Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Structure of viral connectors and their function in bacteriophage assembly and DNA packaging

  • Jose M. Valpuesta (a1) and Jose L. Carrascosa (a1)

Extract

The viruses have been an attractive model for the study of basic mechanisms of protein/protein and protein/nucleic acid interactions involved in the assembly of macromolecular aggregates. This has been due primarily to their relative genetic simplicity as compared to their structural and functional complexity. Although most of the initial studies were carried out on bacterial and plant viruses, increasing data has also been accumulated from animal viruses, which has led to an understanding of some basic principles, as well as to many specific strategies in every system. The study of virus assembly has been a source of ideas that underlie our present knowledge of the organization of biological systems. It has also provided, since the production of bacteriophage mutants which have allowed the study of assembly intermediates, the first system in which the genetic studies played a dominant role. The increasing volume of data over the last years has revealed how the structural components can interact sequentially through an ordered pathway to yield macromolecular assemblies that satisfy the demands of stability required for a successful transfer of genetic information from host to host.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alonso, J. C. & Chai, S. (1993). Analysis of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 gene 1 product, a protein involved in the initiation of headful packaging. Abstracts of the EMBO workshop on nucleic acid-protein interactions in bacteriophages. Salamanca (Spain), pp. 63.
Amos, L., Henderson, R. & Unwin, P. N. T. (1982). Three-dimensional determination by electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals. Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 39, 183231.
Anderson, D. L., Hickman, D. D. & Reillv, B. E. (1966). Structure of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage φ29 and the length of φ29 deoxyribonucleic acid. J. Bacteriol. 91, 20812089.
Backhaus, H. (1985). DNA packaging initiation of Salmonella bacteriophage p22: determination of cut within the DNA sequence coding for gene 3. J. Virol. 55, 458465.
Bailey, S., Wichitwechkarn, J., Johnson, D., Reilly, B. E., Anderson, D. L. & Bodley, J. W. (1990). Phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage RNA required for DNA packaging. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 22 36522 370.
Bazinet, C. & King, J. (1985). The DNA translocating vertex of dsDNA bacteriophage. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 39, 109129.
Bazinet, C. & King, J. (1988). Initiation of p22 procapsid assembly in vivo. J. Mol. Biol. 202, 7786.
Bazinet, C., Benbasat, J., King, J., Carazo, J. M. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1988). Purification and organization of the gene 1 portal protein required for phage P22 DNA packaging. Biochemistry 27, 18491856.
Bazinet, C., Villafane, R. & King, J. (1990). Novel second-site suppression of a coldsensitive defect in phage P22 procapsid assembly. J. Mol. Biol. 216, 701716.
Becker, A., Murialdo, H. & Gold, M. (1977). Studies on an in vitro system for the packaging and maturation of phage λ DNA Virology 78, 277290.
Becker, A., Murialdo, H., Lucko, H. & Morell, J. (1988). Bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging. The product of the FI gene promotes the incorporation of the. prohead to the DNA-terminase complex. J. Mol. Biol. 199, 597607.
Becker, A. & Murialdo, H. (1990). Bacteriophage λ DNA: the beginning of the end. J. Bacteriol. 172, 28192824.
Bjornsti, M. A., Reilly, B. E. & Anderson, D. (1981). In vitro assembly of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage φ29. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 58615865.
Bjornsti, M. A., Reilly, B. E. & Anderson, D. (1982). Morphogenesis of bacteriophage φ29 of Bacillus subtilis: DNA-gp3 intermediate in in vivo and in vitro assembly. J. Virol. 41, 508517.
Bjornsti, M. A., Reilly, B. E. & Anderson, D. (1983). Morphogenesis of bacteriophage φ29 of Bacillus subtilis: Oriented and quantized in vitro packaging of DNA protein gp3. J. Virol. 45, 383396.
Black, L. W. & Silverman, D. J. (1978). Model for DNA packaging into bacteriophage heads. J. Virol. 28, 643655.
Black, L. W. (1986). In vitro packaging into phage T4 particles and specific recircularization of phage lambda DNAs. Gene 46, 97101.
Black, L. W. (1988). DNA packaging in dsDNA bacteriophages. In The Bacteriophages (ed. Calendar, R.), Vol. 2, pp. 321373. New York: Plenum.
Black, L. W. (1989). DNA packaging in dsDNA bacteriophages. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 43. 267292.
Bowden, D. W. & Calendar, R. (1979). Maturation of bacteriophage P2 DNA in vitro: a complex, site-specific system for DNA cleavage. J. Mol. Biol. 129, 18.
Bowden, D. W. & Modrich, P. (1985). In vitro maturation of circular bacteriophage P2 DNA: purification of ter components and characterization of their reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 69997007.
Bravo, A., Alonso, J. C. & Trautner, T. A. (1990). Functional analysis of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 pac site. Nucl. Acids Res. 18, 28812886.
Camacho, A., Jimenez, F., de la Torre, J., Carrascosa, J. L., Mellado, R. P., Vásquez, C., Viñuela, E. & Salas, M. (1977). Assembly of Bacillus subtilis phage φ29. I. Mutants in the cistrons coding for the structural proteins. Eur. J. Biochem. 73, 3955.
Camacho, A., Jiménez, F., Viñuela, E. & Salas, M. (1979). Order of assembly of the lower collar and the tail proteins of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage φ29. J. Virol. 29, 540545.
Carazo, J. M., García, N., Santisteban, A. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1984). Structural study of tetragonal-ordered aggregates of phage φ29 necks. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 89, 7988.
Carazo, J. M., Santisteban, A. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1985). Three-dimensional reconstruction of bacteriophage φ29 neck particles at 2·2 nm resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 183. 7988.
Carazo, J. M., Fujisawa, H., Nakasu, S. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1986 a). Bacteriophage T3 gene 8 product oligomer structure. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 94, 105113.
Carazo, J. M., Donate, L. E., Herranz, L., Secilla, J. P. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1986 b). Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bacteriophage φ29 at 1·8 nm resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 192, 853867.
Carrascosa, J. L., Viñuela, E., García, N. & Santisteban, A. (1982). Structure of the head-tail connector of bacteriophage φ29. J. Mol. Biol. 154, 311324.
Carrascosa, J. L., Carazo, J. M. & García, N. (1983). Structural localization of the proteins of the head to tail connecting region of bacteriophage φ29. Virology 124, 133143.
Carrascosa, J. L., Carazo, J. M., Ibañez, C. & Santisteban, A. (1985). Structure of phage φ29 connector protein assembled in vivo. Virology 141, 190200.
Carrascosa, J. L. (1986). Bacteriophage morphogenesis. In Electron Microscopy of Proteins vol. 5, Viral Structure (ed. Harris, J. R. & Home, R. W.), pp. 3770. Academic Press: London.
Carrascosa, J. L., Carazo, J. M., Herranz, L., Donate, L. E. & Secilla, J. P. (1990). Study of two related configurations of the neck of bacteriophage φ29. Computers Math. Applic. 20, 5769.
Casjens, S., Huang, W., Hayden, M. & Parr, R. (1987). Initiation of bacteriophage P22 DNA packaging series: analysis of a mutant which alters the DNA target specificity of the packaging apparatus, J. Mol. Biol. 194, 411422.
Casjens, S. & Hayden, M. (1988). Analysis in vivo of the bacteriophage P22 headful nuclease. J. Mol. Biol. 199, 467474.
Casjens, S. & Hendrix, R. W. (1988). Control Mechanisms in dsDNA bacteriophage assembly. In The Bacteriophages (ed. Calendar, R.), vol. 1, pp. 1590. New York: Plenum.
Casjens, S., Wyckoff, E., Hayden, M., Sampson, L., Eppler, K., Randall, S., Moreno, E. T. & Serwer, P. (1992 a). Bacteriophage P22 portal protein is part of the gauge that regulates packaging density of intravirion DNA. J. Mol. Biol. 224, 10551074.
Casjens, S., Sampson, L., Randall, S., Eppler, K., Wu, H., Petri, J. B. & Schmieger, H. (1992 b). Molecular genetic analysis of bacteriophage P22 gene 3 product, a protein involved in the initiation of headful DNA packaging. J. Mol. Biol. 227, 10861099.
Caspar, D. & Klug, A. (1962). Physical principles in the construction of regular viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27, 124.
Cerritelli, M. E., Cheng, N., Conway, J. F., Trus, B. L., Studier, F. W. & Steven, A. C. (1993). A role for the bacteriophage T7 connector in controlling prohead expansion. Abstracts of the XIII International Conference on Virus and Phage Assembly. Syria Virginia.
Chai, S., Bravo, A., Lüder, G., Nedlin, A., Trautner, T. A. & Alonso, J. C. (1992). Molecular analysis of the B. subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 region encompassing genes 1 to 6. The products of gene 1 and gene 2 are required for pac cleavage. J. Mol. Biol. 224, 87102.
Chattoraj, D. K. & Inman, R. B. (1974). Location of DNA ends in P2, 186, P4 and lambda bacteriophage heads. J. Mol. Biol. 87, 1122.
Chung, H. Y. & Hinkle, D. C. (1990). Bacteriophage T7 DNA packaging. II. Analysis of the DNA sequences required for packaging using a plasmid transduction assay. J. Mol. Biol. 216, 927938.
Cue, D. & Feiss, M. (1993). A site required for termination of packaging of the phage A chromosome. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 92909294.
Donate, L. E., Herranz, L., Secilla, J. P., Carazo, J. M., Fujisawa, H. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1988). Bacteriophage T3 connector: Three-dimensional structure and comparison with other viral head-tail connecting regions. J. Mol. Biol. 201, 91100.
Donate, L. E., Murialdo, H. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1990). Production of λ-φ29 phage chimeras. Virology 179, 936940.
Donate, L. E. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1991). Characterization of a versatile in vitro DNA-packaging system based on hybridλ/φ29 proheads. Virology 182, 534544.
Donate, L. E., Valpuesta, J. M., Rocher, A., Méndez, E., Rojo, F., Salas, M. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1992). Role of the amino-terminal domain of bacteriophage φ29 connector in DNA binding and packaging, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 1091910924.
Donate, L. E., Valpuesta, J. M., Mier, C., Rojo, F. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1993). Characterization of an RNA-binding domain in the bacteriophage φ29 connector. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2019820204.
Driedonks, R. A., Engel, A., ten Heggeler, B. & van Driel, R. (1981). Gene 20 product of bacteriophage T4. Its purification and structure. J. Mol. Biol. 152, 641662.
Driedonks, R. A. & Caldentey, J. (1983). Gene 20 product of bacteriophage T4. II. Its structural organization in prehead and bacteriophage. J. Mol. Biol. 166, 341360.
Dube, P., Tavares, P., Lurz, R. & van Heel, M. (1993). The portal protein of bacteriophage SPP1: a DNA pump with 13-fold symmetry. EMBO J. 12, 13031309.
Eiserling, F. A. (1979). In Comprehensive Virology 13 (ed. Fraenkel-Conrat, R. & Wagner, W.), pp. 543580. New York, Plenum.
Eppler, K., Wyckoff, E., Goates, J., Parr, R. & Casjens, S. (1991). Nucleotide sequence of the bacteriophage P22 genes required for DNA packaging. Virology 183, 519538.
Feiss, M. & Becker, A. (1983). DNA packaging & cutting. In lambda II (ed. Hendrix, R. W.), pp. 305330. New York: Cold Spring Harbor.
Feiss, M., Sippy, J. & Miller, G. (1985). Processive action of terminase during sequential packaging of bacteriophage λ chromosomes. J. Mol. Biol. 186, 759771.
Feiss, M. (1986). Terminase and the recognition, cutting and packaging of λ chromosomes. Trends in Genetics 2, 100104.
Feiss, M. & Anderson, D. (1991). Capsid caper in Cable (Meeting review). The New Biologist 3, 10481054.
Frackman, S., Siegele, D. A. & Feiss, M. (1984). A functional domain of bacteriophage λ terminase for prohead binding. J. Mol. Biol. 180, 283300.
Frackman, S., Siegele, D. A. & Feiss, M. (1985). The terminase of bacteriophage λ: functional domains for cos B binding and multimer assembly. J. Mol. Biol. 183, 225242.
Fujisawa, H., Yamagishi, M. & Minagawa, T. (1980). In vitro formation of the concatemeric DNA bacteriophage T3 and its biological activity in the in vitro packaging reaction. Virology 101, 327334.
Fujisawa, H., Hamada, K., Shibata, H. & Minagawa, T. (1987). On the molecular mechanism of DNA translocation during in vitro packaging of bacteriophage T3 DNA. Virology 161, 228233.
Fujisawa, H., Shibata, H. & Kato, H. (1991). Analysis of interactions among factors involved in the bacteriophage T3 DNA packaging reaction in a defined in vitro system. Virology 185, 788794.
Galisteo, M. L. & King, J. (1993). Conformational transformations in the protein lattice of phage P22 procapsids. Biophys. J. 65, 227235.
García, J. A., Méndez, E. & Salas, M. (1984). Cloning, nucleotide sequence and highlevel expression of the gene coding for the connector protein of the Bacillus subtilis phage φ29. Gene 30, 8798.
Georgopoulos, C., Hendrix, R., Casjens, S. R. & Kaiser, A. D. (1973). Host participation in bacteriophage lambda head assembly. J. Mol. Biol. 76, 4560.
Grimes, S. & Anderson, D. (1989). Cleaving the prohead RNA of bacteriophage φ29 alters the in vitro packaging of restriction fragments of DNA-gp3. J. Mol. Biol. 209, 101108.
Grimes, S. & Anderson, D. (1990). RNA dependence of the bacteriophage φ29 DNA packaging ATPase. J. Mol. Biol. 215, 559566.
Guo, P., Grimes, S. & Anderson, D. (1986). A defined system for in vitro packaging of DNA-g3 of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage φ29. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 35O535O9.
Guo, P., Peterson, C. & Anderson, D. (1987 a). Initiation events in in vitro packaging of bacteriophage φ29 DNA-P3. J. Mol. Biol. 197, 219228.
Guo, P., Peterson, C. & Anderson, D. (1987 b). Prohead and DNA-P3 dependent activity of the DNA packaging protein p16 of bacteriophage φ29. J. Mol. Biol. 197, 229236.
Guo, P., Erickson, S. & Anderson, D. (1987 c). A small RNA is required for in vitro packaging of bacteriophage φ29 DNA. Science 236, 690694.
Guo, P., Bailey, S., Bodley, J. W. & Anderson, D. (1987 d). Characterization of the small RNA of the bacteriophage φ29 DNA packaging machine. Nucl. Acids. Res. 15, 70817090.
Guo, P., Erickson, S., Xu, W., Olson, N., Backer, T. & Anderson, D. L. (1991 a). Regulation of the phage φ29 prohead shape and size by the portal vertex. Virology 183, 366373.
Guo, P., Rajagopal, B. S., Anderson, D., Erickson, S. & Lee, C. (1991 b) sRNA of phage φ29 of Bacillus subtilis mediates DNA packaging of φ29 proheads assembled in Escherichia coli. Virology 185, 395400.
Hafner, E., Tabor, C. & Tabor, H. (1979). Mutants of Escherichia coli that do not contain 1, 4-diaminobutane (putrescine) or spermidine. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 1241912426.
Hagen, E. W., Reilly, B. E., Tosi, M. E. & Anderson, D. L. (1976). Analysis of gene function of bacteriophage φ29 of Bacillus subtilis: Identification of cistrons essential for viral assembly. J. Virol. 19, 501517.
Hamada, K., Fujisawa, H. & Minagawa, T. (1986 a). Overproduction and purification of the products of the bacteriophage T3 genes 18 and 19, two genes involved in DNA packaging. Virology 151, 110119.
Hamada, K., Fujisawa, H. & Minagawa, T. (1986 b). A defined in vitro system for packaging of bacteriophage T3 DNA. Virology 151, 119123.
Hamada, K., Fujisawa, H. & Minagawa, T. (1987). Characterization of a ATPase activity of a defined in vitro system for packaging of bacteriophage T3 DNA. Virology 159, 244249.
Hashimoto, C. & Fujisawa, H. (1992 a). DNA sequences necessary for packaging bacteriophage T3 DNA. Virology 187, 788796.
Hashimoto, C. & Fujisawa, H. (1992 b). Transcription dependence of DNA packaging of bacteriophages T3 and T7. Virology 191, 246250.
Hendrix, R. & Casjens, S. R. (1974). Protein fusion: A novel reaction in bacteriophage lambda head assembly. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71, 14511455.
Hendrix, R. & Casjens, S. R. (1975). Protein processing and its genetic control in petit λ assembly. J. Mol. Biol. 91, 187199.
Hendrix, R. (1978). Symmetry mismatch and DNA packaging in large DNA bacteriophages. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 47794783.
Hermoso, J. M. & Salas, M. (1980). Protein p3 is linked to the DNA of phage φ29 through a phosphodiester bound between serine and 5′-dAMP. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 7, 64256428.
Herranz, L., Salas, M. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1986). Interaction of the bacteriophage connector protein with the viral DNA. Virology 155, 289292.
Herranz, L., Bordas, J., Towns-Andrews, E., Mendez, E., Usobiaga, P. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1990). Conformational changes in bacteriophage φ29 connector prevents DNA-binding activity. J. Mol. Biol. 213, 263273.
Higgins, R. R., Lucko, H. J. & Becker, A. (1988). Mechanisms of cos DNA cleavage by bacteriophage lambda terminase – multiple roles of ATP. Cell 54, 765775.
Hoffman, D. W., Query, C. C., Golden, B. L., White, S. W. & Keene, J. D. (1991). RNA-binding domain of the A protein component of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein analyzed by NMR spectroscopy is structurally similar to ribosomal proteins. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 24592499.
Hohn, B., Wurtz, M., Klein, B., Lustig, A. & Hohn, T. (1974). Phage lambda DNA packaging in vitro. J. Supramol. Struct. 2, 302317.
Hsiao, C. L. & Black, L. W. (1977). DNA packaging and the pathway of bacteriophage T4 assembly. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 36523656.
Hsiao, C. L. & Black, L. W. (1978). Head morphogenesis of bacteriophage T4. II. The role of gene 40 in initiating prehead assembly. Virology 91, 1525.
Ibáñez, C., García, J. A., Carrascosa, J. L. & Salas, M. (1984). Overproduction and purification of the connector protein of Bacillus subtilis phage φ29. Nucl. Acids Res. 12, 23512365.
Jackson, E., Jackson, D. & Deans, R. (1978). EcoRI analysis of bacteriophage P22 DNA packaging. J. Mol. Biol. 118, 365388.
Jardine, P. J. & Coombs, H. (1993). DNA packaging triggers prohead expansion in phage T4. Abstracts of the XIII International Conference on Virus and Phage Assembly. Syria Virginia.
Jiménez, J., Santisteban, A., Carazo, J. M. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1986). Computer graphic display method for visualizing three-dimensional biological structures. Science 232, 11131115.
Kalinski, A. & Black, L. W. (1986). End structure and mechanism of packaging of bacteriophage T4 DNA. J. Virol. 58, 951954.
Kellenberger, E. (1990). Form determination of the heads of bacteriophages. Eur. J. Biochem. 190, 233248.
Kenan, D. J., Query, C. C. & Keene, J. D. (1991). RNA recognition: towards identifying determinants of specificity. Trends in Biochem. Sci., 16, 214220.
Kochan, J. & Murialdo, H. (1983). Early intermediates in bacteriophage lambda prohead assembly. II. Identification of biologically active intermediates. Virology 131, 100115.
Kochan, J., Carrascosa, J. L. & Murialdo, H. (1984). Bacteriophage lambda preconnectors. Purification and structure. J. Mol. Biol. 174, 433447.
Kocsis, E., Cerritelli, M. E., Cheng, N., Trus, B. & Steven, A. C. (1993). Polymorphism of the head to tail connector complex of bacteriophage T7: 13-fold and 12-fold symmetric variants. Proceedings of the XIII International Conference on Virus and Phage Assembly, Syria Virginia.
Laemmli, U. K., Molbert, E., Showe, M. & Kellenberger, E. (1970). Form determining function of the genes required for the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. J. Mol. Biol. 49, 99113.
Laski, F. & Jackson, E. (1982). Maturation cleavage of bacteriophage P22 DNA in the absence of DNA packaging, J. Mol. Biol. 154, 565579.
Lee, C., Trottier, M. & Guo, P. (1993). Requirement of triplex interaction of the capsid protein, scaffolding protein and portal protein in the assembly of a functional prohead of phage φ29. Proceedings of the XIII International Conference on Virus and Phage Assembly. Syria Virginia.
Lin, H., Rao, V. B. & Black, L. W. (1993). Identification of a putative domain docking site in the portal vertex protein (connector), p20, of phage T4. Abstracts of the XIII International Conference on Virus and Phage Assembly. Syria Virginia.
Matsuo-Kato, H., Fujisawa, H. & Minagawa, T. (1981). Structure and assembly of bacteriophage T3 tails. Virology 109, 157164.
McIntosh, P. K., Dunker, R., Mulder, C. & Brown, N. C. (1978). DNA of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPPi: physical mapping and localization of the origin of replication. J. Virol. 28, 865876.
Michaud, G., Zachary, A., Rao, B. & Back, L. W. (1989). Membrane-associated assembly of a phage T4 DNA entrance vertex structure studied with expression vectors. J. Mol. Biol. 209, 667681.
Miyakazi, J., Fujisawa, H. & Minagawa, T. (1978). Biological activity of purified bacteriophage T3 prohead and prohead-like structure a precursors for in vitro head assembly. virology 91, 283290.
Moody, M. (1965). The shape of T-even bacteriophage head. Virology 26, 567576.
Mosig, G., Chosal, D. & Bock, S. (1981). Interactions between the maturation protein p17 and the single stranded DNA binding protein P32 initiate DNA packaging and complete with initiation of secondary replication forks in phage T4. In Bacteriophage Assembly (ed. Bulow, M. S.), pp. 139151. New York: Liss.
Murialdo, H. & Becker, A. (1978). Head morphogenesis of complex double-stranded DNA bacteriophages. Microbiol. Rev. 42, 529576.
Murialdo, H. (1979). Early intermediates in bacteriophage lambda prohead assembly. Virology, 96, 341367.
Murialdo, H. (1991). Bacteriophage lambda DNA maturation and packaging. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 60, 125153.
Nagai, K., Oubridge, C. J., Jessen, T. H., Li, J. & Evans, P. R. (1990). Crystal structure of the RNA-binding domain of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein A. Nature 348, 515520.
Nakasu, S., Fujisawa, H. & Minagawa, T. (1983). Role of gene 8 product in morphogenesis of bacteriophage T3. Virology 127, 124133.
Nakasu, S., Fujisawa, H. & Minagawa, T. (1985). Purification and characterization of gene 8 product of bacteriophage T3. Virology 143, 422434.
Pabo, C. O. & Sauer, R. T. (1984). Protein-DNA recognition. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53, 292321.
Parris, W., Davidson, A., Keeler, C. L. Jr. & Gold, M. (1988). The Nui subunit of bacteriophage λ terminase. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 84138419.
Penczek, P., Radermacher, M. & Frank, J. (1992). Three-dimensional reconstruction of single particles embedded in ice. Ultramicroscopy 40, 3353.
Poteete, A. & King, J. (1977). Functions of two new genes in Salmonella phage P22 assembly. Virology 76, 725739.
Poteete, A. R., Jarvik, J. & Botstein, D. (1979). Encapsidation of P22 DNA in vitro. Virology 95, 550564.
Poteete, A. R. & Botstein, D. (1979). Purification and properties of proteins essential to DNA encapsulation by phageP22. Virology 95, 565573.
Prasad, B. V., Prevelige, P. E., Marietta, E., Chen, R. O., Thomas, D., King, J. & Chiu, W. (1993). Three-dimensional transformation of capsids associated with genome packaging in a bacterial virus. J. Mol. Biol. 231, 6574.
Prevelige, P. E., Thomas, D., Aubrey, K. L., Towse, S. A. & Thomas, G. J. (1993). Subunit conformational changes accompanying bacteriophage P22 capsid maturation. Biochemistry 32, 537543.
Rao, V. B. & Black, L. W. (1985). DNA packaging of bacteriophage T4 proheads in vitro: evidence that proheads expansion is not coupled to DNA packaging. J. Mol. Biol. 185, 565578.
Rao, V. B. & Black, L. W. (1988). Cloning, overexpression and purification of the terminase proteins p16 and p17 of bacteriophage T4: construction of a defined in vitro DNA packaging system using purified terminase proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 200, 475488.
Ray, P. N. & Murialdo, H. (1975). The role of gene Nu3 in bacteriophage lambda head morphogenesis. Virology 64, 247263.
Riemer, S. C. & Bloomfield, V. A. (1980). Packaging of DNA in bacteriophage heads: Some considerations on Energetics. Biopolymers 17, 784800.
Roeder, G. S. & Sadowski, P. D. (1977). Bacteriophage T7 morphogenesis: Phagerelated particles in cells infected with wild-type and mutant T7 phage. Virology 76, 263285.
Ross, P. D., Black, L. W., Bisher, M. E. & Steven, A. C. (1985). Assembly-dependent conformational changes in a viral capsid protein: calorimetric comparisons of successive conformational states of the gp23 surface lattice of bacteriophage T4. J. Mol. Biol. 183, 353364.
Saigo, K. & Uchida, H. (1974). Connection of the right-hand terminus of DNA to the proximal end of the tail in bacteriophage lambda. Virology 61, 524536.
Schindelin, H., Marahiel, M. & Heinemann, U. (1993). Universal nucleic acidbinding domain revealed by crystal structure of the B. subtilis major cold-shock protein. Nature 364, 164168.
Schmieger, H. & Koch, E. (1987). In vitro assay of packaging gp3 of Salmonella phage P22. Intervirology 28, 157162.
Schnuche, A., Wiltscheck, R., Czisch, M., Herrier, M., Willimsky, G., Graumann, P., Marahiel, M. & Holak, T. A. (1993). Structure in solution of the major coldshock protein from Bacillus subtilis. Nature 364, 169171.
Serwer, P. (1979). Fibrous projections from the core of a bacteriophage T7 procapsid. J. Supramol. Struct. 11, 321326.
Serwer, P. & Watson, R. H. (1982). Internal proteins of bacteriophage T7. J. Mol. Biol. 107, 271291.
Shibata, H., Fujisawa, H. & Minagawa, T. (1987). Characterization of the bacteriophage T3 DNA packaging reaction in vitro in a defined system. J. Mol. Biol. 196, 845851.
Shinder, G. & Gold, M. (1988). The Nu1 subunit of bacteriophage lambda terminase binds to specific sites in cos DNA. J. Virol. 62, 387392.
Sternberg, N. & Coulby, J. (1987 a). Recognition and cleavage of the bacteriophage P1 packaging site (pac). I. Differential processing of the cleaved ends in vivo. J. Mol. Biol. 194, 453468.
Sternberg, N. & Coulby, J. (1987 b). Recognition and cleavage of the bacteriophage P1 packaging site (pac). II. Functional limits and location of pac cleavage termini. J. Mol. Biol. 194, 469479.
Strobel, E., Bechnichs, W. & Schnieger, H. (1984). In vitro packaging of mature phage DNA by Salmonella phage P22 DNA. Virology 132, 158165.
Tavares, P., Santos, M. A., Lurz, R., Morelli, G., de Lencastre, H. & Trautner, T. A. (1992). Identification of a gene in Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 determining the amount of packaged DNA. J. Mol. Biol. 225, 8192.
Thomas, J. O. (1974). Chemical linkage of the tail to the right-hand end of bacteriophage lambda DNA. J. Mol. Biol. 87, 19.
Traub, F. & Maeder, M. (1984). Formation of the prohead core of bacteriophage T4in vivo. J. Virol. 49, 892901.
Tsui, L. & Hendrix, R. (1980). Head-tail connector of bacteriophage lambda. J. Mol. Biol. 142, 419438.
Turnquist, S., Simon, M., Egelman, E. & Anderson, D. A. (1992). Supercoiled DNA wraps around the bacteriophage φ29 head-tail connector. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 1047910483.
Unwin, P. N. T. & Ennis, P. D. (1984). Two configurations of a channel-forming membrane protein. Nature 307, 609613.
Valpuesta, J. M., Fujisawa, H., Marco, S., Carazo, J. M. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1992 a). Three-dimensional structure of T3 connector purified from overexpressing bacteria. J. Mol. Biol. 224, 103112.
Valpuesta, J. M., Serrano, M., Donate, L. E., Herranz, L. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1992 b). DNA conformational change induced by the bacteriophage φ29 connector. Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 55495554.
Valpuesta, J. M., Donate, L. E., Mier, C., Herranz, L. & Carrascosa, J. L. (1993). RNA-mediated specificity of DNA packaging into hybrid proheads. EMBO J. 12, 44534459.
Van Driel, R. & Couture, E. (1978). Assembly of bacteriophage T4 head-related structures. II. In vitro assembly of prehead-like structures. J. Mol. Biol. 123, 115128.
Wichitwechkarn, J., Johnson, D. & Anderson, D. (1992). Mutant prohead RNAs in the in vitro packaging of bacteriophage φ29 DNA-P3. J. Mol. Biol. 223, 991998.
Wu, W. F., Christiansen, S. & Feiss, M. (1988). Domains for protein–protein interactions at the N and C termini of the large subunit of bacteriophage λ terminase. Genetics 119, 477484.
Yarmolinsky, M. B. & Sternberg, N. (1988). Bacteriophage P1. In The Bacteriophages (ed. Calendar, R.), vol. 1, pp. 291438. New York: Plenum.
Yeo, A. (1992). The prohead binding of bacteriophage λ terminase. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Iowa.
Yeo, A. & Feiss, M. (1993). Genetic analysis of the prohead binding domain of phage I terminase. Abstracts of the XIII International Conference on Virus and Phage Assembly. Syria Virginia.
Zachary, A. & Black, L. W. (1992). Isolation and characterization of a portal protein-DNA complex from dsDNA bacteriophage. Intervirology 33, 616.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed