Anacker, C, Zunszain, PA, Cattaneo, A, Carvalho, LA, Garabedian, MJ, Thuret, S et al. (2011) Antidepressants increase human hippocampal neurogenesis by activating the glucocorticoid receptor. Molecular Psychiatry 16, 738–750.
Bach, DR and Dolan, RJ (2012) Knowing how much you don't know: a neural organization of uncertainty estimates. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13, 572–586.
Badcock, PB, Davey, CG, Whittle, S, Allen, NB and Friston, KJ (2017) The depressed brain: an evolutionary systems theory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21, 182–194.
Barch, DM, Carter, CS, Dakin, SC, Gold, J, Luck, SJ, Macdonald, A 3rd et al. (2012) The clinical translation of a measure of gain control: the contrast-contrast effect task. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 135–143.
Barrett, LF, Quigley, KS and Hamilton, P (2016) An active inference theory of allostasis and interoception in depression. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371, 20160011.
Barrett, LF and Satpute, AB (2013) Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 23, 361–372.
Barrett, LF and Simmons, WK (2015) Interoceptive predictions in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 16, 419–429.
Bastos, AM, Usrey, WM, Adams, RA, Mangun, GR, Fries, P and Friston, KJ (2012) Canonical microcircuits for predictive coding. Neuron 76, 695–711.
Bernet, CZ and Stein, MB (1999) Relationship of childhood maltreatment to the onset and course of major depression in adulthood. Depression and Anxiety 9, 169–174.
Berridge, KC and Kringelbach, ML. (2015) Pleasure systems in the brain. Neuron 86, 646–664.
Bossaerts, P (2010) Risk and risk prediction error signals in anterior insula. Brain Structure and Function 214, 645–653.
Braithwaite, EC, Kundakovic, M, Ramchandani, PG, Murphy, SE and Champagne, FA (2015) Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms predict infant NR3C1 1F and BDNF IV DNA methylation. Epigenetics 10, 408–417.
Brown, H and Friston, K (2012) Dynamic causal modelling of precision and synaptic gain in visual perception – an EEG study. NeuroImage 63, 223–231.
Browning, M, Holmes, EA, Charles, M, Cowen, PJ and Harmer, CJ (2012) Using attentional bias modification as a cognitive vaccine against depression. Biological Psychiatry 72, 572–579.
Carpenter, LL, Carvalho, JP, Tyrka, AR, Wier, LM, Mello, AF, Mello, MF et al. (2007) Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant childhood maltreatment. Biological Psychiatry 62, 1080–1087.
Castrén, E and Hen, R (2013) Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions. Trends in Neurosciences 36, 259–267.
Chekroud, AM (2015) Unifying treatments for depression: an application of the free energy principle. Frontiers in Psychology 6, 153–161.
Clark, JE, Ng, WF, Watson, S and Newton, JL (2016) The aetiopathogenesis of fatigue: unpredictable, complex and persistent. British Medical Bulletin 117, 139–148.
Corlett, PR (2017) I predict, therefore I am: perturbed predictive coding under ketamine and in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 81, 465–466.
Corlett, PR and Fletcher, PC (2014) Computational psychiatry: a Rosetta Stone linking the brain to mental illness. The Lancet Psychiatry 1, 399–402.
Crockett, MJ, Siegel, JZ, Kurth-Nelson, Z, Ousdal, OT, Story, G, Frieband, C et al. (2015) Dissociable effects of serotonin and dopamine on the valuation of harm in moral decision making. Current Biology 25, 1852–1859.
de Almeida, JRC, Versace, A, Mechelli, A, Hassel, S, Quevedo, K, Kupfer, DJ et al. (2009) Abnormal amygdala-prefrontal effective connectivity to happy faces differentiates bipolar from major depression. Biological Psychiatry 66, 451–459.
Dowlati, Y, Herrmann, N, Swardfager, W, Liu, H, Sham, L, Reim, EK et al. (2010) A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression. Biological Psychiatry 67, 446–457.
Duman, RS (2014) Neurobiology of stress, depression, and rapid acting antidepressants: remodeling synaptic connections. Depression and Anxiety 31, 291–296.
Duque, A and Vázquez, C (2015) Double attention bias for positive and negative emotional faces in clinical depression: evidence from an eye-tracking study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 46, 107–114.
Eshel, N and Roiser, JP (2010) Reward and punishment processing in depression. Biological Psychiatry 68, 118–124.
Fotopoulou, A (2015) The virtual bodily self: mentalisation of the body as revealed in anosognosia for hemiplegia. Consciousness and Cognition 33, 500–510.
Friston, K (2009) The free-energy principle: a rough guide to the brain? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13, 293–301.
Friston, K (2010) The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11, 127–138.
Friston, K and Kiebel, S (2009) Predictive coding under the free-energy principle. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 364, 1211–1221.
Friston, K, Kilner, J and Harrison, L (2006) A free energy principle for the brain. Journal of Physiology – Paris 100, 70–87.
Friston, K, Mattout, J and Kilner, J (2011) Action understanding and active inference. Biological Cybernetics 104, 137–160.
Friston, KJ, Harrison, L and Penny, W (2003) Dynamic causal modelling. NeuroImage 19, 1273–1302.
Gao, S-F, Klomp, A, Wu, J-L, Swaab, DF and Bao, A-M (2013) Reduced GAD 65/67 immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in depression: a postmortem study. Journal of Affective Disorders 149, 422–425.
Gu, X, Hof, PR, Friston, KJ and Fan, J (2013) Anterior insular cortex and emotional awareness. Journal of Comparative Neurology 521, 3371–3388.
Harmer, CJ and Cowen, PJ (2013) ‘It's the way that you look at it’ – a cognitive neuropsychological account of SSRI action in depression. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 368, 20120407.
Harmer, CJ, Goodwin, GM and Cowen, PJ (2009) Why do antidepressants take so long to work? A cognitive neuropsychological model of antidepressant drug action. The British Journal of Psychiatry 195, 102–108.
Hart, AS, Rutledge, RB, Glimcher, PW and Phillips, PEM (2014) Phasic dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens symmetrically encodes a reward prediction error term. Journal of Neuroscience 34, 698–704.
Heim, C and Binder, EB (2012) Current research trends in early life stress and depression: review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetics. Experimental Neurology 233, 102–111.
Heim, C and Nemeroff, CB (2001) The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry 49, 1023–1039.
Heim, C, Newport, DJ, Mletzko, T, Miller, AH and Nemeroff, CB (2008) The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33, 693–710.
Herman, JP, Tasker, JG, Ziegler, DR and Cullinan, WE (2002) Local circuit regulation of paraventricular nucleus stress integration: glutamate–GABA connections. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 71, 457–468.
Hirschfeld, RMA (2000) History and evolution of the monoamine hypothesis of depression. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61, 4–6.
Hohwy, J (2016) The self-evidencing brain. Noûs 50, 259–285.
Holsboer, F (2000) The corticosteroid receptor hypothesis of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 23, 477–501.
Holsboer, F, Liebl, R and Hofschuster, E (1982) Repeated dexamethasone suppression test during depressive illness: normalisation of test result compared with clinical improvement. Journal of Affective Disorders 4, 93–101.
Huys, QJ, Moutoussis, M and Williams, J (2011) Are computational models of any use to psychiatry? Neural Networks 24, 544–551.
Joffily, M and Coricelli, G (2013) Emotional valence and the free-energy principle. PLoS Computational Biology 9, e1003094.
Kasckow, JW, Baker, D and Geracioti, TD (2001) Corticotropin-releasing hormone in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Peptides 22, 845–851.
Krystal, JH, Murray, JD, Chekroud, AM, Corlett, PR, Yang, G, Wang, X-J et al. (2017) Computational Psychiatry and the Challenge of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 473–475.
Lawson, RP, Rees, G and Friston, KJ (2014) An aberrant precision account of autism. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8, 302.
Lu, Q, Li, H, Luo, G, Wang, Y, Tang, H, Han, L et al. (2012) Impaired prefrontal-amygdala effective connectivity is responsible for the dysfunction of emotion process in major depressive disorder: a dynamic causal modeling study on MEG. Neuroscience Letters 523, 125–130.
Mason, L, Eldar, E and Rutledge, RB (2017) Mood instability and reward dysregulation – a neurocomputational model of bipolar disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 1275–1276.
McEwen, BS (1998) Stress, adaptation, and disease: allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 840, 33–44.
McEwen, BS (2000) Allostasis and allostatic load: implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology 22, 108–124.
Meewisse, M-L, Reitsma, JB, De Vries, G-J, Gersons, BPR and Olff, M (2007) Cortisol and post-traumatic stress disorder in adults. The British Journal of Psychiatry 191, 387–392.
Möhler, H (2012) The GABA system in anxiety and depression and its therapeutic potential. Neuropharmacology 62, 42–53.
Montague, PR, Dolan, RJ, Friston, KJ and Dayan, P (2012) Computational psychiatry. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16, 72–80.
Morimoto, M, Morita, N, Ozawa, H, Yokoyama, K and Kawata, M (1996) Distribution of glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity and mRNA in the rat brain: an immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study. Neuroscience Research 26, 235–269.
Mueller, SC, Ng, P, Temple, V, Hardin, MG, Pine, DS, Leibenluft, E et al. (2010) Perturbed reward processing in pediatric bipolar disorder: an antisaccade study. Journal of Psychopharmacology 24, 1779–1784.
Nantharat, M, Wanitchanon, T, Amesbutr, M, Tammachote, R and Praphanphoj, V (2015) Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter is hypermethylated in Thai females with major depressive disorder. Genetics and Molecular Research 14, 19071–19079.
Nesse, RM and Stein, DJ (2012) Towards a genuinely medical model for psychiatric nosology. BMC Medicine 10, 1.
Nestler, EJ and Carlezon, WA (2006) The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biological Psychiatry 59, 1151–1159.
Nitsche, MA, Monte-Silva, K, Kuo, MF and Paulus, W (2010) Dopaminergic impact on cortical excitability in humans. Reviews in the Neurosciences 21, 289–298.
Nutt, D, Demyttenaere, K, Janka, Z, Aarre, T, Bourin, M, Canonico, PL et al. (2007) The other face of depression, reduced positive affect: the role of catecholamines in causation and cure. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21, 461–471.
Ota, KT and Duman, RS (2013) Environmental and pharmacological modulations of cellular plasticity: role in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Neurobiology of Disease 57, 28–37.
Palma-Gudiel, H, Cordova-Palomera, A, Feixa, LM, Miquel, FC and Fañanás, L (2016) Epigenetic signature of glucocorticoid receptor is associated with the familial component of depression: a twin-based study. European Psychiatry 33, S79.
Peters, A, McEwen, BS and Friston, K (2017) Uncertainty and stress: why it causes diseases and how it is mastered by the brain. Progress in Neurobiology 156, 164–188.
Pezzulo, G (2012) An active inference view of cognitive control. Frontiers in Psychology 3, 478.
Pezzulo, G, Rigoli, F and Friston, K (2015) Active inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control. Progress in Neurobiology 134, 17–35.
Raadsheer, FC, Hoogendijk, WJG, Stam, FC, Tilders, FJH and Swaab, DF (1994) Increased numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of depressed patients. Neuroendocrinology 60, 436–444.
Radaelli, D, Sferrazza Papa, G, Vai, B, Poletti, S, Smeraldi, E, Colombo, C et al. (2015) Fronto-limbic disconnection in bipolar disorder. European Psychiatry 30, 82–88.
Radley, JJ, Kabbaj, M, Jacobson, L, Heydendael, W, Yehuda, R and Herman, JP (2011) Stress risk factors and stress-related pathology: neuroplasticity, epigenetics and endophenotypes. Stress 14, 481–497.
Ramsay, DS and Woods, SC (2014) Clarifying the roles of homeostasis and allostasis in physiological regulation. Psychological Review 121, 225–247.
Rutledge, RB, Dean, M, Caplin, A and Glimcher, PW (2010) Testing the reward prediction error hypothesis with an axiomatic model. Journal of Neuroscience 30, 13525–13536.
Santarelli, L, Saxe, M, Gross, C, Surget, A, Battaglia, F, Dulawa, S et al. (2003) Requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants. Science 301, 805–809.
Schlosser, RG, Wagner, G, Koch, K, Dahnke, R, Reichenbach, JR and Sauer, H (2008) Fronto-cingulate effective connectivity in major depression: a study with fMRI and dynamic causal modeling. NeuroImage 43, 645–655.
Seligman, MEP (1975) Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. New York: WH Freeman/Times Books/Henry Holt & Co.
Seth, AK (2013) Interoceptive inference, emotion, and the embodied self. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17, 565–573.
Seth, AK (2014) The cybernetic Bayesian brain. In Open Mind. Open MIND. Frankfurt am Main: MIND Group.
Seth, AK and Friston, KJ (2016) Active interoceptive inference and the emotional brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371, 20160007.
Sher, L, Oquendo, MA, Burke, AK, Cooper, TB and Mann, JJ (2013) Combined dexamethasone suppression – corticotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation test in medication-free major depression and healthy volunteers. Journal of Affective Disorders 151, 1108–1112.
Shin, LM, Rauch, SL and Pitman, RK (2006) Amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampal function in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1071, 67–79.
Shipp, S, Adams, RA and Friston, KJ (2013) Reflections on agranular architecture: predictive coding in the motor cortex. Trends in Neurosciences 36, 706–716.
Singh, MK, Chang, KD, Kelley, RG, Cui, X, Sherdell, L, Howe, ME et al. (2013) Reward processing in adolescents with bipolar I disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 52, 68–83.
Sladky, R, Höflich, A, Atanelov, J, Kraus, C, Baldinger, P, Moser, E et al. (2012) Increased neural habituation in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in social anxiety disorder revealed by fMRI. PLoS ONE 7, e50050.
Sladky, R, Höflich, A, Küblböck, M, Kraus, C, Baldinger, P, Moser, E et al. (2015) Disrupted effective connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in social anxiety disorder during emotion discrimination revealed by dynamic causal modeling for fMRI. Cerebral Cortex 25, 895–903.
Smart, C, Strathdee, G, Watson, S, Murgatroyd, C and McAllister-Williams, RH (2015) Early life trauma, depression and the glucocorticoid receptor gene – an epigenetic perspective. Psychological Medicine 45, 3393–3410.
Smith, ME (2005) Bilateral hippocampal volume reduction in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of structural MRI studies. Hippocampus 15, 798–807.
Southwick, SM and Charney, DS (2012) The science of resilience: implications for the prevention and treatment of depression. Science 338, 79–82.
Stephan, KE, Manjaly, ZM, Mathys, CD, Weber, LAE, Paliwal, S, Gard, T et al. (2016) Allostatic self-efficacy: a metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10, 550–577.
Sterling, P and Eyer, J (1988) Allostasis: a new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In Handbook of Life Stress, Cognition and Health. (Eds K. Fisher and J. Reason.) New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 629–649.
Sullivan, TP, Fehon, DC, Andres-Hyman, RC, Lipschitz, DS and Grilo, CM (2006) Differential relationships of childhood abuse and neglect subtypes to PTSD symptom clusters among adolescent inpatients. Journal of Traumatic Stress 19, 229–239.
Vai, B, Bulgarelli, C, Godlewska, BR, Cowen, PJ, Benedetti, F and Harmer, CJ (2016) Fronto-limbic effective connectivity as possible predictor of antidepressant response to SSRI administration. European Neuropsychopharmacology 26, 2000–2010.
Vai, B, Poletti, S, Radaelli, D, Dallaspezia, S, Bulgarelli, C, Locatelli, C et al. (2015) Successful antidepressant chronotherapeutics enhance fronto-limbic neural responses and connectivity in bipolar depression. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 233, 243–253.
Valiengo, LL, Soeiro-de-Souza, MG, Marques, AH, Moreno, DH, Juruena, MF, Andreazza, AC et al. (2012) Plasma cortisol in first episode drug-naïve mania: differential levels in euphoric versus irritable mood. Journal of Affective Disorders 138, 149–152.
Van der Gucht, E, Morriss, R, Lancaster, G, Kinderman, P and Bentall, RP (2009) Psychological processes in bipolar affective disorder: negative cognitive style and reward processing. The British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 146–151.
Videbech, P and Ravnkilde, B (2004) Hippocampal volume and depression: a meta-analysis of MRI studies. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 1957–1966.
Wager, TD, Kang, J, Johnson, TD, Nichols, TE, Satpute, AB and Barrett, LF (2015) A Bayesian model of category-specific emotional brain responses. PLoS Computational Biology 11, e1004066.
Wang, XJ and Krystal, JH (2014) Computational psychiatry. Neuron 84, 638–654.
Watson, S, Gallagher, P, Dougall, D, Porter, R, Moncrieff, J, Ferrier, IN et al. (2014) Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 48, 564–570.
Weaver, ICG, Cervoni, N, Champagne, FA, D'Alessio, AC, Sharma, S, Seckl, JR et al. (2004) Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience 7, 847–854.
Yehuda, R, Southwick, SM, Krystal, JH, Bremner, D, Charney, DS and Mason, JW (1993) Enhanced suppression of cortisol following dexamethasone administration in posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 83–83.