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Geoarchaeological Study of Szálka and Vajda Kurgans (Great Hungarian Plain) Based on Radiocarbon and Geophysical Analyses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 November 2018

Csaba Albert Tóth*
Affiliation:
Department of Physical Geography and Geoinformatics, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
Zsolt Prónay
Affiliation:
Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary, 1143 Budapest, Hungary
Mihály Braun
Affiliation:
Isotope Climatology and Environmental Research Centre (ICER), ATOMKI, 4026 Debrecen, Hungary
Péter Nagy
Affiliation:
MinGeo Ltd., 1142 Budapest, Hungary
Mihály Pethe
Affiliation:
Gyula Forster National Centre for Cultural Heritage Management, 1014 Budapest, Hungary
Péter Tildy
Affiliation:
Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary, 1143 Budapest, Hungary
Botond Buró
Affiliation:
Isotope Climatology and Environmental Research Centre (ICER), ATOMKI, 4026 Debrecen, Hungary
Titanilla Kertész
Affiliation:
Isotope Climatology and Environmental Research Centre (ICER), ATOMKI, 4026 Debrecen, Hungary
Richard W McIntosh
Affiliation:
Department of Mineralogy and Geology, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
Mihály Molnár
Affiliation:
Isotope Climatology and Environmental Research Centre (ICER), ATOMKI, 4026 Debrecen, Hungary
*
*Corresponding author. Email: toth.csaba@science.unideb.hu.

Abstract

Two archaeologically unexplored mounds were studied in the area of the central Great Hungarian Plain. The age of the construction of the mounds was clarified on the basis of radiocarbon (14C) age determination of buried soil layers. Different, later-building phases of the mounds were detected by pedological and geo-electric analyses of the human-made layers. The age of the buried soils was corrected for the reservoir age of the recent soils found in the surroundings of the mounds. Radiocarbon ages of the carbon extracted from the soils at temperatures 400 and 800ºC were almost completely the same. Based on the calibrated ages of cal BP 4830–5270 (Szálka Mound) and cal BP 4880–5290 (Vajda Mound) of the buried soil layers, the identified kurgans were built by people of the Copper Age Yamnaya Culture. On the basis of the pedological and geophysical analysis of the layers, Szálka Mound and Vajda Mound were built in two and in three phases respectively from the chernozem-like humus-rich topsoil layers of the surrounding area. The former shallow quarry sites have been almost completely filled and cannot be identified at the foot of the mounds even using geodetic methods.

Type
Soil
Copyright
© 2018 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 

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Footnotes

Selected Papers from the 2nd Radiocarbon in the Environment Conference, Debrecen, Hungary, 3–7 July 2017

References

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