Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population

  • Ulrich Reininghaus (a1) (a2), Christian Rauschenberg (a1), Margreet ten Have (a3), Ron de Graaf (a3), Saskia van Dorsselaer (a3), Claudia J. P. Simons (a1) (a4), Nicole Gunther (a1) (a5), Lotta-Katrin Pries (a1), Sinan Guloksuz (a1) (a6), Rajiv Radhakrishnan (a6), Maarten Bak (a1) and Jim van Os (a1) (a7) (a8)...
Abstract
Background

The jumping to conclusions (JTC) reasoning bias and decreased working memory performance (WMP) are associated with psychosis, but associations with affective disturbances (i.e. depression, anxiety, mania) remain inconclusive. Recent findings also suggest a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and psychotic experiences (PEs). This study investigated whether JTC bias and decreased WMP are associated with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.

Methods

Data were derived from the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Trained interviewers administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at three time points in a general population sample (N = 4618). The beads and digit-span task were completed to assess JTC bias and WMP, respectively. CIDI was used to measure affective disturbances and an add-on instrument to measure PEs.

Results

Compared to individuals with neither affective disturbances nor PEs, the JTC bias was more likely to occur in individuals with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs [moderate psychosis (1–2 PEs): adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41; and high psychosis (3 or more PEs or psychosis-related help-seeking behaviour): adjusted RRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19–2.08], but not with affective disturbances and PEs alone, whereas decreased WMP was more likely in all groups. There was some evidence of a dose–response relationship, as JTC bias and decreased WMP were more likely in individuals with affective disturbances as the level of PEs increased or help-seeking behaviour was reported.

Conclusion

The findings suggest that JTC bias and decreased WMP may contribute to a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Jim van Os, E-mail: vanosj@gmail.com
Footnotes
Hide All
*

These authors contributed as joint first authors

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Allardyce, J, Leonenko, G, Hamshere, M, Pardinas, AF, Forty, L, Knott, S, Gordon-Smith, K, Porteous, DJ, Haywood, C, Di Florio, A, Jones, L, McIntosh, AM, Owen, MJ, Holmans, P, Walters, JTR, Craddock, N, Jones, I, O'Donovan, MC and Escott-Price, V (2018) Association between schizophrenia-related polygenic liability and the occurrence and level of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 75, 2835.
Alonso, J, Angermeyer, MC, Bernert, S, Bruffaerts, R, Brugha, TS, Bryson, H, de Girolamo, G, Graaf, R, Demyttenaere, K, Gasquet, I, Haro, JM, Katz, SJ, Kessler, RC, Kovess, V, Lepine, JP, Ormel, J, Polidori, G, Russo, LJ, Vilagut, G, Almansa, J, Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S, Autonell, J, Bernal, M, Buist-Bouwman, MA, Codony, M, Domingo-Salvany, A, Ferrer, M, Joo, SS, Martinez-Alonso, M, Matschinger, H, Mazzi, F, Morgan, Z, Morosini, P, Palacin, C, Romera, B, Taub, N, Vollebergh, WA and EsemeD/Mhedea Investigators, European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders Project (2004) Sampling and methods of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 109, 820.
Andrews, G and Peters, L (1998) The psychometric properties of the composite international diagnostic interview. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 33, 8088.
Barch, DM and Sheffield, JM (2014) Cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders: common mechanisms and measurement. World Psychiatry 13, 224232.
Bebbington, P and Freeman, D (2017) Transdiagnostic extension of delusions: schizophrenia and beyond. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 273282.
Brewer, WJ, Francey, SM, Wood, SJ, Jackson, HJ, Pantelis, C, Phillips, LJ, Yung, AR, Anderson, VA and McGorry, PD (2005) Memory impairments identified in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis who later develop first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 7178.
Calkins, ME, Moore, TM, Satterthwaite, TD, Wolf, DH, Turetsky, BI, Roalf, DR, Merikangas, KR, Ruparel, K, Kohler, CG, Gur, RC and Gur, RE (2017) Persistence of psychosis spectrum symptoms in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort: a prospective two-year follow-up. World Psychiatry 16, 6276.
Caspi, A, Houts, RM, Belsky, DW, Goldman-Mellor, SJ, Harrington, H, Israel, S, Meier, MH, Ramrakha, S, Shalev, I, Poulton, R and Moffitt, TE (2014) The p factor: one general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science 2, 119137.
Catalan, A, Simons, CJ, Bustamante, S, Olazabal, N, Ruiz, E, Gonzalez de Artaza, M, Penas, A, Maruottolo, C, Gonzalez, A, van Os, J and Gonzalez-Torres, MA (2015) Data gathering bias: trait vulnerability to psychotic symptoms? PLoS ONE 10, e0132442.
Cheng, CM, Chang, WH, Chen, MH, Tsai, CF, Su, TP, Li, CT, Tsai, SJ, Hsu, JW, Huang, KL, Lin, WC, Chen, TJ and Bai, YM (2017) Co-aggregation of major psychiatric disorders in individuals with first-degree relatives with schizophrenia: a nationwide population-based study. Molecular Psychiatry, 18.
Conklin, HM, Curtis, CE, Katsanis, J and Iacono, WG (2000) Verbal working memory impairment in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives: evidence from the digit span task. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 275277.
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics (2013 a) Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nature Genetics 45, 984994.
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics (2013 b) Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. The Lancet 381, 13711379.
de Graaf, R, Ormel, J, ten Have, M, Burger, H and Buist-Bouwman, M (2008) Mental disorders and service use in the Netherlands. Results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD).
de Graaf, R, Ten Have, M and van Dorsselaer, S (2010) The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2): design and methods. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 19, 125141.
de Graaf, R, ten Have, M, van Gool, C and van Dorsselaer, S (2012) Prevalence of mental disorders and trends from 1996 to 2009. Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47, 203213.
de Graaf, R, van Dorsselaer, S, Tuithof, M and ten Have, M (2013) Sociodemographic and psychiatric predictors of attrition in a prospective psychiatric epidemiological study among the general population. Result of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. Comprehensive Psychiatry 54, 11311139.
de Graaf, R, van Dorsselaer, S, Tuithof, M and ten Have, M (2015) Sociodemographic and Psychiatric Predictors of Attrition in the Third Wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). Utrecht: Trimbos-instituut.
Dudley, R, Taylor, P, Wickham, S and Hutton, P (2016) Psychosis, delusions and the “Jumping to Conclusions” reasoning bias: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 652665.
Eriksson, J, Vogel, EK, Lansner, A, Bergstrom, F and Nyberg, L (2015) Neurocognitive architecture of working memory. Neuron 88, 3346.
Falcone, MA, Murray, RM, Wiffen, BD, O'Connor, JA, Russo, M, Kolliakou, A, Stilo, S, Taylor, H, Gardner-Sood, P, Paparelli, A, Jichi, F, Di Forti, M, David, AS, Freeman, D and Jolley, S (2015) Jumping to conclusions, neuropsychological functioning, and delusional beliefs in first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 411418.
Fine, C, Gardner, M, Craigie, J and Gold, I (2007) Hopping, skipping or jumping to conclusions? Clarifying the role of the JTC bias in delusions. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 12, 4677.
Forbes, NF, Carrick, LA, McIntosh, AM and Lawrie, SM (2009) Working memory in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 39, 889905.
Freeman, D (2016) Persecutory delusions: a cognitive perspective on understanding and treatment. The Lancet Psychiatry 3, 685692.
Freeman, D and Garety, P (2014) Advances in understanding and treating persecutory delusions: a review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49, 11791189.
Freeman, D, Startup, H, Dunn, G, Cernis, E, Wingham, G, Pugh, K, Cordwell, J, Mander, H and Kingdon, D (2014) Understanding jumping to conclusions in patients with persecutory delusions: working memory and intolerance of uncertainty. Psychological Medicine 44, 30173024.
Fusar-Poli, P, Nelson, B, Valmaggia, L, Yung, AR and McGuire, PK (2014) Comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders in 509 individuals with an at-risk mental state: impact on psychopathology and transition to psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 120131.
Gandal, MJ, Haney, JR, Parikshak, NN, Leppa, V, Ramaswami, G, Hartl, C, Schork, AJ, Appadurai, V, Buil, A, Werge, TM, Liu, C, White, KP, CommonMind Consortium, PsychENCODE Consortium, iP-BWG, Horvath, S and Geschwind, DH (2018) Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap. Science 359, 693697.
Garety, PA and Freeman, D (1999) Cognitive approaches to delusions: a critical review of theories and evidence. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 38, 113154.
Garety, PA, Kuipers, E, Fowler, D, Freeman, D and Bebbington, PE (2001) A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine 31, 189195.
Garety, P, Joyce, E, Jolley, S, Emsley, R, Waller, H, Kuipers, E, Bebbington, P, Fowler, D, Dunn, G and Freeman, D (2013) Neuropsychological functioning and jumping to conclusions in delusions. Schizophrenia Research 150, 570574.
Garety, PA, Ward, T, Freeman, D, Fowler, D, Emsley, R, Dunn, G, Kuipers, E, Bebbington, P, Waller, H, Greenwood, K, Rus-Calafell, M, McGourty, A and Hardy, A (2017) Slowmo, a digital therapy targeting reasoning in paranoia, versus treatment as usual in the treatment of people who fear harm from others: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 18, 510.
Gonzalez, LE, Lopez-Carrilero, R, Barrigon, ML, Grasa, E, Barajas, A, Pousa, E, Gonzalez-Higueras, F, Ruiz-Delgado, I, Cid, J, Lorente-Rovira, E, Pelaez, T, Spanish Metacognition Study Group and Ochoa, S (2018) Neuropsychological functioning and jumping to conclusions in recent onset psychosis patients. Schizophrenia Research 195, 366371.
Guloksuz, S, van Nierop, M, Lieb, R, van Winkel, R, Wittchen, HU and van Os, J (2015) Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology. Psychological Medicine 45, 23892401.
Guloksuz, S, van Nierop, M, Bak, M, de Graaf, R, Ten Have, M, van Dorsselaer, S, Gunther, N, Lieb, R, van Winkel, R, Wittchen, HU and van Os, J (2016) Exposure to environmental factors increases connectivity between symptom domains in the psychopathology network. BMC Psychiatry 16, 223.
Hanssen, M, Bak, M, Bijl, R, Vollebergh, W and van Os, J (2005) The incidence and outcome of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44, 181191.
Hartley, S, Barrowclough, C and Haddock, G (2013) Anxiety and depression in psychosis: a systematic review of associations with positive psychotic symptoms. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 128, 327346.
Howes, OD and Murray, RM (2014) Schizophrenia: an integrated sociodevelopmental-cognitive model. The Lancet 383, 16771687.
Howes, OD, McCutcheon, R, Owen, MJ and Murray, RM (2017) The role of genes, stress, and dopamine in the development of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 81, 920.
Insel, T, Cuthbert, B, Garvey, M, Heinssen, R, Pine, DS, Quinn, K, Sanislow, C and Wang, P (2010) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 748751.
Jansen, PR, Polderman, TJC, Bolhuis, K, van der Ende, J, Jaddoe, VWV, Verhulst, FC, White, T, Posthuma, D and Tiemeier, H (2018) Polygenic scores for schizophrenia and educational attainment are associated with behavioural problems in early childhood in the general population. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 59, 3947.
Jones, HJ, Stergiakouli, E, Tansey, KE, Hubbard, L, Heron, J, Cannon, M, Holmans, P, Lewis, G, Linden, DE, Jones, PB, Davey Smith, G, O'Donovan, MC, Owen, MJ, Walters, JT and Zammit, S (2016) Phenotypic manifestation of genetic risk for schizophrenia during adolescence in the general population. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 221228.
Kaymaz, N, Drukker, M, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, Werbeloff, N, Weiser, M, Lataster, T and van Os, J (2012) Do subthreshold psychotic experiences predict clinical outcomes in unselected non-help-seeking population-based samples? A systematic review and meta-analysis, enriched with new results. Psychological Medicine 42, 22392253.
Kessler, RC and Ustun, TB (2004) The World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 93121.
Kotov, R, Krueger, RF, Watson, D, Achenbach, TM, Althoff, RR, Bagby, RM, Brown, TA, Carpenter, WT, Caspi, A, Clark, LA, Eaton, NR, Forbes, MK, Forbush, KT, Goldberg, D, Hasin, D, Hyman, SE, Ivanova, MY, Lynam, DR, Markon, K, Miller, JD, Moffitt, TE, Morey, LC, Mullins-Sweatt, SN, Ormel, J, Patrick, CJ, Regier, DA, Rescorla, L, Ruggero, CJ, Samuel, DB, Sellbom, M, Simms, LJ, Skodol, AE, Slade, T, South, SC, Tackett, JL, Waldman, ID, Waszczuk, MA, Widiger, TA, Wright, AGC and Zimmerman, M (2017) The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 126, 454477.
Larson, ER, Shear, PK, Krikorian, R, Welge, J and Strakowski, SM (2005) Working memory and inhibitory control among manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 11, 163172.
Lee, J and Park, S (2005) Working memory impairments in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114, 599611.
Linscott, RJ and van Os, J (2013) An updated and conservative systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence on psychotic experiences in children and adults: on the pathway from proneness to persistence to dimensional expression across mental disorders. Psychological Medicine 43, 11331149.
Martin, J, Taylor, MJ and Lichtenstein, P (2018) Assessing the evidence for shared genetic risks across psychiatric disorders and traits. Psychological Medicine 48, 17591774.
McGrath, J, Chapple, B and Wright, M (2001) Working memory in schizophrenia and mania: correlation with symptoms during the acute and subacute phases. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 103, 181188.
McGrath, JJ, Saha, S, Al-Hamzawi, A, Andrade, L, Benjet, C, Bromet, EJ, Browne, MO, Caldas de Almeida, JM, Chiu, WT, Demyttenaere, K, Fayyad, J, Florescu, S, de Girolamo, G, Gureje, O, Haro, JM, Ten Have, M, Hu, C, Kovess-Masfety, V, Lim, CC, Navarro-Mateu, F, Sampson, N, Posada-Villa, J, Kendler, KS and Kessler, RC (2016 a) The bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 9971006.
McGrath, LM, Braaten, EB, Doty, ND, Willoughby, BL, Wilson, HK, O'Donnell, EH, Colvin, MK, Ditmars, HL, Blais, JE, Hill, EN, Metzger, A, Perlis, RH, Willcutt, EG, Smoller, JW, Waldman, ID, Faraone, SV, Seidman, LJ and Doyle, AE (2016 b) Extending the ‘cross-disorder’ relevance of executive functions to dimensional neuropsychiatric traits in youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 57, 462471.
Millan, MJ, Agid, Y, Brune, M, Bullmore, ET, Carter, CS, Clayton, NS, Connor, R, Davis, S, Deakin, B, DeRubeis, RJ, Dubois, B, Geyer, MA, Goodwin, GM, Gorwood, P, Jay, TM, Joels, M, Mansuy, IM, Meyer-Lindenberg, A, Murphy, D, Rolls, E, Saletu, B, Spedding, M, Sweeney, J, Whittington, M and Young, LJ (2012) Cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders: characteristics, causes and the quest for improved therapy. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 11, 141168.
Mollon, J and Reichenberg, A (2018) Cognitive development prior to onset of psychosis. Psychological Medicine 48, 392403.
Mollon, J, David, AS, Morgan, C, Frissa, S, Glahn, D, Pilecka, I, Hatch, SL, Hotopf, M and Reichenberg, A (2016) Psychotic experiences and neuropsychological functioning in a population-based sample. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 129138.
Mollon, J, David, AS, Zammit, S, Lewis, G and Reichenberg, A (2018) Course of cognitive development from infancy to early adulthood in the psychosis spectrum. JAMA Psychiatry 75, 270279.
Moran, TP (2016) Anxiety and working memory capacity: a meta-analysis and narrative review. Psychological Bulletin 142, 831864.
Moritz, S, Thoering, T, Kuhn, S, Willenborg, B, Westermann, S and Nagel, M (2015) Metacognition-augmented cognitive remediation training reduces jumping to conclusions and overconfidence but not neurocognitive deficits in psychosis. Frontiers in Psychology 6, 1048.
Murray, RM and Lewis, SW (1988) Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder?.
Nivard, MG, Gage, SH, Hottenga, JJ, van Beijsterveldt, CEM, Abdellaoui, A, Bartels, M, Baselmans, BML, Ligthart, L, Pourcain, BS, Boomsma, DI, Munafo, MR and Middeldorp, CM (2017) Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and developmental psychopathology: longitudinal and multivariate polygenic risk prediction of common psychiatric traits during development. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 11971207.
Phillips, LD and Edwards, W (1966) Conservatism in a simple probability inference task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72, 346354.
Reininghaus, U, Priebe, S and Bentall, RP (2013) Testing the psychopathology of psychosis: evidence for a general psychosis dimension. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 884895.
Reininghaus, U, Bohnke, JR, Hosang, G, Farmer, A, Burns, T, McGuffin, P and Bentall, RP (2016 a) Evaluation of the validity and utility of a transdiagnostic psychosis dimension encompassing schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 209, 107113.
Reininghaus, U, Depp, CA and Myin-Germeys, I (2016 b) Ecological interventionist causal models in psychosis: targeting psychological mechanisms in daily life. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 264269.
Rose, EJ and Ebmeier, KP (2006) Pattern of impaired working memory during major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 90, 149161.
Ross, K, Freeman, D, Dunn, G and Garety, P (2011) A randomized experimental investigation of reasoning training for people with delusions. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 324333.
Ross, RM, McKay, R, Coltheart, M and Langdon, R (2015) Jumping to conclusions about the beads task? A meta-analysis of delusional ideation and data-gathering. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 11831191.
Scult, MA, Paulli, AR, Mazure, ES, Moffitt, TE, Hariri, AR and Strauman, TJ (2017) The association between cognitive function and subsequent depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 47, 117.
Shanmugan, S, Wolf, DH, Calkins, ME, Moore, TM, Ruparel, K, Hopson, RD, Vandekar, SN, Roalf, DR, Elliott, MA, Jackson, C, Gennatas, ED, Leibenluft, E, Pine, DS, Shinohara, RT, Hakonarson, H, Gur, RC, Gur, RE and Satterthwaite, TD (2016) Common and dissociable mechanisms of executive system dysfunction across psychiatric disorders in youth. American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 517526.
Shevlin, M, McElroy, E, Bentall, RP, Reininghaus, U and Murphy, J (2017) The psychosis continuum: testing a bifactor model of psychosis in a general population sample. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 133141.
So, SH, Freeman, D, Dunn, G, Kapur, S, Kuipers, E, Bebbington, P, Fowler, D and Garety, PA (2012) Jumping to conclusions, a lack of belief flexibility and delusional conviction in psychosis: a longitudinal investigation of the structure, frequency, and relatedness of reasoning biases. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 121, 129139.
So, SH, Siu, NY, Wong, HL, Chan, W and Garety, PA (2016) ‘Jumping to conclusions’ data-gathering bias in psychosis and other psychiatric disorders – two meta-analyses of comparisons between patients and healthy individuals. Clinical Psychology Review 46, 151167.
StataCorp (2013) StataCorp LP: College Station, TX.
The Brainstorm Consortium (2018) Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain. Science 360, eaap8757.
van Os, J and Linscott, RJ (2012) Introduction: the extended psychosis phenotype – relationship with schizophrenia and with ultrahigh risk status for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 227230.
van Os, J and Reininghaus, U (2016) Psychosis as a transdiagnostic and extended phenotype in the general population. World Psychiatry 15, 118124.
van Nierop, M, Viechtbauer, W, Gunther, N, van Zelst, C, de Graaf, R, Ten Have, M, van Dorsselaer, S, Bak, M, Genetic Risk and OUtcome of Psychosis investigators and van Winkel, R (2015) Childhood trauma is associated with a specific admixture of affective, anxiety, and psychosis symptoms cutting across traditional diagnostic boundaries. Psychological Medicine 45, 12771288.
van Os, J, Kenis, G and Rutten, BP (2010) The environment and schizophrenia. Nature 468, 203212.
van Os, J, van der Steen, Y, Islam, MA, Guloksuz, S, Rutten, BP, Simons, CJ and Investigators, G (2017) Evidence that polygenic risk for psychotic disorder is expressed in the domain of neurodevelopment, emotion regulation and attribution of salience. Psychological Medicine 47, 24212437.
Varghese, D, Scott, J, Welham, J, Bor, W, Najman, J, O'Callaghan, M, Williams, G and McGrath, J (2011) Psychotic-like experiences in major depression and anxiety disorders: a population-based survey in young adults. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 389393.
Waller, H, Freeman, D, Jolley, S, Dunn, G and Garety, P (2011) Targeting reasoning biases in delusions: a pilot study of the Maudsley Review Training Programme for individuals with persistent, high conviction delusions. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 42, 414421.
Walsh, ND, Williams, SC, Brammer, MJ, Bullmore, ET, Kim, J, Suckling, J, Mitterschiffthaler, MT, Cleare, AJ, Pich, EM, Mehta, MA and Fu, CH (2007) A longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of verbal working memory in depression after antidepressant therapy. Biological Psychiatry 62, 12361243.
Wechsler, D (1997) WAIS-III: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. 3rd Edn. Administration and Scoring Manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D (2000) WAIS-III, Nederlandse Bewerking: Technische Handleiding. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger B.V.
Weinberger, DR (1986) The Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia: A Neurodevelopmental Theory. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
White, T, Schmidt, M and Karatekin, C (2010) Verbal and visuospatial working memory development and deficits in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 4, 305313.
White, LK, Moore, TM, Calkins, ME, Wolf, DH, Satterthwaite, TD, Leibenluft, E, Pine, DS, Gur, RC and Gur, RE (2017) An evaluation of the specificity of executive function impairment in developmental psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 56, 975982, e3.
Wigman, JT, van Nierop, M, Vollebergh, WA, Lieb, R, Beesdo-Baum, K, Wittchen, HU and van Os, J (2012) Evidence that psychotic symptoms are prevalent in disorders of anxiety and depression, impacting on illness onset, risk, and severity – implications for diagnosis and ultra-high risk research. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 247257.
Wood, SJ, Pantelis, C, Proffitt, T, Phillips, LJ, Stuart, GW, Buchanan, JA, Mahony, K, Brewer, W, Smith, DJ and McGorry, PD (2003) Spatial working memory ability is a marker of risk-for-psychosis. Psychological Medicine 33, 12391247.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Reininghaus et al. supplementary material
Tables S1-S3

 Word (37 KB)
37 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed