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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    James, David V. Sukhwal, Seema Farnham, Frank R. Evans, Julie Barrie, Claire Taylor, Alice and Wilson, Simon P. 2016. Harassment and stalking of Members of the United Kingdom Parliament: associations and consequences. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. 309.


    Krokidas, Alex Varvaressou, Xenia and Stylianidis, Stelios 2016. Social and Community Psychiatry.


    Wooster, Leah James, David V. and Farnham, Frank R. 2016. Stalking, harassment and aggressive/intrusive behaviours towards general practitioners: (2) associated factors, motivation, mental illness and effects on GPs. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, Vol. 27, Issue. 1, p. 1.


    Narud, Kjersti and Dahl, Alv A. 2015. Stalking experiences reported by Norwegian members of Parliament compared to a population sample. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 116.


    2014. Forensic Psychiatry.


    McEwan, Troy E. MacKenzie, Rachel D. Mullen, Paul E. and James, David V. 2012. Approach and escalation in stalking. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 392.


    Reid Meloy, J. Hoffmann, Jens Guldimann, Angela and James, David 2012. The Role of Warning Behaviors in Threat Assessment: An Exploration and Suggested Typology. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Vol. 30, Issue. 3, p. 256.


    van der Meer, Bram Bart Bootsma, Lieke and Meloy, Reid 2012. Disturbing communications and problematic approaches to the Dutch Royal Family. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, Vol. 23, Issue. 5-6, p. 571.


    Hoffmann, Jens Meloy, J. Reid Guldimann, Angela and Ermer, Anneliese 2011. Attacks on German public figures, 1968-2004: Warning behaviors, potentially lethal and non-lethal acts, psychiatric status, and motivations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 155.


    James, David V. Mullen, Paul E. Meloy, J. Reid Pathé, Michele T. Preston, Lulu Darnley, Brian Farnham, Frank R. and Scalora, Mario J. 2011. Stalkers and harassers of British Royalty: an exploration of proxy behaviours for violence. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 64.


    James, David V. 2010. Diversion of mentally disordered people from the criminal justice system in England and Wales: An overview. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Vol. 33, Issue. 4, p. 241.


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Stalkers and harassers of royalty: the role of mental illness and motivation

  • D. V. James (a1), P. E. Mullen (a2), M. T. Pathé (a3), J. R. Meloy (a4), L. F. Preston (a1), B. Darnley (a1) and F. R. Farnham (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709005443
  • Published online: 01 April 2009
Abstract
Background

Public figures are at increased risk of attracting unwanted attention in the form of intrusions, stalking and, occasionally, attack. Whereas the potential threat to the British Royal Family from terrorists and organized groups is clearly defined, there is a dearth of knowledge about that from individual harassers and stalkers. This paper reports findings from the first systematic study of this group.

Method

A retrospective study was conducted of a randomly selected stratified sample (n=275) of 8001 files compiled by the Metropolitan Police Service's Royalty Protection Unit over 15 years on inappropriate communications or approaches to members of the British Royal Family. Cases were split into behavioural types. Evidence of major mental illness was recorded from the files. Cases were classified according to a motivational typology. An analysis was undertaken of associations between motivation, type of behaviour and mental illness.

Results

Of the study sample, 83.6% were suffering from serious mental illness. Different forms of behaviour were associated with different patterns of symptomatology. Cases could be separated into eight motivational groups, which also showed significant differences in mental state. Marked differences in the intrusiveness of behaviour were found between motivational groups.

Conclusions

The high prevalence of mental illness indicates the relevance of psychiatric intervention. This would serve the health interests of psychotic individuals and alleviate protection concerns without the necessity of attempting large numbers of individual risk predictions. The finding that some motivations are more likely to drive intrusive behaviours than others may help focus both health and protection interventions.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Professor P. E. Mullen, D.Sc., FRC.Psych., Clinical Director, Victorian Institute of Forensic Mental Health, Thomas Embling Hospital, Locked Bag 10, Fairfield, Victoria 3078, Australia. (Email: paul.mullen@forensicare.vic.gov.au)
Linked references
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J Biesterfeld , JR Meloy (2008). The public figure assassin as terrorist. In Stalking, Threatening, and Attacking Public Figures: A Psychological and Behavioral Analysis (ed. J. R. Meloy , L. Sheridan and J. Hoffmann ), pp. 143162. Oxford University Press: New York.

J Cohen (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin 112, 155159.

DV James , PE Mullen , JR Meloy , MT Pathé , FR Farnham , LF Preston , B Darnley (2007). The role of mental disorder in attacks on European politicians 1990–2004. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116, 334344.

JR Meloy , DV James , FR Farnham , PE Mullen , MT Pathé , B Darnley , L Preston (2004). A research review of public figure threats, approaches, attacks, and assassinations in the United States. Journal of Forensic Sciences 49, 10861093.

JR Meloy , K Mohandie , M Green (2008 a). A forensic examination of those who stalk celebrities. In Stalking, Threatening and Attacking Public Figures (ed. J. R. Meloy , L. Sheridan and J. Hoffmann ), pp. 3754. Oxford University Press: New York.

JR Meloy , L Sheridan , J Hoffmann (2008 b). Stalking, Threatening and Attacking Public Figures: A Psychological and Behavioral Analysis. Oxford University Press: New York.

PE Mullen , DV James , JR Meloy , MT Pathé , FR Farnham , L Preston , B Darnley (2008). The role of psychotic illnesses in attacks on public figures. In Stalking, Threatening and Attacking Public Figures (eds. J. R. Meloy , L. Sheridan and J. Hoffmann ), pp. 5582. Oxford University Press: New York.

M Scalora , J Baumgartner , W Zimmerman , D Callaway , M Maillette , C Covell , R Palarea , J Krebs , D Washington (2002 a). An epidemiological assessment of problematic contacts to members of Congress. Journal of Forensic Sciences 47, 15.

M Scalora , J Baumgartner , W Zimmerman , D Callaway , M Maillette , C Covell , R Palarea , J Krebs , D Washington (2002 b). Risk factors for approach behavior toward the U.S. Congress. Journal of Threat Assessment 2, 3555.

MA Zona , KK Sharma , J Lane (1993). A comparative study of erotomanic and obsessional subjects in a forensic sample. Journal of Forensic Sciences 38, 894903.

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Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
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