Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-45s75 Total loading time: 0.366 Render date: 2021-12-02T14:29:08.952Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Identifying the 993–994 CE Miyake Event in the Oldest Dated Living Tree in Europe

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 May 2019

Gianluca Quarta*
Affiliation:
CEDAD (Centre for Dating and Diagnostics), Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio de Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100, Lecce, Italy
Alfredo Di Filippo
Affiliation:
Dendrology Lab, Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Italy
Lucio Calcagnile
Affiliation:
CEDAD (Centre for Dating and Diagnostics), Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio de Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100, Lecce, Italy
Marisa D’Elia
Affiliation:
CEDAD (Centre for Dating and Diagnostics), Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio de Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100, Lecce, Italy
Franco Biondi
Affiliation:
DendroLab, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA
Emanuele Presutti Saba
Affiliation:
Dendrology Lab, Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Italy
Michele Baliva
Affiliation:
Dendrology Lab, Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Italy
Giuseppe De Vivo
Affiliation:
Ente Parco Nazionale del Pollino, Rotonda (PZ), Italy
Aldo Schettino
Affiliation:
Ente Parco Nazionale del Pollino, Rotonda (PZ), Italy
Gianluca Piovesan
Affiliation:
Dendrology Lab, Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Italy
*
*Corresponding author. Email: gianluca.quarta@unisalento.it.

Abstract

Combined dendrochronology and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating analyses were used in order to date an old living tree named Italus, growing in the Pollino massif in Southern Italy. Wiggle match AMS 14C dating analysis was performed on a 320-yr-long floating chronology obtained by cross-dating four wood cores extracted from the exposed roots of the tree. Following this approach, an age for the tree of ≈1230 yr was estimated. This age makes Italus the oldest living tree in Europe. High-resolution 14C dating analyses performed on single rings extracted from the tree stem allowed us to identify the 993–994 CE large excursion in atmospheric 14C concentration (Miyake event) revealing for the first time its presence in the Mediterranean basin.

Type
Conference Paper
Copyright
© 2019 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

Selected Papers from the 23rd International Radiocarbon Conference, Trondheim, Norway, 17–22 June, 2018

References

Biondi, F. 1992. Development of a tree-ring network for the Italian Peninsula. Tree-Ring Bulletin 52:1529.Google Scholar
Braione, E, Maruccio, L, Quarta, G, D’Elia, M, Calcagnile, L. 2015. A new system for the simultaneous measurement of δ13C and δ15N by IRMS and radiocarbon by AMS on gaseous samples: design features and performances of the gas handling interface. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 361:387391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Büntgen, U, Wacker, L, Galván, JD, Arnold, S, Arseneault, D, Baillie, M, Beer, J, Bernabei, M, Bleicher, N, Boswijk, G, et al. 2018. Tree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in 774 and 993 CE. Nature Communications 9(1):3605.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calcagnile, L, Quarta, G, D’Elia, M, Rizzo, A, Gottdang, A, Klein, M, Mous, DJW. 2004. A new accelerator mass spectrometry facility in Lecce, Italy. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research 223(224C):1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calcagnile, L, Quarta, G, D’Elia, M. 2005. High resolution accelerator-based mass spectrometry: precision, accuracy and background. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 62(4):623629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dee, MW, Pope, BJS. 2016. Anchoring historical sequences using a new source of astro-chronological tie-points. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 472:20160263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D’Elia, M, Calcagnile, L, Quarta, G, Rizzo, A, Sanapo, C, Laudisa, M, Toma, U, Rizzo, A. 2004. Sample preparation and blank values at the AMS radiocarbon facility of the University of Lecce. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 223(224):278283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fogtmann-Schulz, A, Østbø, SM, Nielsen, SGB, Olsen, J, Karoff, C, Knudsen, MF. 2017. Cosmic ray event in 994 C.E. recorded in radiocarbon from Danish oak. Geophysics Research Letters 44(16):86218628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galimberti, M, Bronk Ramsey, C, Manning, SW. 2004. Wiggle-match dating of tree-ring sequences. Radiocarbon 46(2):917924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Güttler, D, Adolphi, F, Beerc, J, Bleicher, N, Boswijk, G, Christl, M, Hogg, A, Palmer, J, Vockenhuber, C, Wacker, L, Wunder, J. 2015. Rapid increase in cosmogenic 14C in AD 775 measured in New Zealand kauri trees indicates short-lived increase in 14C production spanning both hemispheres. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 411:290297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayakawa, H, Tamazawa, H, Uchiyama, Y, Ebihara, Y, Miyahara, H, Kosaka, S, Iwahashi, K, Isobe, H. 2017. Historical Auroras in the 990s: evidence of great magnetic storms. Solar Physics 292:12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Konter, O, Krusic, P, Trouet, V, Esper, J. 2017. Meet Adonis, Europe’s oldest dendrochronologically dated tree. Dendrochronologia 42:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maruccio, L, Quarta, G, Braione, E, Calcagnile, L. 2017. Measuring stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes by IRMS and 14C by AMS on samples with masses in the microgram range: performances of the system installed at CEDAD–University of Salento. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 421:17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mekhaldi, F, Muscheler, R, Adolphi, F, Aldahan, A, Beer, J, McConnell, JR, Possnert, G, Sigl, M, Svensson, A, Synal, HA, Welten, KC, Woodruff, TE. 2015. Multiradionuclide evidence for the solar origin of the cosmic-ray events of ad 774/5 and 993/4. Nature Communications 6:8611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miyake, F, Nagaya, K, Masuda, K, Nakamura, T. 2012. A signature of cosmic ray increase in A.D. 774–775 from tree rings in Japan. Nature 486(7402):240242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyake, F, Masuda, K, Nakamura, T. 2013. Another rapid event in the carbon-14 content of tree rings. Nature Communications 4:1748. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miyake, F, Masuda, K, Hakozaki, M, Nakamura, T, Tokanai, F, Kato, K, Kimura, K, Mitsutani, T. 2014. Verification of the cosmic ray event in AD 993–994 by using a Japanese Hinoki tree. Radiocarbon 56(3):11891194. doi: 10.2458/56.17769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyake, F, Timothy Jull, AJ, Panyushkina, IP, Wacker, L, Salzer, M, Baisan, CH, Lange, T, Cruz, R, Masuda, K, Nakamura, T. 2017. Large 14C excursion in 5480 BC. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(5):881884. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1613144114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nemec, M, Wacker, L, Hajdas, I, Gäggeler, H. 2010. Alternative methods for cellulose extraction for cellulose preparation for AMS measurement. Radiocarbon 52(2–3):13581370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, J, Southon, J, Fahrni, S, Creasman, PP, Mewaldt, R. 2017. Relationship between solar activity and Δ14C peaks in AD 775, AD 994, and 660 BC. Radiocarbon 59(4):11471156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piovesan, G, Biondi, F, Baliva, M, Presutti Saba, E, Calcagnile, L, Quarta, G, D’Elia, M, De Vivo, G, Schettino, A, Di Filippo, A. 2018a. The oldest dated tree of Europe lives in the wild Pollino massif: Italus, a strip-bark Heldreich’s pine. Ecology 99(7):1682–1684. https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/action/downloadSupplement?doi=10.1002%2Fecy.2231&file=ecy2231-sup-0001-AppendixS1.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piovesan, G, Biondi, F, Baliva, M, Calcagnile, L, Quarta, G, Di Filippo, A. 2018b. Dating old hollow trees by applying a multistep tree-ring and radiocarbon procedure to trunk and exposed roots. MethodsX 5, 495502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reimer, PJ, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Blackwell, PG, Bronk Ramsey, C, Buck, CE, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Grootes, PM, Guilderson, TP, Haflidason, H, Hajdas, I, Hatté, C, Heaton, TJ, Hoffmann, DL, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kaiser, KF, Kromer, B, Manning, SW, Niu, M, Reimer, RW, Richards, DA, Scott, EM, Southon, JR, Staff, RA, Turney, CSM, van der Plicht, J. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50, 000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):18691887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serre-Bachet, F. 1985. Une chronologie pluriseculaire du Sud de l’Italie. Dendrochronologia 3:4566.Google Scholar
Stuiver, M, Polach, HA. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wrońska-Wałach, D, Sobucki, M, Buchwał, A, Gorczyca, E, Korpak, J, Wałdykowski, P, Gärtner, H. 2016. Quantitative analysis of ring growth in spruce roots and its application towards a more precise dating. Dendrochronologia 38:6171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Quarta et al. supplementary material

Quarta et al. supplementary material 1

Download Quarta et al. supplementary material(File)
File 11 KB
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Identifying the 993–994 CE Miyake Event in the Oldest Dated Living Tree in Europe
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Identifying the 993–994 CE Miyake Event in the Oldest Dated Living Tree in Europe
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Identifying the 993–994 CE Miyake Event in the Oldest Dated Living Tree in Europe
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *