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SAIL – stereo-array isotope labeling

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 April 2010

Masatsune Kainosho*
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan Institute of Biophysical Chemistry and Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Peter Güntert
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan Institute of Biophysical Chemistry and Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
*Author for correspondence: Prof. M. Kainosho, Center of Priority Areas, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-ohsawa, Hachioji, Tokyo192-0397, Japan. Tel.: 81-42-677-4873; Fax: 81-42-677-4873; Email:


Optimal stereospecific and regiospecific labeling of proteins with stable isotopes enhances the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the determination of the three-dimensional protein structures in solution. Stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) offers sharpened lines, spectral simplification without loss of information and the ability to rapidly collect and automatically evaluate the structural restraints required to solve a high-quality solution structure for proteins up to twice as large as before. This review gives an overview of stable isotope labeling methods for NMR spectroscopy with proteins and provides an in-depth treatment of the SAIL technology.

Review Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

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