Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

A Bayesian Re-Assessment of the Earliest Radiocarbon Dates from Tiwanaku, Bolivia

  • Erik J Marsh (a1)
Abstract

The development of sociopolitical complexity at Tiwanaku around AD 500 was one of the major episodes of social change in the history of the Lake Titicaca Basin. It was the result of poorly understood processes that took place at a series of ceremonial centers in the preceding centuries. The history of Tiwanaku during this time is especially unclear, because the only radiocarbon dates are from excavations whose details were never completely published. Despite this, there is consensus that Tiwanaku was founded around 300 BC. A re-evaluation of the archaeological context of each of these dates shows many of them to be unreliable. Two Bayesian models from independent excavations agree that Tiwanaku was in fact founded centuries later, most likely around AD 110 (50-170, 1σ). This has important implications for widely used monolith and ceramic sequences, as well as understanding the rise of Tiwanaku and other archaic states.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A Bayesian Re-Assessment of the Earliest Radiocarbon Dates from Tiwanaku, Bolivia
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A Bayesian Re-Assessment of the Earliest Radiocarbon Dates from Tiwanaku, Bolivia
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A Bayesian Re-Assessment of the Earliest Radiocarbon Dates from Tiwanaku, Bolivia
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Albarracín-Jordan, JV. 2007. La Formación del Estado Prehispànico en los Andes: Origen y Desarrollo de la Sociedad Segmentaria Indígena. La Paz: Fundación Bartolomé de las Casas. 236 p.
Augustyniak, S. 2004. Dating the Tiwanaku state. Chungara 36(1):1935.
Bandy, MS. 2001. Population and history in the ancient Titicaca Basin [PhD dissertation]. Berkeley: University of California.
Bennett, WC. 1934. Excavations at Tiahuanaco. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 34:359494.
Bermann, M. 1990. Household and empire at Lukurmata, Bolivia [PhD dissertation], Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Bermann, M. 1994. Lukurmata: Household Archaeology in Prehispanic Bolivia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2008. Deposition models for chronological records. Quaternary Science Reviews 27(1-2):4260.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337–60.
Browman, DL. 1980. Tiwanaku expansion and altiplano economic patterns. Estudios Arqueológicos 5:107–20.
Bruno, MC. 2008. Waranq waranqa: ethnobotanical perspectives on agricultural intensification in the Lake Titicaca Basin (Taraco Peninsula, Bolivia) [PhD dissertation]. St. Louis: Washington University.
Burkholder, J. 1997. Tiwanaku and the anatomy of time: a new ceramic chronology from the Iwawe site, department of La Paz, Bolivia [PhD dissertation]. Binghamton: State University of New York.
Chávez, SJ, Mohr Chávez, KL. 1975. A carved stela from Taraco, Puno, Peru, and the definition of an early style of stone sculpture from the altiplano of Peru and Bolivia. Ñawpa Pacha 13:4583.
Childe, GV. 1950. The urban revolution. Town and Planning Review 21:317.
Cordero Miranda, G. 1978. Informe Preliminar acerca de las Excavaciones en Pumapunku. Internal document 33/78. La Paz: Unidad Nacional de Arqueología.
Couture, NC. 2002. The construction of power: monumental space and elite residence at Tiwanaku, Bolivia [PhD dissertation]. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Finucane, BC, Valdez, JE, Pérez Calderon, I, Vivanco Pomacanchari, C, Valdez, LM, O'Connell, T. 2007. The end of empire: new radiocarbon dates from the Ayacucho Valley, Peru, and their implications for the collapse of the Wari state. Radiocarbon 49(2):579–92.
Hogg, AG, Bronk Ramsey, C, Turney, C, Palmer, J. 2009. Bayesian evaluation of the Southern Hemisphere radiocarbon offset during the Holocene. Radiocarbon 51(4):1165–76.
Isbell, WH, Burkholder, J, Albarracín-Jordan, JV. 2002. Iwawi y Tiwanaku. Gaceta Arquegológica Andina 26:139–70.
Janusek, JW. 1994. State and local power in a prehispanic Andean polity: changing patterns of urban residence in Tiwanaku and Lukurmata, Bolivia [PhD dissertation]. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Janusek, JW. 2003. Vessels, time, and society: toward a chronology of ceramic style in the Tiwanaku heartland. In: Kolata, AL, editor. Urban and Rural Archaeology. Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeological and Paleoecological Investigations of an Andean Civilization, Volume 2. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, p 3092.
Janusek, JW. 2004a. Tiwanaku and its precursors: recent research and emerging perspectives. Journal of Archaeological Research 12(2):121–83.
Janusek, JW. 2004b. Identity and Power in the Ancient Andes: Tiwanaku Cities through Time. New York: Routledge. 319 p.
Kidder, AV. 1967. Digging in the Titicaca Basin. In: Rowe, JH, Menzel, D, editors. Peruvian Archaeology: Selected Readings. Palo Alto: Peek, p 132–45.
Kigoshi, K, Endo, K. 1963. Gakushuin natural radiocarbon measurements II. Radiocarbon 5:109–17.
Kigoshi, K, Tomikura, Y, Endo, K. 1962. Gakushuin natural radiocarbon measurements I. Radiocarbon 4:8494.
Kolata, AL. 1993. The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Cambridge: Blackwell. 317 p.
Kra, R. 1986. Standardizing procedures for collecting, submitting, recording, and reporting radiocarbon samples. Radiocarbon 28(2A):765–75.
Lémuz Aguirre, C. 2004. Normalización de datos de asentamiento en la cuenca sur del Lago Titicaca. Report submitted to the Unidad Nacional de Arqueología, La Paz.
Lémuz Aguirre, C, Paz Soria, JL. 2001. Nuevas consierdaciones acerca del periodo Formativo en Kallamarka. Textos Antropológicos 13:93110.
Marsh, EJ. 2012. The emergence of Tiwanaku: domestic practices and regional traditions at Khonkho Wankane and Kk'araña [PhD dissertation]. Santa Barbara: University of California.
Marsh, EJ. Forthcoming. The founding of Tiwanaku: evidence from Kk'araña. Ñawpa Pacha 32(2).
Mathews, JE. 1992. Prehispanic settlement and agriculture in the middle Tiwanaku Valley, Bolivia [PhD dissertation]. Chicago: University of Chicago.
McCormac, FG, Hogg, AG, Blackwell, PG, Buck, CE, Higham, TFG, Reimer, PJ. 2004. SHCal04 Southern Hemisphere calibration, 0-11.0 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46(3):1087–92.
Michczyński, A, Eeckhout, P, Pazdur, A, Pawlyta, J. 2007. Radiocarbon dating of the Temple of the Monkey—the next step towards a comprehensive absolute chronology of Pachacamac, Peru. Radiocarbon 49(2):565–78.
Mohr-Chávez, KL. 1987. Observations and comments on Bennett's Early Tiahuanaco material at the American Museum of Natural History [unpublished manuscript].
Oeschger, H, Riesen, T. 1965. Bern radiocarbon dates IV. Radiocarbon 7:19.
Ohnstad, A. 2011. La escultura prehispánica de Khonkho Wankane, Jesús de Machaca, Bolivia. Nuevos Aportes 5:119–42.
Ponce Sanginés, C. 1970. Las Culturas de Wankarani y Chiripa y su Relación con Tiwanaku. Publication 25. La Paz: Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia.
Ponce Sanginés, C. 1971. La cerámica de la época I de Tiwanaku. Pumapunku 2:728.
Ponce Sanginés, C. 1976. La cerámica de la Época I de Tiwanaku. Publication No. 18. La Paz: Instituto Nacional de Arqueología.
Ponce Sanginés, C. 1981. Tiwanaku: Espacio, Tiempo y Cultura. La Paz: Editorial Los Amigos del Libro. 251 p.
Ponce Sanginés, C. 1993. La cerámica de la época I (aldeana de Tiwanaku). Pumapunku (Nueva Época) 4:4889.
Ponce Sanginés, C. 1995. Tiwanaku: 200 Años de Investigaciones Arqueológicas. La Paz: Producciones CIMA. 448 p.
Portugal Ortiz, M. 1992. Trabajos arqueológicos de Tiwanaku (I. Parte). Textos Antropológicos 4:951.
Ralph, EK. 1959. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates III. American Journal of Science Radiocarbon Supplement 1:4558.
Reimer, PJ, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Blackwell, PG, Bronk Ramsey, C, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Grootes, PM, Guilderson, TP, Hajdas, I, Heaton, TJ, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kaiser, KF, Kromer, B, McCormac, FG, Manning, SW, Reimer, RW, Richards, DA, Southon, JR, Talamo, S, Turney, CSM, van der Plicht, J, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2009. IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 51(4):1111–50.
Renfrew, C. 1986. Introduction. In: Renfrew, C, Cherry, JF, editors. Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-political Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p 126.
Roddick, AP. 2009. Communities of pottery production and consumption on the Taraco Peninsula, Bolivia, 200 BC-300 AD [PhD dissertation]. Berkeley: University of California.
Rowe, JH. 1963. Urban settlements in ancient Peru. Ñawpa Pacha 1:127.
Smith, SC. 2009. Venerable geographies: spatial dynamics, religion, and political economy in the prehistoric Lake Titicaca Basin, Bolivia [PhD dissertation]. Riverside: University of California.
Stanish, C. 2003. Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Societies in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Steadman, LH. 1995. Excavations at Camata: an early ceramic chronology for the western Titicaca Basin, Peru [PhD dissertation]. Berkeley: University of California.
Stuckcnrath, R. 1963. University of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates VI. Radiocarbon 5:82103.
Stuiver, M, Pearson, GW. 1993. High precision bidecadal calibration of the radiocarbon time scale, AD 1950–500 BC and 2500-6000 BC Radiocarbon 35(1):123.
Unkel, U, Kromer, B, Reindel, M, Wacker, L, Wagner, G. 2007. A chronology of the pre-Columbian Paracas and Nasca cultures in south Peru based on AMS 14C dating. Radiocarbon 49(2):551–64.
Vranich, . 2006. The construction and reconstruction of ritual space at Tiwanaku, Bolivia. Journal of Field Archaeology 31(2):121–36.
Wendt, I, Schneekloth, H, Budde, E. 1962. Hannover radiocarbon measurements I. Radiocarbon 4:100–8.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Radiocarbon
  • ISSN: 0033-8222
  • EISSN: 1945-5755
  • URL: /core/journals/radiocarbon
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed