Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Open access
  • Cited by 24
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Griffiths, Richard D 2012. Sedation, delirium and psychological distress: let's not be deluded. Critical Care, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 109.


    Wilson, Naomi d’Ardenne, Patricia Brewin, Chris R. and Catchpole, Mike 2015. International Perspectives on Terrorist Victimisation.


    Kröger, Christoph and Kliem, Sören 2014. Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 93.


    Garfin, D.R. and Holman, E. Alison 2016. Encyclopedia of Mental Health.


    Dyb, Grete and Olff, Miranda 2014. Understanding terror and violence in the lives of children and adolescents. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, Vol. 5,


    Wiström, Erik David Stene, Lise Eilin and Dyb, Grete 2016. Etter Utøya-angrepet – hvem fikk tidlig hjelp?. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening, Vol. 136, Issue. 14/15, p. 1223.


    Yule, William and Smith, Patrick 2015. Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.


    Rubin, G. James and Wessely, Simon 2013. The Psychological and Psychiatric Effects of Terrorism. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 36, Issue. 3, p. 339.


    Haga, Jon Magnus Stene, Lise Eilin Wentzel-Larsen, Tore Thoresen, Siri and Dyb, Grete 2015. Early postdisaster health outreach to modern families: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, Vol. 5, Issue. 12, p. e009402.


    Reifels, Lennart Pietrantoni, Luca Prati, Gabriele Kim, Yoshiharu Kilpatrick, Dean G. Dyb, Grete Halpern, James Olff, Miranda Brewin, Chris R. and O'Donnell, Meaghan 2013. Lessons learned about psychosocial responses to disaster and mass trauma: an international perspective. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, Vol. 4,


    Uekawa, Kazuaki Higgins, William Bryan Golenbock, Samuel Mack, Amy R. and Bellamy, Nikki D. 2016. Psychometric Properties of Disaster Event Reaction Items From the Crisis Counseling Individual/Family Encounter Log. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, p. 1.


    Piwowarczyk, Linda Rous, Dana Mancuso, Anna Flinton, Kathleen Hastings, Erica Forbush, Leigh and Shepherd, Amy 2016. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 764.


    Witteveen, Anke B. Bisson, Jonathan I. Ajdukovic, Dean Arnberg, Filip K. Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin Bolding, Hendrieke B. Elklit, Ask Jehel, Louis Johansen, Venke A. Lis-Turlejska, Maja Nordanger, Dag O. Orengo-García, Francisco Polak, A. Rosaura Punamaki, Raija-Leena Schnyder, Ulrich Wittmann, Lutz and Olff, Miranda 2012. Post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe: The TENTS project. Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 75, Issue. 9, p. 1708.


    Maercker, Andreas Brewin, Chris R. Bryant, Richard A. Cloitre, Marylene van Ommeren, Mark Jones, Lynne M. Humayan, Asma Kagee, Ashraf Llosa, Augusto E. Rousseau, Cécile Somasundaram, Daya J. Souza, Renato Suzuki, Yuriko Weissbecker, Inka Wessely, Simon C. First, Michael B. and Reed, Geoffrey M. 2013. Diagnosis and classification of disorders specifically associated with stress: proposals for ICD-11. World Psychiatry, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 198.


    Finlay, Sarah E. Earby, Michelle Baker, David J. and Murray, Virginia S.G. 2012. Explosions and Human Health: The Long-Term Effects of Blast Injury. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Vol. 27, Issue. 04, p. 385.


    Dyb, Grete Jensen, Tine Glad, Kristin Alve Nygaard, Egil and Thoresen, Siri 2014. Early outreach to survivors of the shootings in Norway on the 22nd of July 2011. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, Vol. 5,


    Welch, Alice E Debchoudhury, Indira Jordan, Hannah T Petrsoric, Lysa J Farfel, Mark R and Cone, James E 2014. Translating research into action: An evaluation of the World Trade Center Health Registry's Treatment Referral Program. Disaster Health, Vol. 2, Issue. 2, p. 97.


    Ehlers, Anke Grey, Nick Wild, Jennifer Stott, Richard Liness, Sheena Deale, Alicia Handley, Rachel Albert, Idit Cullen, Deborah Hackmann, Ann Manley, John McManus, Freda Brady, Francesca Salkovskis, Paul and Clark, David M. 2013. Implementation of Cognitive Therapy for PTSD in routine clinical care: Effectiveness and moderators of outcome in a consecutive sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 51, Issue. 11, p. 742.


    Close, R.M. Maguire, H. Etherington, G. Brewin, C.R. Fong, K. Saliba, V. Barker, R.M. and Leonardi, G.S. 2014. Preparedness for a major incident: Creation of an epidemiology protocol for a health protection register in England. Environment International, Vol. 72, p. 75.


    Stene, Lise Eilin and Dyb, Grete 2015. Health service utilization after terrorism: a longitudinal study of survivors of the 2011 Utøya attack in Norway. BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,


    ×

Outreach and screening following the 2005 London bombings: usage and outcomes

  • C. R. Brewin (a1), N. Fuchkan (a1), Z. Huntley (a1), M. Robertson (a2), M. Thompson (a2), P. Scragg (a2), P. d'Ardenne (a3) and A. Ehlers (a4)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710000206
  • Published online: 09 March 2010
Abstract
Background

Little is known about how to remedy the unmet mental health needs associated with major terrorist attacks, or what outcomes are achievable with evidence-based treatment. This article reports the usage, diagnoses and outcomes associated with the 2-year Trauma Response Programme (TRP) for those affected by the 2005 London bombings.

Method

Following a systematic and coordinated programme of outreach, the contact details of 910 people were obtained by the TRP. Of these, 596 completed a screening instrument that included the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ) and items assessing other negative responses. Those scoring ⩾6 on the TSQ, or endorsing other negative responses, received a detailed clinical assessment. Individuals judged to need treatment (n=217) received trauma-focused cognitive-behaviour therapy (TF-CBT) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Symptom levels were assessed pre- and post-treatment with validated self-report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, and 66 were followed up at 1 year.

Results

Case finding relied primarily on outreach rather than standard referral pathways such as primary care. The effect sizes achieved for treatment of DSM-IV PTSD exceeded those usually found in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and gains were well maintained an average of 1 year later.

Conclusions

Outreach with screening, linked to the provision of evidence-based treatment, seems to be a viable method of identifying and meeting mental health needs following a terrorist attack. Given the failure of normal care pathways, it is a potentially important approach that merits further evaluation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Outreach and screening following the 2005 London bombings: usage and outcomes
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Outreach and screening following the 2005 London bombings: usage and outcomes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Outreach and screening following the 2005 London bombings: usage and outcomes
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr C. R. Brewin, Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, LondonWC1E 6BT, UK. (Email: c.brewin@ucl.ac.uk)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

CR Brewin , B Andrews , JD Valentine (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68, 748766.

CR Brewin (2005). Systematic review of screening instruments for the detection of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults. Journal of Traumatic Stress 18, 5362.

CR Brewin , P Scragg , M Robertson , M Thompson , P d'Ardenne , A Ehlers (2008). Promoting mental health following the London bombings: a screen and treat approach. Journal of Traumatic Stress 21, 38.

JA Call , B Pfefferbaum (1999). Lessons from the first two years of Project Heartland, Oklahoma's mental health response to the 1995 bombing. Psychiatric Services 50, 953955.

S Donahue , C Jackson , MK Shear , C Felton , S Essock (2006). Outcomes of enhanced counseling services provided to adults through Project Liberty. Psychiatric Services 57, 12981303.

M Duffy , K Gillespie , DM Clark (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder in the context of terrorism and other civil conflict in Northern Ireland: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 334, 11471150.

A Ehlers , DM Clark , A Hackmann , F McManus , M Fennell , C Herbert , R Mayou (2003). A randomised controlled trial of cognitive therapy, a self-help booklet, and repeated assessment as early interventions for PTSD. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 10241032.

A Ehlers , N Gene-Cos , M Perrin (2009). Low recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder in primary care. London Journal of Primary Care 2, 3642.

EB Foa , L Cashman , L Jaycox , K Perry (1997). The validation of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Psychological Assessment 9, 445451.

K Gillespie , M Duffy , A Hackmann , DM Clark (2002). Community based cognitive therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb. Behaviour Research and Therapy 40, 345357.

JL Hamblen , FH Norris , S Pietruszkiewicz , LE Gibson , A Naturale , C Louis (2009). Cognitive behavioral therapy for postdisaster distress: a community based treatment program for survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 36, 206214.


JE Helzer , LN Robins , L McEvoy (1987). Post-traumatic stress disorder in the general population: findings of the Epidemiological Catchment Area Survey. New England Journal of Medicine 317, 16301634.

NS Jacobson , P Truax (1991). Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59, 1219.

RC Kessler , A Sonnega , E Bromet , M Hughes , CB Nelson (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 52, 10481060.

K Kroenke , RL Spitzer , JBW Williams (2003). The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Medical Care 41, 12841292.

JT Levitt , LS Malta , A Martin , L Davis , M Cloitre (2007). The flexible application of a manualised treatment for PTSD symptoms and functional impairment related to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack. Behaviour Research and Therapy 45, 14191433.

B Pfefferbaum , CS North , BW Flynn , FH Norris , R DeMartino (2002). Disaster mental health services following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing: modifying approaches to address terrorism. CNS Spectrums 7, 575579.

RJ Rona , M Jones , C French , R Hooper , S Wessely (2004). Screening for physical and psychological illness in the British Armed Forces. I: The acceptability of the programme. Journal of Medical Screening 11, 148152.

GJ Rubin , CR Brewin , N Greenberg , J Hacker Hughes , J Simpson , S Wessely (2007). Enduring consequences of terrorism: 7-month follow-up survey of reactions to the bombings in London on 7 July 2005. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 350356.

GJ Rubin , CR Brewin , N Greenberg , J Simpson , S Wessely (2005). Psychological and behavioural reactions to the 7 July London bombings: a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of Londoners. British Medical Journal 331, 606611.

LB Seggar , MJ Lambert , NB Hansen (2002). Assessing clinical significance: application to the Beck Depression Inventory. Behavior Therapy 33, 253269.

J Stuber , S Galea , JA Boscarino , M Schlesinger (2006). Was there unmet mental health need after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41, 230240.


MG Whalley , CR Brewin (2007). Mental health following terrorist attacks. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 9496.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: