Skip to main content

The slow death of the concept of schizophrenia and the painful birth of the psychosis spectrum

  • S. Guloksuz (a1) (a2) and J. van Os (a1) (a3) (a4)

The concept of schizophrenia only covers the 30% poor outcome fraction of a much broader multidimensional psychotic syndrome, yet paradoxically has become the dominant prism through which everything ‘psychotic’ is observed, even affective states with mild psychosis labelled ‘ultra-high risk’ (for schizophrenia). The inability of psychiatry to frame psychosis as multidimensional syndromal variation of largely unpredictable course and outcome – within and between individuals – hampers research and recovery-oriented practice. ‘Psychosis’ remains firmly associated with ‘schizophrenia’, as evidenced by a vigorous stream of high-impact but non-replicable attempts to ‘reverse-engineer’ the hypothesized biological disease entity, using case–control paradigms that cannot distinguish between risk for illness onset and risk for poor outcome. In this paper, the main issues surrounding the concept of schizophrenia are described. We tentatively conclude that with the advent of broad spectrum phenotypes covering autism and addiction in DSM5, the prospect for introducing a psychosis spectrum disorder – and modernizing psychiatry – appears to be within reach.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The slow death of the concept of schizophrenia and the painful birth of the psychosis spectrum
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The slow death of the concept of schizophrenia and the painful birth of the psychosis spectrum
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The slow death of the concept of schizophrenia and the painful birth of the psychosis spectrum
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Jim van Os, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Utrecht, PO BOX 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht. (Email:
Hide All
Abel, KM, Drake, R, Goldstein, JM (2010). Sex differences in schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry 22, 417428.
Aleman, A, Kahn, RS, Selten, JP (2003). Sex differences in the risk of schizophrenia: evidence from meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 565571.
Allardyce, J, Morrison, G, Van Os, J, Kelly, J, Murray, RM, McCreadie, RG (2000). Schizophrenia is not disappearing in south-west Scotland. British Journal of Psychiatry 177, 3841.
Allardyce, J, van Os, J (2010). The natural history of the course and outcome of schizophrenia. In Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009 (ed. Gattaz, W. F., Busatto, G.), pp. 5165. Springer New York: New York, NY.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). DSM-5 Fact Sheets. ( Accessed 1 January 2017.
Andreasen, NC (1989). The American concept of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 15, 519531.
Beauchamp, G, Gagnon, A (2004). Influence of diagnostic classification on gender ratio in schizophrenia – a meta-analysis of youths hospitalized for psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 39, 10171022.
Bentall, RP, Beck, AT (2004). Madness Explained: Psychosis and Human Nature. Penguin Books: London.
Bentall, RP, Jackson, HF, Pilgrim, D (1988). Abandoning the concept of ‘schizophrenia’: some implications of validity arguments for psychological research into psychotic phenomena. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 27(Pt 4), 303324.
Bora, E, Yucel, M, Pantelis, C (2009). Cognitive functioning in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and affective psychoses: meta-analytic study. British Journal of Psychiatry 195, 475482.
Boteva, K, Lieberman, J (2003). Reconsidering the classification of schizophrenia and manic depressive illness--a critical analysis and new conceptual model. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 4, 8192.
Brockington, IF (1992). Schizophrenia: yesterday's concept. European Psychiatry 7, 203207.
Bromet, EJ, Naz, B, Fochtmann, LJ, Carlson, GA, Tanenberg-Karant, M (2005). Long-term diagnostic stability and outcome in recent first-episode cohort studies of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 31, 639649.
Carpenter, WT (2017). Fifty years: do over or move forward. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 257259.
Carpenter, WT Jr., Heinrichs, DW, Wagman, AM (1988). Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: the concept. American Journal of Psychiatry 145, 578583.
Carpenter, WT Jr., Strauss, JS, Bartko, JJ (1973). Flexible system for the diagnosis of schizophrenia: report from the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. Science 182, 12751278.
Castle, DJ, Wessely, S, Murray, RM (1993). Sex and schizophrenia: effects of diagnostic stringency, and associations with and premorbid variables. British Journal of Psychiatry 162, 658664.
Chase, R (2008). Schizophrenia is a disease, so electrons aren't at risk. Nature 451, 127.
Cohen, P, Cohen, J (1984). The clinician's illusion. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 11781182.
Confavreux, C, Vukusic, S (2006). Natural history of multiple sclerosis: a unifying concept. Brain 129, 606616.
Cougnard, A, Marcelis, M, Myin-Germeys, I, De Graaf, R, Vollebergh, W, Krabbendam, L, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, Henquet, C, Spauwen, J, Van Os, J (2007). Does normal developmental expression of psychosis combine with environmental risk to cause persistence of psychosis? A psychosis proneness-persistence model. Psychological Medicine 37, 513527.
Cuthbert, BN, Insel, TR (2010). Toward new approaches to psychotic disorders: the NIMH Research Domain Criteria project. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 10611062.
Demjaha, A, Morgan, K, Morgan, C, Landau, S, Dean, K, Reichenberg, A, Sham, P, Fearon, P, Hutchinson, G, Jones, PB, Murray, RM, Dazzan, P (2009). Combining dimensional and categorical representation of psychosis: the way forward for DSM-V and ICD-11? Psychological Medicine 39, 19431955.
Dominguez, MD, Saka, MC, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2010). Early expression of negative/disorganized symptoms predicting psychotic experiences and subsequent clinical psychosis: a 10-year study. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 10751082.
Dominguez, MD, Wichers, M, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2011). Evidence that onset of clinical psychosis is an outcome of progressively more persistent subclinical psychotic experiences: an 8-year cohort study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 8493.
Dutta, R, Greene, T, Addington, J, McKenzie, K, Phillips, M, Murray, RM (2007). Biological, life course, and cross-cultural studies all point toward the value of dimensional and developmental ratings in the classification of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 868876.
Fusar-Poli, P, Yung, AR, McGorry, P, van Os, J (2014). Lessons learned from the psychosis high-risk state: towards a general staging model of prodromal intervention. Psychological Medicine 44, 1724.
Geekie, J, Read, J (2009). Making Sense of Madness: Contesting the Meaning of Schizophrenia. Routledge: New York, NY.
George, B, Klijn, A (2013). A modern name for schizophrenia (PSS) would diminish self-stigma. Psychological Medicine 43, 15551557.
Goodkind, M, Eickhoff, SB, Oathes, DJ, Jiang, Y, Chang, A, Jones-Hagata, LB, Ortega, BN, Zaiko, YV, Roach, EL, Korgaonkar, MS, Grieve, SM, Galatzer-Levy, I, Fox, PT, Etkin, A (2015). Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 305315.
Gottesman, II, Shields, J (1967). A polygenic theory of schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 58, 199205.
Guloksuz, S, van Nierop, M, Lieb, R, van Winkel, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2015). Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology. Psychological Medicine 45, 23892401.
Hanssen, M, Bak, M, Bijl, R, Vollebergh, W, van Os, J (2005). The incidence and outcome of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44, 181191.
Harding, CM, Zubin, J, Strauss, JS (1987). Chronicity in schizophrenia: fact, partial fact, or artifact? Hospital and Community Psychiatry 38, 477486.
Heckers, S, Barch, DM, Bustillo, J, Gaebel, W, Gur, R, Malaspina, D, Owen, MJ, Schultz, S, Tandon, R, Tsuang, M, Van Os, J, Carpenter, W (2013). Structure of the psychotic disorders classification in DSM-5. Schizophrenia Research 150, 1114.
Hegarty, JD, Baldessarini, RJ, Tohen, M, Waternaux, C, Oepen, G (1994). One hundred years of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the outcome literature. American Journal of Psychiatry 151, 14091416.
Henderson, S, Malhi, GS (2014). Swan song for schizophrenia? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 48, 302305.
Henquet, C, Krabbendam, L, Spauwen, J, Kaplan, C, Lieb, R, Wittchen, H-U, van Os, J (2004). Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people. BMJ 330, 11.
Hill, SK, Reilly, JL, Keefe, RS, Gold, JM, Bishop, JR, Gershon, ES, Tamminga, CA, Pearlson, GD, Keshavan, MS, Sweeney, JA (2013). Neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder: findings from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 12751284.
Honings, S, Drukker, M, Groen, R, van Os, J (2016a). Psychotic experiences and risk of self-injurious behaviour in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 46, 237251.
Honings, S, Drukker, M, van Nierop, M, van Winkel, R, Wittchen, HU, Lieb, R, Ten Have, M, de Graaf, R, van Dorsselaer, S, van Os, J (2016b). Psychotic experiences and incident suicidal ideation and behaviour: disentangling the longitudinal associations from connected psychopathology. Psychiatry Research 245, 267275.
Ioannidis, JP (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine 2, e124.
Isvoranu, AM, Borsboom, D, van Os, J, Guloksuz, S (2016). A network approach to environmental impact in psychotic disorder: brief theoretical framework. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 870873.
Ivleva, EI, Bidesi, AS, Keshavan, MS, Pearlson, GD, Meda, SA, Dodig, D, Moates, AF, Lu, H, Francis, AN, Tandon, N, Schretlen, DJ, Sweeney, JA, Clementz, BA, Tamminga, CA (2013). Gray matter volume as an intermediate phenotype for psychosis: Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP). American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 12851296.
Jaaskelainen, E, Juola, P, Hirvonen, N, McGrath, JJ, Saha, S, Isohanni, M, Veijola, J, Miettunen, J (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of recovery in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 12961306.
Jablensky, A (2010). The diagnostic concept of schizophrenia: its history, evolution, and future prospects. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 12, 271287.
Joseph, AJ, Tandon, N, Yang, LH, Duckworth, K, Torous, J, Seidman, LJ, Keshavan, MS (2015). #Schizophrenia: use and misuse on Twitter. Schizophrenia Research 165, 111115.
Kapur, S, Phillips, AG, Insel, TR (2012). Why has it taken so long for biological psychiatry to develop clinical tests and what to do about it? Molecular Psychiatry 17, 11741179.
Kaymaz, N, Drukker, M, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, Werbeloff, N, Weiser, M, Lataster, T, van Os, J (2012). Do subthreshold psychotic experiences predict clinical outcomes in unselected non-help-seeking population-based samples? A systematic review and meta-analysis, enriched with new results. Psychological Medicine 42, 22392253.
Kaymaz, N, van Os, J, de Graaf, R, Ten Have, M, Nolen, W, Krabbendam, L (2007). The impact of subclinical psychosis on the transition from subclinicial mania to bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 98, 5564.
Kelleher, I, Keeley, H, Corcoran, P, Lynch, F, Fitzpatrick, C, Devlin, N, Molloy, C, Roddy, S, Clarke, MC, Harley, M, Arseneault, L, Wasserman, C, Carli, V, Sarchiapone, M, Hoven, C, Wasserman, D, Cannon, M (2012). Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies. British Journal of Psychiatry 201, 2632.
Kendell, R, Jablensky, A (2003). Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 412.
Kendler, KS (2016a). Phenomenology of schizophrenia and the representativeness of modern diagnostic criteria. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 10821092.
Kendler, KS (2016b). The transformation of American psychiatric nosology at the dawn of the twentieth century. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 152158.
Keshavan, MS, Nasrallah, HA, Tandon, R (2011). Schizophrenia, ‘Just the Facts’ 6. Moving ahead with the schizophrenia concept: from the elephant to the mouse. Schizophrenia Research 127, 313.
Kirkpatrick, B, Buchanan, RW, Ross, DE, Carpenter, WT Jr. (2001). A separate disease within the syndrome of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 165171.
Kirkpatrick, B, Fenton, WS, Carpenter, WT Jr., Marder, SR (2006). The NIMH-MATRICS consensus statement on negative symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 214219.
Kirkpatrick, B, Galderisi, S (2008). Deficit schizophrenia: an update. World Psychiatry 7, 143147.
Koike, S, Yamaguchi, S, Ojio, Y, Ohta, K, Ando, S (2016). Effect of name change of schizophrenia on mass media between 1985 and 2013 in Japan: a text data mining analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, 552559.
Krabbendam, L, Myin-Germeys, I, De Graaf, R, Vollebergh, W, Nolen, WA, Iedema, J, Van Os, J (2004). Dimensions of depression, mania and psychosis in the general population. Psychological Medicine 34, 11771186.
Kraemer, HC (2007). DSM categories and dimensions in clinical and research contexts. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 16(Suppl 1), S8S15.
Kraepelin, E (1992). Die Erscheinungsformen des Irreseins: (the manifestations of insanity). History of Psychiatry 3, 509529.
Lasalvia, A, Penta, E, Sartorius, N, Henderson, S (2015). Should the label ‘schizophrenia’ be abandoned? Schizophrenia Research 162, 276284.
Leamy, M, Bird, V, Le Boutillier, C, Williams, J, Slade, M (2011). Conceptual framework for personal recovery in mental health: systematic review and narrative synthesis. British Journal of Psychiatry 199, 445452.
Lee, SH, Ripke, S, Neale, BM, Faraone, SV, Purcell, SM, Perlis, RH, Mowry, BJ, Thapar, A, Goddard, ME, Witte, JS, Absher, D, Agartz, I, Akil, H, Amin, F, Andreassen, OA, Anjorin, A, Anney, R, Anttila, V, Arking, DE, Asherson, P, Azevedo, MH, Backlund, L, Badner, JA, Bailey, AJ, Banaschewski, T, Barchas, JD, Barnes, MR, Barrett, TB, Bass, N, Battaglia, A, Bauer, M, Bayes, M, Bellivier, F, Bergen, SE, Berrettini, W, Betancur, C, Bettecken, T, Biederman, J, Binder, EB, Black, DW, Blackwood, DH, Bloss, CS, Boehnke, M, Boomsma, DI, Breen, G, Breuer, R, Bruggeman, R, Cormican, P, Buccola, NG, Buitelaar, JK, Bunney, WE, Buxbaum, JD, Byerley, WF, Byrne, EM, Caesar, S, Cahn, W, Cantor, RM, Casas, M, Chakravarti, A, Chambert, K, Choudhury, K, Cichon, S, Cloninger, CR, Collier, DA, Cook, EH, Coon, H, Cormand, B, Corvin, A, Coryell, WH, Craig, DW, Craig, IW, Crosbie, J, Cuccaro, ML, Curtis, D, Czamara, D, Datta, S, Dawson, G, Day, R, De Geus, EJ, Degenhardt, F, Djurovic, S, Donohoe, GJ, Doyle, AE, Duan, J, Dudbridge, F, Duketis, E, Ebstein, RP, Edenberg, HJ, Elia, J, Ennis, S, Etain, B, Fanous, A, Farmer, AE, Ferrier, IN, Flickinger, M, Fombonne, E, Foroud, T, Frank, J, Franke, B, Fraser, C, Freedman, R, Freimer, NB, Freitag, CM, Friedl, M, Frisen, L, Gallagher, L, Gejman, PV, Georgieva, L, Gershon, ES, Geschwind, DH, Giegling, I, Gill, M, Gordon, SD, Gordon-Smith, K, Green, EK, Greenwood, TA, Grice, DE, Gross, M, Grozeva, D, Guan, W, Gurling, H, De Haan, L, Haines, JL, Hakonarson, H, Hallmayer, J, Hamilton, SP, Hamshere, ML, Hansen, TF, Hartmann, AM, Hautzinger, M, Heath, AC, Henders, AK, Herms, S, Hickie, IB, Hipolito, M, Hoefels, S, Holmans, PA, Holsboer, F, Hoogendijk, WJ, Hottenga, JJ, Hultman, CM, Hus, V, Ingason, A, Ising, M, Jamain, S, Jones, EG, Jones, I, Jones, L, Tzeng, JY, Kahler, AK, Kahn, RS, Kandaswamy, R, Keller, MC, Kennedy, JL, Kenny, E, Kent, L, Kim, Y, Kirov, GK, Klauck, SM, Klei, L, Knowles, JA, Kohli, MA, Koller, DL, Konte, B, Korszun, A, Krabbendam, L, Krasucki, R, Kuntsi, J, Kwan, P, Landen, M, Langstrom, N, Lathrop, M, Lawrence, J, Lawson, WB, Leboyer, M, Ledbetter, DH, Lee, PH, Lencz, T, Lesch, KP, Levinson, DF, Lewis, CM, Li, J, Lichtenstein, P, Lieberman, JA, Lin, DY, Linszen, DH, Liu, C, Lohoff, FW, Loo, SK, Lord, C, Lowe, JK, Lucae, S, MacIntyre, DJ, Madden, PA, Maestrini, E, Magnusson, PK, Mahon, PB, Maier, W, Malhotra, AK, Mane, SM, Martin, CL, Martin, NG, Mattheisen, M, Matthews, K, Mattingsdal, M, McCarroll, SA, McGhee, KA, McGough, JJ, McGrath, PJ, McGuffin, P, McInnis, MG, McIntosh, A, McKinney, R, McLean, AW, McMahon, FJ, McMahon, WM, McQuillin, A, Medeiros, H, Medland, SE, Meier, S, Melle, I, Meng, F, Meyer, J, Middeldorp, CM, Middleton, L, Milanova, V, Miranda, A, Monaco, AP, Montgomery, GW, Moran, JL, Moreno-De-Luca, D, Morken, G, Morris, DW, Morrow, EM, Moskvina, V, Muglia, P, Muhleisen, TW, Muir, WJ, Muller-Myhsok, B, Murtha, M, Myers, RM, Myin-Germeys, I, Neale, MC, Nelson, SF, Nievergelt, CM, Nikolov, I, Nimgaonkar, V, Nolen, WA, Nothen, MM, Nurnberger, JI, Nwulia, EA, Nyholt, DR, O'Dushlaine, C, Oades, RD, Olincy, A, Oliveira, G, Olsen, L, Ophoff, RA, Osby, U, Owen, MJ, Palotie, A, Parr, JR, Paterson, AD, Pato, CN, Pato, MT, Penninx, BW, Pergadia, ML, Pericak-Vance, MA, Pickard, BS, Pimm, J, Piven, J, Posthuma, D, Potash, JB, Poustka, F, Propping, P, Puri, V, Quested, DJ, Quinn, EM, Ramos-Quiroga, JA, Rasmussen, HB, Raychaudhuri, S, Rehnstrom, K, Reif, A, Ribases, M, Rice, JP, Rietschel, M, Roeder, K, Roeyers, H, Rossin, L, Rothenberger, A, Rouleau, G, Ruderfer, D, Rujescu, D, Sanders, AR, Sanders, SJ, Santangelo, SL, Sergeant, JA, Schachar, R, Schalling, M, Schatzberg, AF, Scheftner, WA, Schellenberg, GD, Scherer, SW, Schork, NJ, Schulze, TG, Schumacher, J, Schwarz, M, Scolnick, E, Scott, LJ, Shi, J, Shilling, PD, Shyn, SI, Silverman, JM, Slager, SL, Smalley, SL, Smit, JH, Smith, EN, Sonuga-Barke, EJ, St Clair, D, State, M, Steffens, M, Steinhausen, HC, Strauss, JS, Strohmaier, J, Stroup, TS, Sutcliffe, JS, Szatmari, P, Szelinger, S, Thirumalai, S, Thompson, RC, Todorov, AA, Tozzi, F, Treutlein, J, Uhr, M, van den Oord, EJ, Van Grootheest, G, Van Os, J, Vicente, AM, Vieland, VJ, Vincent, JB, Visscher, PM, Walsh, CA, Wassink, TH, Watson, SJ, Weissman, MM, Werge, T, Wienker, TF, Wijsman, EM, Willemsen, G, Williams, N, Willsey, AJ, Witt, SH, Xu, W, Young, AH, Yu, TW, Zammit, S, Zandi, PP, Zhang, P, Zitman, FG, Zollner, S, Devlin, B, Kelsoe, JR, Sklar, P, Daly, MJ, O'Donovan, MC, Craddock, N, Sullivan, PF, Smoller, JW, Kendler, KS, Wray, NR (2013). Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nature Genetics 45, 984994.
Lewine, R, Burbach, D, Meltzer, HY (1984). Effect of diagnostic criteria on the ratio of male to female schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 141, 8487.
Lieberman, JA, First, MB (2007). Renaming schizophrenia. BMJ 334, 108.
Linscott, RJ, Allardyce, J, van Os, J (2010). Seeking verisimilitude in a class: a systematic review of evidence that the criterial clinical symptoms of schizophrenia are taxonic. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 811829.
Linscott, RJ, van Os, J (2013). An updated and conservative systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence on psychotic experiences in children and adults: on the pathway from proneness to persistence to dimensional expression across mental disorders. Psychological Medicine 43, 11331149.
Lublin, FD, Reingold, SC, Cohen, JA, Cutter, GR, Sorensen, PS, Thompson, AJ, Wolinsky, JS, Balcer, LJ, Banwell, B, Barkhof, F, Bebo, B Jr., Calabresi, PA, Clanet, M, Comi, G, Fox, RJ, Freedman, MS, Goodman, AD, Inglese, M, Kappos, L, Kieseier, BC, Lincoln, JA, Lubetzki, C, Miller, AE, Montalban, X, O'Connor, PW, Petkau, J, Pozzilli, C, Rudick, RA, Sormani, MP, Stuve, O, Waubant, E, Polman, CH (2014). Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: the 2013 revisions. Neurology 83, 278286.
Mancuso, SG, Morgan, VA, Mitchell, PB, Berk, M, Young, A, Castle, DJ (2015). A comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: results from the second Australian national psychosis survey. Journal of Affective Disorders 172, 3037.
Maric, N, Myin-Germeys, I, Delespaul, P, de Graaf, R, Vollebergh, W, Van Os, J (2004). Is our concept of schizophrenia influenced by Berkson's bias? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 39, 600605.
McAusland, L, Buchy, L, Cadenhead, KS, Cannon, TD, Cornblatt, BA, Heinssen, R, McGlashan, TH, Perkins, DO, Seidman, LJ, Tsuang, MT, Walker, EF, Woods, SW, Bearden, CE, Mathalon, DH, Addington, J (2015). Anxiety in youth at clinical high risk for psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry. In press. doi: 10.1111/eip.12274.
McGlashan, TH (1988). A selective review of recent North American long-term followup studies of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 14, 515542.
McGlashan, TH, Zipursky, RB, Perkins, D, Addington, J, Miller, TJ, Woods, SW, Hawkins, KA, Hoffman, R, Lindborg, S, Tohen, M, Breier, A (2003). The PRIME North America randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. I. Study rationale and design. Schizophrenia Research 61, 718.
McGorry, P, Nelson, B (2016). Why we need a transdiagnostic staging approach to emerging psychopathology, early diagnosis, and treatment. JAMA Psychiatry 73, 191192.
McGorry, P, van Os, J (2013). Redeeming diagnosis in psychiatry: timing versus specificity. Lancet 381, 343345.
McGorry, PD, Hamilton, M, Goldstone, S, Rickwood, DJ (2016). Response to Jorm: headspace – a national and international innovation with lessons for redesign of mental health care in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 50, 910.
McGorry, PD, Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Yuen, HP, Francey, S, Cosgrave, EM, Germano, D, Bravin, J, McDonald, T, Blair, A, Adlard, S, Jackson, H (2002). Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first-episode psychosis in a clinical sample with subthreshold symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 921928.
McGrath, J, Saha, S, Welham, J, El Saadi, O, MacCauley, C, Chant, D (2004). A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology. BMC Medicine 2, 13.
McGrath, JJ, Saha, S, Al-Hamzawi, A, Andrade, L, Benjet, C, Bromet, EJ, Browne, MO, Caldas de Almeida, JM, Chiu, WT, Demyttenaere, K, Fayyad, J, Florescu, S, de Girolamo, G, Gureje, O, Haro, JM, Ten Have, M, Hu, C, Kovess-Masfety, V, Lim, CC, Navarro-Mateu, F, Sampson, N, Posada-Villa, J, Kendler, KS, Kessler, RC (2016). The bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 9971006.
Milev, P, Ho, BC, Arndt, S, Andreasen, NC (2005). Predictive values of neurocognition and negative symptoms on functional outcome in schizophrenia: a longitudinal first-episode study with 7-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 495506.
Miller, TJ, McGlashan, TH, Rosen, JL, Cadenhead, K, Cannon, T, Ventura, J, McFarlane, W, Perkins, DO, Pearlson, GD, Woods, SW (2003). Prodromal assessment with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and the scale of prodromal symptoms: predictive validity, interrater reliability, and training to reliability. Schizophrenia Bulletin 29, 703715.
Moncrieff, J, Middleton, H (2015). Schizophrenia: a critical psychiatry perspective. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 28, 264268.
Morrison, AP, French, P, Stewart, SL, Birchwood, M, Fowler, D, Gumley, AI, Jones, PB, Bentall, RP, Lewis, SW, Murray, GK, Patterson, P, Brunet, K, Conroy, J, Parker, S, Reilly, T, Byrne, R, Davies, LM, Dunn, G (2012). Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at risk of psychosis: multisite randomised controlled trial. BMJ 344, e2233.
Murray, RM (1979). A reappraisal of American psychiatry. Lancet 1, 255258.
Murray, RM (2017). Mistakes I have made in my research career. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 253256.
Murray, RM, Sham, P, Van Os, J, Zanelli, J, Cannon, M, McDonald, C (2004). A developmental model for similarities and dissimilarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 71, 405416.
Nuevo, R, Van Os, J, Arango, C, Chatterji, S, Ayuso-Mateos, JL (2013). Evidence for the early clinical relevance of hallucinatory-delusional states in the general population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 127, 482493.
Perala, J, Suvisaari, J, Saarni, SI, Kuoppasalmi, K, Isometsa, E, Pirkola, S, Partonen, T, Tuulio-Henriksson, A, Hintikka, J, Kieseppa, T, Harkanen, T, Koskinen, S, Lonnqvist, J (2007). Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 1928.
Perlis, RH, Uher, R, Ostacher, M, Goldberg, JF, Trivedi, MH, Rush, AJ, Fava, M (2011). Association between bipolar spectrum features and treatment outcomes in outpatients with major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 351360.
Poulton, R, Caspi, A, Moffitt, TE, Cannon, M, Murray, R, Harrington, H (2000). Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: a 15-year longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 10531058.
Read, J, Bentall, RP (2012). Negative childhood experiences and mental health: theoretical, clinical and primary prevention implications. British Journal of Psychiatry 200, 8991.
Reininghaus, U, Bohnke, JR, Hosang, G, Farmer, A, Burns, T, McGuffin, P, Bentall, RP (2016). Evaluation of the validity and utility of a transdiagnostic psychosis dimension encompassing schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 209, 107113.
Reininghaus, U, Priebe, S, Bentall, RP (2013). Testing the psychopathology of psychosis: evidence for a general psychosis dimension. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 884895.
Ritsner, MS, Gottesman, II (2011). The schizophrenia construct after 100 years of challenges. In Handbook of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Volume I: Conceptual Issues and Neurobiological Advances (ed. Ritsner, M. S.), pp. 144. Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Robins, E, Guze, SB (1970). Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: its application to schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 126, 983987.
Rossler, W, Riecher-Rossler, A, Angst, J, Murray, R, Gamma, A, Eich, D, van Os, J, Gross, VA (2007). Psychotic experiences in the general population: a twenty-year prospective community study. Schizophrenia Research 92, 114.
Russo, M, Levine, SZ, Demjaha, A, Di Forti, M, Bonaccorso, S, Fearon, P, Dazzan, P, Pariante, CM, David, AS, Morgan, C, Murray, RM, Reichenberg, A (2014). Association between symptom dimensions and categorical diagnoses of psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 111119.
Saha, S, Chant, D, McGrath, J (2007). A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: is the differential mortality gap worsening over time? Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 11231131.
Saha, S, Chant, D, McGrath, J (2008). Meta-analyses of the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia: conceptual and methodological issues. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 17, 5561.
Saha, S, Chant, D, Welham, J, McGrath, J (2005). A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia. PLoS Medicine 2, e141.
Saha, S, Scott, JG, Varghese, D, McGrath, JJ (2011). The association between general psychological distress and delusional-like experiences: a large population-based study. Schizophrenia Research 127, 246251.
Sawa, A, Snyder, SH (2002). Schizophrenia: diverse approaches to a complex disease. Science 296, 692695.
Sharifi, V, Eaton, WW, Wu, LT, Roth, KB, Burchett, BM, Mojtabai, R (2015). Psychotic experiences and risk of death in the general population: 24–27 year follow-up of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. British Journal of Psychiatry 207, 3036.
Shevlin, M, McElroy, E, Bentall, RP, Reininghaus, U, Murphy, J (2017). The psychosis continuum: testing a bifactor model of psychosis in a general population sample. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 133141.
Smeets, F, Lataster, T, Dominguez, MD, Hommes, J, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2012). Evidence that onset of psychosis in the population reflects early hallucinatory experiences that through environmental risks and affective dysregulation become complicated by delusions. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 531542.
Smeets, F, Lataster, T, van Winkel, R, de Graaf, R, Ten Have, M, van Os, J (2013). Testing the hypothesis that psychotic illness begins when subthreshold hallucinations combine with delusional ideation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 127, 3447.
Spauwen, J, Krabbendam, L, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2004). Does urbanicity shift the population expression of psychosis? Journal of Psychiatric Research 38, 613618.
Spauwen, J, Krabbendam, L, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2006a). Evidence that the outcome of developmental expression of psychosis is worse for adolescents growing up in an urban environment. Psychological Medicine 36, 407415.
Spauwen, J, Krabbendam, L, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2006b). Impact of psychological trauma on the development of psychotic symptoms: relationship with psychosis proneness. British Journal of Psychiatry 188, 527533.
Strauss, JS, Gift, TE (1977). Choosing an approach for diagnosing schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 34, 12481253.
Sullivan, G, Mittal, D, Reaves, CM, Haynes, TF, Han, X, Mukherjee, S, Morris, S, Marsh, L, Corrigan, PW (2015). Influence of schizophrenia diagnosis on providers’ practice decisions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 76, 10681074; quiz 1074.
Takahashi, H, Ideno, T, Okubo, S, Matsui, H, Takemura, K, Matsuura, M, Kato, M, Okubo, Y (2009). Impact of changing the Japanese term for ‘schizophrenia’ for reasons of stereotypical beliefs of schizophrenia in Japanese youth. Schizophrenia Research 112, 149152.
Tamminga, CA, Ivleva, EI, Keshavan, MS, Pearlson, GD, Clementz, BA, Witte, B, Morris, DW, Bishop, J, Thaker, GK, Sweeney, JA (2013). Clinical phenotypes of psychosis in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP). American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 12631274.
Thomas, L (1973). Notes of a biology-watcher. Living language. New England Journal of Medicine 289, 12981300.
Thompson, A, Singh, S, Birchwood, M (2016). Views of early psychosis clinicians on discontinuation of antipsychotic medication following symptom remission in first episode psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 10, 355361.
Tighe, SK, Mahon, PB, Potash, JB (2011). Predictors of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease 2, 209226.
van Os, J (2009). A salience dysregulation syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 101103.
van Os, J (2013). The dynamics of subthreshold psychopathology: implications for diagnosis and treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 695698.
van Os, J (2016). ‘Schizophrenia’ does not exist. BMJ 352, i375.
Van Os, J, Delespaul, P (2005). Toward a world consensus on prevention of schizophrenia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 7, 5367.
van Os, J, Gilvarry, C, Bale, R, van Horn, E, Tattan, T, White, I, Murray, R (2000). Diagnostic value of the DSM and ICD categories of psychosis: an evidence-based approach. UK700 Group. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 35, 305311.
Van Os, J, Guloksuz, S (2017). A critique of the ‘ultra-high risk’ and ‘transition’ paradigm. World Psychiatry 16, 200206.
van Os, J, Linscott, RJ, Myin-Germeys, I, Delespaul, P, Krabbendam, L (2009). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine 39, 179195.
van Os, J, Reininghaus, U (2016). Psychosis as a transdiagnostic and extended phenotype in the general population. World Psychiatry 15, 118124.
van Os, J, van der Steen, Y, Islam, MA, Guloksuz, S, Rutten, BP, Simons, CJ, Investigators, G (2017). Evidence that polygenic risk for psychotic disorder is expressed in the domain of neurodevelopment, emotion regulation and attribution of salience. Psychological Medicine 117. In press. doi: 10.1017/S0033291717000915.
van Os, J, Wright, P, Murray, R (1997). Follow-up studies of schizophrenia I: natural history and non-psychopathological predictors of outcome. European Psychiatry 12(Suppl 5), 327s341s.
van Rossum, I, Dominguez, MD, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2011). Affective dysregulation and reality distortion: a 10-year prospective study of their association and clinical relevance. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 561571.
Van Snellenberg, JX, de Candia, T (2009). Meta-analytic evidence for familial coaggregation of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 748755.
Ventura, J, Hellemann, GS, Thames, AD, Koellner, V, Nuechterlein, KH (2009). Symptoms as mediators of the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 113, 189199.
Waddington, JL, Scully, PJ, Youssef, HA (1997). Developmental trajectory and disease progression in schizophrenia: the conundrum, and insights from a 12-year prospective study in the Monaghan 101. Schizophrenia Research 23, 107118.
Werbeloff, N, Drukker, M, Dohrenwend, BP, Levav, I, Yoffe, R, van Os, J, Davidson, M, Weiser, M (2012). Self-reported attenuated psychotic symptoms as forerunners of severe mental disorders later in life. Archives of General Psychiatry 69, 467475.
Wigman, JT, Lin, A, Vollebergh, WA, van Os, J, Raaijmakers, QA, Nelson, B, Baksheev, G, Yung, AR (2011). Subclinical psychosis and depression: co-occurring phenomena that do not predict each other over time. Schizophrenia Research 130, 277281.
Wigman, JT, van Nierop, M, Vollebergh, WA, Lieb, R, Beesdo-Baum, K, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J (2012). Evidence that psychotic symptoms are prevalent in disorders of anxiety and depression, impacting on illness onset, risk, and severity -- implications for diagnosis and ultra-high risk research. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 247257.
Wigman, JT, van Os, J, Abidi, L, Huibers, MJ, Roelofs, J, Arntz, A, Kelleher, I, Peeters, FP (2014). Subclinical psychotic experiences and bipolar spectrum features in depression: association with outcome of psychotherapy. Psychological Medicine 44, 325336.
Woodberry, KA, Seidman, LJ, Bryant, C, Addington, J, Bearden, CE, Cadenhead, KS, Cannon, TD, Cornblatt, BA, McGlashan, TH, Mathalon, DH, Perkins, DO, Tsuang, MT, Walker, EF, Woods, SW (2016). Treatment precedes positive symptoms in North American adolescent and young adult clinical high risk cohort. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 110. In press. doi:10.1080/15374416.2016.1212361.
Yung, AR, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD, Phillips, LJ, Kelly, D, Dell'Olio, M, Francey, SM, Cosgrave, EM, Killackey, E, Stanford, C, Godfrey, K, Buckby, J (2005). Mapping the onset of psychosis: the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39, 964971.
Zipursky, RB, Reilly, TJ, Murray, RM (2013). The myth of schizophrenia as a progressive brain disease. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 13631372.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 188
Total number of PDF views: 1106 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 5889 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 10th July 2017 - 21st March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.