Skip to main content
×
Home

Dating of Iron Age Agriculture in the Negev Highlands: A Response to Shahack-Gross and Finkelstein

  • Hendrik J Bruins (a1) and Johannes van der Plicht (a2) (a3)
Abstract
Abstract

In this response to the reply by Shahack-Gross and Finkelstein (2017), we present additional data of our research at Horvat Haluqim. This includes phytolith percentages and multicellular phytolith stomata in a thin section of a layer in Terraced Field 12, dated by radiocarbon (14C) to the Late Bronze–Early Iron Age. We also show thin-section evidence of aggrading sediment laminations in this terraced field. A new 14C date is given of the Early Islamic Period in Terraced Field 7, as differences in terrace wall architecture are highlighted. We revisit the interpretation by Shahack-Gross and Finkelstein in relation to herd management. Our 14C dates attest that terrace agriculture based on runoff/floodwater irrigation occurred in the Negev Highlands during several periods, including the Iron Age.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dating of Iron Age Agriculture in the Negev Highlands: A Response to Shahack-Gross and Finkelstein
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dating of Iron Age Agriculture in the Negev Highlands: A Response to Shahack-Gross and Finkelstein
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dating of Iron Age Agriculture in the Negev Highlands: A Response to Shahack-Gross and Finkelstein
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Email: hjbruins@bgu.ac.il.
References
Hide All
Albert RM. 2003. Phytolith and spherulite analyses from the site of Horvat Haluqim (Negev, Israel). Internal report. University of Barcelona.
Albert RM, Tsatskin A, Ronen A, Lavi O, Estroff L, Lev-Yadun S, Weiner S. 1999. Mode of occupation of Tabun Cave, Mt Carmel, Israel, during the Mousterian Period: a study of the sediments and phytoliths. Journal of Archaeological Science 26:12491260.
Ben-David J. 1982. Stages in the sedentarization of the Negev Bedouin, a transition from former semi-nomadic to settled population [unpublished PhD thesis]. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Bronk Ramsey C. 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program OxCal. Radiocarbon 43(2A):355363.
Bronk Ramsey C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337360.
Bruins HJ. 1990. Ancient agricultural terraces at Nahal Mitnan. Atiqot 10:127128 (Hebrew), 22*–28* (English).
Bruins HJ. 2012. Ancient desert agriculture in the Negev and climate-zone boundary changes during average, wet and drought years. Journal of Arid Environments 86:2842.
Bruins HJ, Evenari M, Nessler U. 1986. Rainwater harvesting agriculture for food production in arid zones: the challenge of the African famine. Applied Geography 6:1332.
Bruins HJ, Akong’a JJ, Rutten MMEM, Kressel GM. 2003. Drought Planning and Rainwater Harvesting for Arid-Zone Pastoralists: the Turkana and Maasai (Kenya) and the Negev Bedouin (Israel). NIRP Research for Policy Series 17. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers.
Bruins HJ, van der Plicht J. 2017a. Iron Age agriculture – a critical rejoinder to “Settlement oscillations in the Negev Highlands revisited: the impact of microarchaeological methods”. Radiocarbon 59(1):116. DOI: 10.1017/RDC.2016.95.
Bruins HJ, van der Plicht J. 2017b. Dating of Iron Age agriculture in the Negev Highlands: a response to Shahack-Gross and Finkelstein. Radiocarbon 59(4): 12331239.
Bruins HJ, Segal I, van der Plicht J. In press. Bronze chisel at Horvat Haluqim (central Negev highlands) in a sequence of radiocarbon dated Late Bronze to Iron Age I living floors. In: Ben-Yosef E, Goren Y, editors. Mining for Copper: Essays in Honor of Professor Beno Rothenberg. Tel Aviv: Occasional Publication, Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University.
Kedar Y. 1967. The Ancient Agriculture in the Negev Mountains. Jerusalem: Bialik Institute.
Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PG, Bronk Ramsey C, Buck CE, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Friedrich M, Grootes PM, Guilderson TP, Haflidason H, Hajdas I, Hatté C, Heaton TJ, Hoffmann DL, Hogg AG, Hughen KA, Kaiser KF, Kromer B, Manning SW, Niu M, Reimer RW, Richards DA, Scott EM, Southon JR, Staff RA, Turney CSM, van der Plicht J. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):18691887.
Shahack-Gross R, Boaretto E, Cabanes D, Katz O, Finkelstein I. 2014. Subsistence economy in the Negev Highlands: the Iron Age and the Byzantine/Early Islamic period. Levant 46(1):98117.
Shahack-Gross R, Finkelstein I. 2008. Subsistence practices in an arid environment: a geoarchaeological investigation in an Iron Age site, the Negev Highlands, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(4):965982.
Shahack-Gross R, Finkelstein I. 2015. Settlement oscillations in the Negev Highlands revisited: the impact of microarchaeological methods. Radiocarbon 57(2):253264.
Shahack-Gross R, Finkelstein I. 2017. Iron Age agriculture in the Negev Highlands? Methodological and factual comments on Bruins and van der Plicht 2017a (Radiocarbon Vol. 59, Nr. 1). Radiocarbon 59(4), 12271231.
Shillito LM. 2011. Simultaneous thin section and phytolith observations of finely stratified deposits from Neolithic catalhoyuk, Turkey: implications for paleoeconomy and Early Holocene paleoenvironment. Journal of Quaternary Science 26(6):576588.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Radiocarbon
  • ISSN: 0033-8222
  • EISSN: 1945-5755
  • URL: /core/journals/radiocarbon
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 45 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 64 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 31st July 2017 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.