P, MacLean, JE, Jones, MB, Bryson, SE, Zwaigenbaum, L, Bartolucci, G, Mahoney, WJ, Tuff, L (2000). The familial aggregation of the lesser variant in biological and nonbiological relatives of PDD probands: a family history study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 41, 579586.
Thapar, A, Harrington, R, McGuffin, P (2001). Examining the comorbidity of ADHD-related behaviours and conduct problems using a twin study design. British Journal of Psychiatry 179, 224229.
Tuvblad, C, Zheng, M, Raine, A, Baker, LA (2009). A common genetic factor explains the covariation among ADHD, ODD and CD symptoms in 9–10 year old boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 37, 153167.
Twyman, KA, Maxim, RA, Leet, TL, Ultmann, MH (2009). Parents' developmental concerns and age variance at diagnosis of children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 3, 489495.
Volkmar, FR, Klin, A, Pauls, D (1998). Nosological and genetic aspects of Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 28, 457463.
Volkmar, FR, Paul, R, Klin, A, Cohen, D (ed.) (2005). Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Volume 1: Assessment, Interventions, and Policy, 3rd edn., John Wiley & Sons: New York.
Werner, E, Dawson, G, Osterling, J, Dinno, N (2000). Brief report: recognition of autism spectrum disorder before one year of age: a retrospective study based on home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30, 157162.
Willcutt, EG, Pennington, BF, Boada, R, Ogline, JS, Tunick, RA, Chhabildas, NA, Olson, RK (2001). A comparison of the cognitive deficits in reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110, 157172.
Williams, H, Clarke, R, Bouras, N, Martin, J, Holt, G (2000). Use of the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 44, 164169.
Willner, P (2005). The effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for people with learning disabilities: a critical overview. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49, 7385.
Yeargin-Allsopp, M, Boyle, C (2002). Overview: the epidemiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 8, 113116.
Young, SE, Friedman, NP, Miyake, A, Wilcutt, EG, Corley, RP, Haberstick, BC, Hewitt, JK (2009). Behavioral disinhibition: liability for externalizing spectrum disorders and its genetic and environmental relation to response inhibition across adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 118, 117130.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed