This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
M Albert , C Cohen (1992). The test for severe impairment: an instrument for the assessment of patients with severe cognitive dysfunction. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 40, 449–453.
SL Ball , AJ Holland , FA Huppert , P Treppner , P Watson , J Hon (2004). The modified CAMDEX informant interview is a valid and reliable tool for use in the diagnosis of dementia in adults with Down's syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 48, 611–620.
DB Burt , EH Aylward (2000). Test battery for the diagnosis of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 44, 175–180.
SA Cooper (1997). High prevalence of dementia among people with learning disabilities not attributable to Down's syndrome. Psychological Medicine 27, 609–616.
T Del Ser , V Hachinski , H Merskey , DG Munoz (1999). An autopsy-verified study of the effect of education on degenerative dementia. Brain 122, 2309–2319.
HM Evenhuis (1996). Further evaluation of the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Mental Retardation (DMR). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 40, 369–373.
CP Ferri , M Prince , C Brayne , H Brodaty , L Fratiglioni , M Ganguli , K Hall , K Hasegawa , H Hendrie , YQ Huang , A Jorm , C Mathers , PR Menezes , E Rimmer , M Scazufca (2005). Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Lancet 366, 2112–2117.
MI Geerlings , DJH Deeg , BWJH Penninx , B Schmand , C Jonker , LM Bouter , W van Tilburg (1999). Cognitive reserve and mortality in dementia: the role of cognition, functional ability and depression. Psychological Medicine 29, 1219–1226.
KH Gustavson , O Umb-Carlsson , K Sonnander (2005). A follow-up study of mortality, health conditions and associated disabilities of people with intellectual disabilities in a Swedish county. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49, 905–914.
A Hassiotis , A Strydom , K Allen , Z Walker (2003). A memory clinic for older people with intellectual disabilities. Aging and Mental Health 7, 418–423.
MJ Haveman (2004). Disease epidemiology and ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities 1, 16–23.
MP Lawton , EM Brody (1969). Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. The Gerontologist 9, 179–186.
IG McKeith , D Galasko , K Kosaka , EK Perry , DW Dickson , LA Hansen , DP Salmon , J Lowe , SS Mirra , EJ Byrne , G Lennox , NP Quinn , JA Edwardson , PG Ince , C Bergeron , A Burns , BL Miller , S Lovestone , D Collerton , ENH Jansen , C Ballard , RAI Devos , GK Wilcock , KA Jellinger , RH Perry (1996). Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology 47, 1113–1124.
GM McKhann , MS Albert , M Grossman , B Miller , D Dickson , JQ Trojanowski (2001). Clinical and pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia: report of the work group on frontotemporal dementia and Pick's disease. Archives of Neurology 58, 1803–1809.
P Patel , D Goldberg , S Moss (1993). Psychiatric morbidity in older people with moderate and severe learning disability. 2. The Prevalence Study. British Journal of Psychiatry 163, 481–491.
K Patja , M Iivanainen , H Vesala , H Oksanen , I Ruoppila (2000). Life expectancy of people with intellectual disability: a 35-year follow-up study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 44, 591–599.
PA Saunders , JRM Copeland , ME Dewey , C Gilmore , BA Larkin , H Phaterpekar , A Scott (1993). The prevalence of dementia, depression and neurosis in later life: the Liverpool MRC-Alpha study. International Journal of Epidemiology 22, 838–847.
N Scarmeas , SM Albert , JJ Manly , Y Stern (2006). Education and rates of cognitive decline in incident Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 77, 308–316.
B Schmand , JH Smit , MI Geerlings , J Lindeboom (1997). The effects of intelligence and education on the development of dementia. A test of the brain reserve hypothesis. Psychological Medicine 27, 1337–1344.
PW Schofield , RE Mosesson , Y Stern , R Mayeux (1995). The age at onset of Alzheimer's disease and an intracranial area measurement. A relationship. Archives of Neurology 52, 95–98.
T Shallice (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B. Biological Sciences 298, 199–209.
RT Staff , AD Murray , IJ Deary , LJ Whalley (2004). What provides cerebral reserve? Brain 127, 1191–1199.
Y Stern (2003). The concept of cognitive reserve: a catalyst for research. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 25, 589–593.
A Strydom , G Livingston , M King , A Hassiotis (2007). Prevalence of dementia in intellectual disability using different diagnostic criteria. British Journal of Psychiatry 191, 150–157.
CW Thompson (1951). Decline in limit of performance among adult morons. American Journal of Psychology 64, 203–215.
AK Troyer (2000). Normative data for clustering and switching on verbal fluency tasks. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 22, 370–378.
MJ Valenzuela , P Sachdev (2006). Brain reserve and dementia: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine 36, 441–454.
J Verghese , RB Lipton , MJ Katz , CB Hall , CA Derby , G Kuslansky , AF Ambrose , M Sliwinski , H Buschke (2003). Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine 348, 2508–2516.
LJ Whalley , IJ Deary , CL Appleton , JM Starr (2004). Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging. Ageing Research Reviews 3, 369–382.
LJ Whalley , JM Starr , R Athawes , D Hunter , A Pattie , IJ Deary (2000). Childhood mental ability and dementia. Neurology 55, 1455–1459.
WB Zigman , N Schupf , DA Devenny , C Miezejeski , R Ryan , TK Urv , R Schubert , W Silverman (2004). Incidence and prevalence of dementia in elderly adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation 109, 126–141.