Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Three decades of eating disorders in Dutch primary care: decreasing incidence of bulimia nervosa but not of anorexia nervosa

  • F. R. E. Smink (a1), D. van Hoeken (a1), G. A. Donker (a2), E. S. Susser (a3), A. J. Oldehinkel (a4) and H. W. Hoek (a1) (a3) (a4)...
Abstract
Background

Whether the incidence of eating disorders in Western, industrialized countries has changed over time has been the subject of much debate. The purpose of this primary-care study was to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in The Netherlands during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.

Method

A nationwide network of general practitioners (GPs), serving a representative sample (~1%) of the total Dutch population, recorded newly diagnosed patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in their practice during 1985–1989, 1995–1999, and 2005–2009. GPs are key players in the Dutch healthcare system, as their written referral is mandatory in order to get access to specialized (mental) healthcare, covered by health insurance. Health insurance is virtually universal in The Netherlands (99% of the population). A substantial number of GPs participated in all three study periods, during which the same case identification criteria were used and the same psychiatrist was responsible for making the final diagnoses. Incidence rates were calculated and for comparison between periods, incidence rate ratios.

Results

The overall incidence rate of BN decreased significantly in the past three decades (from 8.6 per 100 000 person-years in 1985–1989 to 6.1 in 1995–1999, and 3.2 in 2005–2009). The overall incidence of AN remained fairly stable during three decades, i.e. 7.4 per 1 00 000 person-years in 1985–1989, 7.8 in 1995–1999, and 6.0 in 2005–2009.

Conclusions

The incidence rate of BN decreased significantly over the past three decades, while the overall incidence rate of AN remained stable.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Professor H. W. Hoek, M.D., Ph.D, Parnassia Psychiatric Institute, Kiwistraat 43, NL-2552 DH The Hague, The Netherlands. (Email: w.hoek@parnassiagroep.nl)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

JJ Aardoom , AE Dingemans , P Spinhoven , EF Van Furth (2013). Treating eating disorders over the internet: a systematic review and future research directions. International Journal of Eating Disorders 46, 539552.

J Arcelus , AJ Mitchell , J Wales , S Nielsen (2011). Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 724731.

E Attia , AE Becker , R Bryant-Waugh , HW Hoek , RE Kreipe , MD Marcus , JE Mitchell , RH Striegel , BT Walsh , GT Wilson , BE Wolfe , S Wonderlich (2013). Feeding and eating disorders in DSM-5. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 12371239.

M Christodoulou (2012). Pro-anorexia websites pose public health challenge. Lancet 379, 110.

JH Crowther , M Armey , KH Luce , GR Dalton , T Leahey (2008). The point prevalence of bulimic disorders from 1990 to 2004. International Journal of Eating Disorders 41, 491497.

L Currin , U Schmidt , J Treasure , H Jick (2005). Time trends in eating disorder incidence. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 132135.

A Favaro , L Caregaro , E Tenconi , R Bosello , P Santonastaso (2009). Time trends in age at onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 70, 17151721.

KM Flegal , MD Carroll , BK Kit , CL Ogden (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. Journal of the American Medical Association 307, 491497.

E Fombonne (1996). Is bulimia nervosa increasing in frequency? International Journal of Eating Disorders 19, 287296.

GC Gast , FJ Frenken , LA van Leest , GC Wendel-Vos , WJ Bemelmans (2007). Intra-national variation in trends in overweight and leisure time physical activities in The Netherlands since 1980: stratification according to sex, age and urbanisation degree. International Journal of Obesity 31, 515520.

PJ Hay , J Mond , P Buttner , A Darby (2008). Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia. PLoS ONE 3, e1541.

HW Hoek (2006). Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 19, 389394.

HW Hoek , D van Hoeken (2003). Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders 34, 383396.

PK Keel , TF Heatherton , DJ Dorer , TE Joiner , AK Zalta (2006). Point prevalence of bulimia nervosa in 1982, 1992, and 2002. Psychological Medicine 36, 119127.

PK Keel , KL Klump (2003). Are eating disorders culture-bound syndromes? Implications for conceptualizing their etiology. Psychological Bulletin 129, 747769.

PK Keel , RH Striegel-Moore (2009). The validity and clinical utility of purging disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders 42, 706719.

A Keski-Rahkonen , HW Hoek , ES Susser , MS Linna , E Sihvola , A Raevuori , CM Bulik , J Kaprio , A Rissanen (2007). Epidemiology and course of anorexia nervosa in the community. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 12591265.

SF Kim (2012). Animal models of eating disorders. Neuroscience 211, 212.

PP Machado , BC Machado , S Goncalves , HW Hoek (2007). The prevalence of eating disorders not otherwise specified. International Journal of Eating Disorders 40, 212217.

B Mangweth-Matzek , HW Hoek , HG Pope Jr. (2014). Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 27, 431435.

N Micali , KW Hagberg , I Petersen , JL Treasure (2013). The incidence of eating disorders in the UK in 2000–2009: findings from the general practice research database. BMJ Open 3, e002646.

M Ng , T Fleming , M Robinson , B Thomson , N Graetz , C Margono , EC Mullany , S Biryukov , C Abbafati , SF Abera , JP Abraham , NM Abu-Rmeileh , T Achoki , FS AlBuhairan , ZA Alemu , R Alfonso , MK Ali , R Ali , NA Guzman , W Ammar , P Anwari , A Banerjee , S Barquera , S Basu , DA Bennett , Z Bhutta , J Blore , N Cabral , IC Nonato , JC Chang , R Chowdhury , KJ Courville , MH Criqui , DK Cundiff , KC Dabhadkar , L Dandona , A Davis , A Dayama , SD Dharmaratne , EL Ding , AM Durrani , A Esteghamati , F Farzadfar , DF Fay , VL Feigin , A Flaxman , MH Forouzanfar , A Goto , MA Green , R Gupta , N Hafezi-Nejad , GJ Hankey , HC Harewood , R Havmoeller , S Hay , L Hernandez , A Husseini , BT Idrisov , N Ikeda , F Islami , E Jahangir , SK Jassal , SH Jee , M Jeffreys , JB Jonas , EK Kabagambe , SE Khalifa , AP Kengne , YS Khader , YH Khang , D Kim , RW Kimokoti , JM Kinge , Y Kokubo , S Kosen , G Kwan , T Lai , M Leinsalu , Y Li , X Liang , S Liu , G Logroscino , PA Lotufo , Y Lu , J Ma , NK Mainoo , GA Mensah , TR Merriman , AH Mokdad , J Moschandreas , M Naghavi , A Naheed , D Nand , KM Narayan , EL Nelson , ML Neuhouser , MI Nisar , T Ohkubo , SO Oti , A Pedroza , D Prabhakaran , N Roy , U Sampson , H Seo , SG Sepanlou , K Shibuya , R Shiri , I Shiue , GM Singh , JA Singh , V Skirbekk , NJ Stapelberg , L Sturua , BL Sykes , M Tobias , BX Tran , L Trasande , H Toyoshima , S van de Vijver , TJ Vasankari , JL Veerman , G Velasquez-Melendez , VV Vlassov , SE Vollset , T Vos , C Wang , X Wang , E Weiderpass , A Werdecker , JL Wright , YC Yang , H Yatsuya , J Yoon , SJ Yoon , Y Zhao , M Zhou , S Zhu , AD Lopez , CJ Murray , E Gakidou (2014). Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet 384, 766781.

CL Ogden , MD Carroll , BK Kit , KM Flegal (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. Journal of the American Medical Association 311, 806814.

KM Pike , HW Hoek , PE Dunne (2014). Cultural trends and eating disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 27, 436442.

E Shepherd , C Seale (2010). Eating disorders in the media: the changing nature of UK newspaper reports. European Eating Disorders Review 18, 486495.

FR Smink , D van Hoeken , HW Hoek (2012). Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. Current Psychiatry Reports 14, 406414.

FR Smink , D van Hoeken , HW Hoek (2013). Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 26, 543548.

FR Smink , D van Hoeken , AJ Oldehinkel , HW Hoek (2014). Prevalence and severity of DSM-5 eating disorders in a community cohort of adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders 47, 610619.

E Stice , CB Becker , S Yokum (2013). Eating disorder prevention: current evidence-base and future directions. International Journal of Eating Disorders 46, 478485.

S Theander (2002). Literature on eating disorders during 40 years: increasing number of papers, emergence of bulimia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review 10, 386398.

J Treasure , AM Claudino , N Zucker (2010). Eating disorders. Lancet 375, 583593.

JL Treasure , JB Owen (1997). Intriguing links between animal behavior and anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders 21, 307311.

S Turnbull , A Ward , J Treasure , H Jick , L Derby (1996). The demand for eating disorder care. An epidemiological study using the general practice research database. British Journal of Psychiatry 169, 705712.

GE van Son , D van Hoeken , AI Bartelds , EF van Furth , HW Hoek (2006 a). Time trends in the incidence of eating disorders: a primary care study in the Netherlands. International Journal of Eating Disorders 39, 565569.

GE van Son , D van Hoeken , AI Bartelds , EF van Furth , HW Hoek (2006 b). Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 189, 562563.

BT Walsh (2013). The enigmatic persistence of anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 477484.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 14
Total number of PDF views: 164 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 919 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.