Adler LA, Chua HC (2002). Management of ADHD in adults. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63, 29–35.
Anckarsater H, Stahlberg O, Larson T, Hakansson C, Jutblad SB, Niklasson L, Nyden A, Wentz E, Westergren S, Cloninger CR, Gillberg C, Rastam M (2006). The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 1239–1244.
Applegate B, Lahey B, Hart E, Biederman J, Hynd G, Barkley R, Ollendick T, Frick P, Greenhill L, McBurnett K, Newcorn J, Kerdyk L, Garfinkel B, Waldman I, Shaffer D (1997). Validity of the age of onset criterion for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a report from the DSM-IV field trials. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 1211–1221.
Barkley RA, Biederman J (1997). Toward a broader definition of the age-of-onset criterion for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 1204–1210.
Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111, 279–289.
Barkley RA, Murphy K, Fischer M (2007). The Science of ADHD in Adults: Clinic Referred Adults vs. Children Grown Up. Guilford Press: New York, NY.
Biederman J, Faraone SV, Doyle AE, Lehman BK, Kraus I, Perrin J, Tsuang MT (1993). Convergence of the Child Behavior Checklist with structured interview- based psychiatric diagnoses of ADHD children with and without comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 34, 1241–1251.
Biederman J, Faraone SV, Mick E, Moore P, Lelon E (1996). Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) findings further support comorbidity between ADHD and major depression in a referred sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 35, 734–742.
Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone SV (2000). Age-dependent decline of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: impact of remission definition and symptom type. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 816–818.
Biederman J, Monuteaux M, Mick E, Spencer T, Wilens T, Silva J, Snyder L, Faraone SV (2006). Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10-year prospective follow-up study. Psychological Medicine 36, 167–179.
Biederman J, Petty C, Fried R, Fontanella J, Doyle AE, Seidman LJ, Faraone SV (2007 a). Can self-reported behavioral scales assess executive function deficits? A controlled study of adults with ADHD. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195, 240–246.
Biederman J, Petty CR, Fried R, Doyle AE, Spencer T, Seidman LJ, Gross L, Poetzl K, Faraone SV (2007 b). Stability of executive function deficits into young adult years: a prospective longitudinal follow-up study of grown up males with ADHD. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116, 129–136.
Bird H, Canino G, Gould M, Ribera J, Rubio-Stipec M, Woodbury M, Huertas-Goldman H, Sesman M (1987). Use of the child behavior checklist as a screening instrument for epidemiological research in child psychiatry: results of a pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 26, 207–213.
Boyle M, Offord D, Racine Y, Szatmari P, Sanford M, Fleming J (1997). Adequacy of interviews vs checklists for classifying childhood psychiatric disorder based on parent reports. Archives of General Psychiatry 54, 793–799.
Chen W, Faraone S, Biederman J, Tsuang M (1994). Diagnostic accuracy of the Child Behavior Checklist scales for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A receiver operating characteristic analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62, 1017–1025.
Cloninger C, Adolfsson R, Svrakic N (1996). Mapping genes for human personality. Nature Genetics 12, 3–4.
Cloninger CR (1987). Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism. Science 236, 410–416.
Cloninger CR, Przybeck TR, Svrakic DM (1991). The tridimensional personality questionnaire: U.S. normative data. Psychological Reports 69, 1047–1057.
Downey K, Pomerleau CS, Pomerleau OF (1996). Personality differences related to smoking and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse 8, 129–135.
Downey K, Stelson F, Pomerleau O, Giordiani B (1997). Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: psychological test profiles in a clinical population. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 185, 32–38.
Edelbrock C (1986). Behavioral ratings of children diagnosed for attention deficit disorder. Psychiatric Annals 16, 36–40.
Edelbrock C, Rende R, Plomin R, Thompson LA (1995). A twin study of competence and problem behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36, 775–785.
Faraone S, Biederman J, Mick E (2006 a). The age-dependent decline of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychological Medicine 36, 159–165.
Faraone SV (2000). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: implications for theories of diagnosis. Current Directions in Psychological Science 9, 33–36.
Faraone SV (2004). Genetics of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 27, 303–321.
Faraone SV, Biederman J (2005). What is the prevalence of adult ADHD? Results of a population screen of 966 adults. Journal of Attention Disorders 9, 384–391.
Faraone SV, Biederman J, Doyle AE, Murray K, Petty C, Adamson J, Seidman L (2006 b). Neuropsychological studies of late-onset and subthreshold diagnoses of adult ADHD. Biological Psychiatry 60, 1081–1087.
Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer T, Wilens T, Seidman LJ, Mick E, Doyle AE (2000). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: an overview. Biological Psychiatry 48, 9–20.
Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, Mick E, Murray K, Petty C, Adamson JJ, Monuteaux MC (2006 c). Diagnosing adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: are late-onset and subthreshold diagnoses valid? American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 1720–1729.
Faraone SV, Biederman J, Wilens TE, Adamson JJ (2007 a). A naturalistic study of the effects of pharmacotherapy on substance use disorders among ADHD adults. Psychological Medicine 37, 1–10.
Faraone SV, Spencer T, Aleardi M, Pagano C, Biederman J (2004 a). Meta-analysis of the efficacy of methylphenidate for treating adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 54, 24–29.
Faraone SV, Spencer T, Montano CB, Biederman J (2004 b). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: a survey of current practice in psychiatry and primary care. Archives of Internal Medicine 164, 1221–1226.
Faraone SV, Wilens TE, Petty C, Antshel K, Spencer T, Biederman J (2007 b). Substance use among ADHD adults: implications of late-onset and subthreshold diagnoses. American Journal on Addictions 16, 24–34.
First M, Spitzer R, Gibbon M, Williams J (1997). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.
Gjone H, Stevenson J, Sundet J (1996). Genetic influence on parent-reported attention-related problems in a Norwegian general population twin sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 35, 588–598.
Goodman R, Stevenson J (1989 a). A twin study of hyperactivity: I. An examination of hyperactivity scores and categories derived from Rutter teacher and parent questionnaires. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30, 671–689.
Goodman R, Stevenson J (1989 b). A twin study of hyperactivity: II. The aetiological role of genes, family relationships and perinatal adversity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30, 691–709.
Hudziak JJ (1997). Identification of phenotypes for molecular genetic studies of common childhood psychopathology. In Handbook of Psychiatric Genetics (ed. Blum K. and Noble E. P.), pp. 201–217. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
Jacob CP, Romanos J, Dempfle A, Heine M, Windemuth-Kieselbach C, Kruse A, Reif A, Walitza S, Romanos M, Strobel A, Brocke B, Schafer H, Schmidtke A, Boning J, Lesch KP (2007). Co-morbidity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with focus on personality traits and related disorders in a tertiary referral center. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 257, 309–317.
Judy L, Silberg J, Meyer J, Maes H, Simonoff E, Pickles A, Rutter M, Reynolds C, Heath A, Truett K, Meale M, Erikson M, Loeber R, Hewitt J (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment of behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38, 965–980.
Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, Biederman J, Conners CK, Demler O, Faraone SV, Greenhill LL, Howes MJ, Secnik K, Spencer T, Ustun TB, Walters EE, Zaslavsky AM (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 716–723.
Leckman JF, Sholomskas D, Thompson D, Belanger A, Weissman MM (1982). Best estimate of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis: a methodological study. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 879–883.
Levy F, Hay D, McStephen M, Wood C, Waldman I (1997). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a category or a continuum? Genetic analysis of a large-scale twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 737–744.
May B, Bos J (2000). Personality characteristics of ADHD adults assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II: evidence of four distinct subtypes. Journal of Personality Assessment 75, 237–248.
Ranseen JD, Campbell DA, Baer RA (1998). NEO PI-R profiles of adults with attention deficit disorder. Assessment 5, 19–24.
Robin AJ, Tzelepis A, Bedway M, Gilroy M, Sparague D (1998). The empirical study of personality in ADHD adults: a new beginning. ADHD Report 5, 11–15.
Robins E, Guze SB (1970). Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: its application to schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 126, 983–987.
Rohde LA, Biederman J, Zimmermann H, Schmitz M, Martins S, Tramontina S (2000). Exploring ADHD age-of-onset criterion in Brazilian adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 9, 212–218.
Schaughency E, McGee R, Raja SN, Feehan M, Silva PA (1994). Self reported inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity at ages 15 and 18 in the general population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 33, 173–184.
Sherman D, Iacono W, McGue M (1997). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder dimensions: a twin study of inattention and impulsivity hyperactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 745–753.
Silberg J, Rutter M, Meyer J, Maes H, Hewitt J, Simonoff E, Pickles A, Loeber R (1996). Genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 37, 803–816.
Stevenson J (1992). Evidence for a genetic etiology in hyperactivity in children. Behavior Genetics 22, 337–344.
Svrakic DM, Whitehead C, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR (1993). Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven-factor model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 991–999.
Thapar A, Hervas A, McGuffin P (1995). Childhood hyperactivity scores are highly heritable and show sibling competition effects: twin study evidence. Behavior Genetics 25, 537–544.
Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, DeFries JC (2000). Etiology of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in a community sample of twins with learning difficulties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 28, 149–159.
Willoughby MT, Curran PJ, Costello EJ, Angold A (2000). Implications of early versus late-onset of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39, 1512–1519.