Skip to main content
×
×
Home

EUBAR: A Database of 14C Measurements for the European Bronze Age. A Bayesian Analysis of 14C-Dated Archaeological Contexts from Northern Italy and Southern France

  • Giacomo Capuzzo (a1) (a2), Elisabetta Boaretto (a2) and Juan A Barceló (a1)
Abstract

The chronological framework of European protohistory is mostly a relative chronology based on typology and stratigraphic data. Synchronization of different time periods suffers from a lack of absolute dates; therefore, disagreements between different chronological schemes are difficult to reconcile. An alternative approach was applied in this study to build a more precise and accurate absolute chronology. To the best of our knowledge, we have collected all the published 14C dates for the archaeological sites in the region from the Ebro River (Spain) to the Middle Danube Valley (Austria) for the period 1800–750 BC. The available archaeological information associated with the 14C dates was organized in a database that totaled more than 1600 14C dates. In order to build an accurate and precise chronology, quality selection rules have been applied to the 14C dates based on both archaeological context and analytical quality. Using the OxCal software and Bayesian analysis, several 14C time sequences were created following the archaeological data and different possible scenarios were tested in northern Italy and southern France.

Copyright
Corresponding author
3. Corresponding author. Email: giacomocapuzzo@gmail.com.
References
Hide All
Arnold, B. 2012. Gender, temporalities, and periodization in Early Iron Age West-Central Europe. Social Science History 36(1):85112.
Barceló, JA. 2008. La seqüència crono-cultural de la prehistòria catalana. Anàlisi estadística de les datacions radiomètriques. Cypsela 17:6588.
Bayes, TR. 1763. An essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 53:370418.
Bayliss, A, Bronk Ramsey, C, van der Plicht, J, Whittle, A. 2007. Bradshaw and Bayes: towards a timetable for the Neolithic. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17(S1):128.
Bernabò Brea, M, Cardarelli, A, Cremaschi, M, editors. 1997. Le Terramare. La più antica civiltà padana, catalogo della mostra (Modena 1997). Milan: Catalogo della Mostra.
Boaretto, E. 2007. Determining the chronology of an archaeological site using radiocarbon: minimizing uncertainty. Israel Journal of Earth Science 56(2–4):207–16.
Boaretto, E. 2009. Dating materials in good archaeological contexts: the next challenge for radiocarbon analysis. Radiocarbon 51(1):275–82.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009a. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337–60.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009b. Dealing with outliers and offsets in radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 51(3): 1023–45.
Brun, P. 1984. La Civilisation des Champs d'Urnes, etude critique dans le bass in parisien. Paris: Documents d'Archéologie Française 4.
Brun, P, Mordant, C, editors. 1988. Le groupe Rhin-Suisse-France orientale et la notion de civilization des Champs d'Urnes, Actes du colloque international de Nemours 1986. Paris: Mémoires du Musée de Préhistoire d'Ile-de-France 1.
Brun, P, Chaume, B, Dhennequin, L, Quilliec, B. 2009. Le passage de l'âge du Bronze à l'âge du Fer … au fil de l'épée. In: Rouliere-Lambert, M-J, Daubigney, A, Milcent, P-Y, Talon, M, Vital, J, editors. De l'âge du Bronze à l'âge du Fer en France et en Europe occidentale (Xe-VIIe siècle av. J.-C.), La moyenne vallée du Rhône aux âges du Fer, actualité de la recherche. Actes du XXXe colloque international de l'A.F.E.A.F. (Saint-Romain-en-Gal, 26–28 mai 2006). Revue Archéologique de l'Est 27ème supplement. p 477–85.
Buck, CE, Cavanagh, WG, Litton, CD. 1996. Bayesian Approach to Interpreting Archaeological Data. Chichester: Wiley.
Campmajo, P. 1983. Le site protohistorique de Llo (Pyrénées Orientales). Perpignan: Université de Perpignan.
Carozza, L. 1994. De l'Age du bronze a l'Age du fer en Albigeois. Toulouse: Archives d'Ecologie Préhistorique 13.
Cattani, M. 2009. L'ansa cilindro-retta come indicatore delle interazioni culturali nel Bronzo Recente. In: Cattani M, dir. Atti della Giornata di studi “La Romagna nell'età del Bronzo,” Ravenna-Solarolo 19 settembre 2008. IpoTESI di Preistoria 2(1):250–4.
Cattani, M. 2011. Contribute alla definizione della fase iniziale della Media età del Bronzo in Italia centro-settentrionale: le impugnature con appendice ad ascia. IpoTESI di Preistoria 4(2):6387.
Cattani, M, Marchesini, M, Marvelli, S, editors. 2010. Paesaggio ed economia nell'età del Bronzo, la pianura bolognese tra Samoggia e Panaro. Bologna: Università degli Studi di Bologna.
Cocchi Genick, D, editor. 2004. L'età del bronzo recente in Italia. Atti del Congresso Nazionale, Lido di Camaiore 26–29 ottobre 2000. Viareggio.
Cremaschi, M. 2004. Le datazioni radiocarboniche. In: Cremaschi, M, Bernabo' Brea, MA, editors. Il villaggio della terramara di Santa Rosa di Poviglio. Scavi 1987–1992. Firenze: Origines. p 693702.
David-Elbiali, M. 2009. Des femmes et des hommes dans l'arc alpin occidental entre le XIIe et le VIIe siècle av. J.-C. In: Rouliere-Lambert, M-J, Daubigney, A, Milcent, P-Y, Talon, M, Vital, J, editors. De l'âge du Bronze à l'âge du Fer en France et en Europe occidentale (Xe-VIIe siècle av. J.-C.), La moyenne vallée du Rhône aux âges du Fer, actualité de la recherche. Actes du XXXe colloque international de l'A.F.E.A.F. (Saint-Romain-en-Gal, 26–28 mai 2006). Revue Archéologique de l'Est 27ème supplement. p 343–60.
David-Elbiali, M, David, W. 2009. À la suite de Jacques-Pierre Millotte, l'actualité des recherches en typologie sur l'âge du Bronze, le Bronze ancien et le début du Bronze moyen: cadre chronologique et liens culturels entre l'Europe nord-alpine occidentale, le monde danubien et l'Italie du Nord. In: Annick, R, Barral, P, Daubigney, A, Kaenel, G, Mordant, C, Piningre, J-F, editors. L'isthme européen Rhin-Saône-Rhône dans la Protohistoire. Approches nouvelles en hommage à Jacques-Pierre Millotte, Actes du colloque (Besançon, 16–18 octobre 2006). Paris. p 311–40.
David-Elbiali, M, Moinat, P. 2005. Le Bronze final de la Suisse occidentale: révision du cadre chronotypologique, grâce aux découvertes de la nécropole de Lausanne-Vidy (canton de Vaud, Suisse). Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 102(3):613–24.
Déchelette, J. 1910. Manuel d'archéologie prehistoric celtique et gallo-romaine. Paris: A. Picard.
De Marinis, RC. 1999. Towards a relative and absolute chronology of the Bronze Age in Northern Italy. Notizie Archeologiche Bergomensi 7:23100.
De Marinis, RC. 2005. Cronologia relativa, cross-dating e datazioni cronometriche tra Bronzo Finale e Primo Ferro: qualche spunto di riflessione metodologica. In: Bartoloni, G, Delfino, F. Oriente e Occidente: metodi e discipline a confronto. Riflessioni sulla cronologia dell'età del Ferro italiana. Atti dell'Incontro di Studio, Roma 30–31 ottobre 2003. Pisa. p 1552.
Dergachev, VA, Raspopov, OM, Van Geel, B, Zaitseva, GI. 2004. The ‘Sterno-Etrussia’ geomagnetic excursion around 2700 BP and changes of solar activity, cosmic ray intensity and climate. Radiocarbon 46(2):661–81.
Gaucher, G. 1992. Les subdivisions du Bronze final. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique française 82(2):5164.
Giardino, C. 1995. The West Mediterranean between the 14th and the 8th Centuries B.C. Mining and Metallurgical Spheres. Oxford: BAR International Series 612. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Hatt, JJ. 1955a. Chroniques de Protohistorie, I. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 52(1–2):96101.
Hatt, JJ. 1955b. Chroniques de Protohistorie, II. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 52(1–2):397400.
Hatt, JJ. 1958. Chroniques de Protohistoire, IV. Nouveau projet de chronologie pour l'âge du Bronze en France. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 55(5–6):304–6.
Janin, T. 1992. L'évolution du Bronze final IIIb et la transition Bronze-Fer en Languedoc occidental d'après la culture matérielle et les necropolis. Documents d'Archéologie Méridionale 15:243–59.
Lachenal, T. 2010. L'age du bronze en Provence: productions ceramiques et dynamiques culturelles [PhD dissertation]. Aix-Marseille University.
Lachenal, T. 2011. Entre Alpes et Méditerranée. Productions céramiques et dynamiques culturelles de la fin de l'âge du bronze en Provence (X–IX siècles av. J.-C.). Quaderns de prehistòria i arqueologia de Castelló 29:231–67.
Milcent, PY. 2009. Le passage de l'âge du Bronze à l'âge du Fer en Gaule au miroir des élites sociales: une crise au VIIIe siècle av. J.-C.?. In: Rouliere-Lam-bert, M-J, Daubigney, A, Milcent, P-Y, Talon, M, Vital, J, editors. De l'âge du Bronze à l'àge du Fer en France et en Europe occidentale (Xe-VIIe siècle av. J.-C.), La moyenne vallée du Rhône aux âges du Fer, actualité de la recherche. Actes du XXXe colloque international de l'A.F.E.A.F. (Saint-Romain-en-Gal, 26–28 mai 2006). Revue Archéologique de l'Est 27ème supplement. p 453–76.
Millotte, J-P. 1970. Précis de proto-histoire européenne. Paris: A. Colin.
Mook, WG, Streurman, HJ. 1983. Physical and chemical aspects of radiocarbon dating. In: Mook, WG, Waterbolk, HT, editors. Proceedings, Groningen Symposium 14C and Archaeology. PACT 8:3155.
Müller-Karpe, H. 1959. Beiträge zur Chronologie der urnenfelderzeit nördlich und südlich der Alpen. Römisch-Germanisches Forschungen 22. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Nijboer, AJ, van der Plicht, H, Bietti Sestieri, AM, De Santis, A. 1999–2000. A High chronology for the Early Iron Age in central Italy. Paleohistoria 41–42:163–76.
Nijboer, AJ, van der Plicht, H. 2008. The Iron Age in the Mediterranean: recent radiocarbon research at the University of Groningen. In: Brandherm, D, Trachsel, M, editors. Proceedings of the XV World Congress (Lisbon, 4–9 September 2006), International Union for Prehistoric and Protohistorie Sciences, A New Dawn for the Dark Age? Shifting Paradigms in Mediterranean Iron Age Chronology. Oxford: BAR International Series 1871. Oxford: Archaeopress. p 103–18.
Nisbet, R. 2004. Alcune considerazioni sulla Preistoria del Pinerolese: Roc del Col nel contesto alpino. In: Bertone, A, Fozzati, L, editors. La civiltà di Viverone. La conquista di una nuova frontiera nell'Europa del II Millennio a.C. Candelo: Eventi & Progetti. p 109–24.
Olivier, L. 1999. The Hochdorf ‘princely’ grave and the question of the nature of archaeological funerary assemblages. In: Murray, T, editor. Time and Archaeology. London: Routledge. p 109–38.
Pacciarelli, M. 2005. 14C e correlazioni con le dendrodate nordalpine: elementi per una cronologia assoluta del Bronzo Finale 3 e del primo Ferro dell'Italia peninsulare. In: Bartoloni, G, Delfino, F. Oriente e Occidente: metodi e discipline a confronto. Riflessioni sulla cronologia dell'età del Ferro italiana. Pisa: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali. p 8190.
Pare, C. 1996. Chronology in Central Europe at the end of the Bronze Age. In: Randsborg, K, editor. Absolute Chronology. Archaeological Europe 2500–500 BC. Acta Archaeologica 67:99120.
Pare, C. 1998. Beiträge zum Übergang von der Bronze-und Eisenzeit in Mitteleuropa. Teil I - Grundzüge der Chronologie im Östtlichen Mitteleuropa (11.–8. jahrhundert v.Chr.). Jahrbuch der Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum Mainz 45(1):293433.
Peroni, R. 1990. Trent'anni dopo. In: Belardelli, C, Giardino, C, Malizia, A, editors. L'Europa a sud e a nord delle Alpi alle soglie della svolta protourbana. Treviso: Ed. Unigrafica-Ostalpenkomitee. p 11–4.
Peroni, R. 1995. Stand und Aufgaben der Urnenfelderforschung in Italien. In: Beiträge zur Urnenfelderzeit nördlich und südlich der Alpen. Ergebnisse eines Kolloquiums. Mainz: Monographien des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 35. p 225–37.
Peroni, R. 1996. L'Italia alle soglie della storia. Roma-Bari: Editori Laterza.
Petrie, FWM. 1899. Sequences in prehistoric remains. Journal of the Anthropological Institute 29:295301.
Regev, J, de Miroschedji, P, Greenberg, R, Braun, E, Greenhut, Z, Boaretto, E. 2012. Chronology of the Early Bronze Age in the southern Levant: new analysis for a high chronology. Radiocarbon 54(3–4):525–66.
Reimer, PJ, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Blackwell, PG, Bronk Ramsey, C, Buck, CE, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Grootes, PM, Guilderson, TP, Haflidason, H, Hajdas, I, Hatté, C, Heaton, TJ, Hoffmann, DL, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kaiser, KF, Kromer, B, Manning, SW, Niu, M, Reimer, RW, Richards, DA, Scott, EM, Southon, JR, Staff, RA, Turney, CSM, van der Plicht, J. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):1869–87.
Reinecke, P. 1899. Studien zur Chronologie des ungarlandischen Bronzealters. I. Teil. Prahistorisches aus Ungarn und den Nachbarlandern. Beiblatt der Ethnologischen Mitteilungen aus Ungarn 1(1).
Reinecke, P. 1900. Brandgraber vom Beginn der Hallstattzeit aus den ostlichen Alpenlandern und die Chronologie des Grabfeldes von Hallstatt. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wien 30:4452.
Reinecke, P. 1902. Zur Chronologie der 2. Halfte des Bronzealters in Sud- und Norddeutschland. Korrespondenzblatt der deutschen Gesellschaft fur Anthropologic, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte 33(3):1732.
Reinecke, P. 1965. Mainzer Aufsätze zur Chronologie der Bronze- und Eisenzeit. Bonn: Habelt.
Speranza, A, van der Plicht, J, van Geel, B. 2000. Improving the time control of the Subboreal/Subatlantic transition in a Czech peat sequence by 14C wiggle-matching. Quaternary Science Reviews 19(16):1589–604.
Sperber, L. 1987. Untersuchungen zur Chronologie der Urnenfelderkultur im nördlichen Alpenvorland von der Schweiz bis Oberösterreich. Bonn: Habelt.
Swindles, GT, Plunkett, G, Roe, HM. 2007. A delayed climatic response to solar forcing at 2800 cal. BP: multiproxy evidence from three Irish peatlands. The Holocene 17(2):177–82.
Tinner, W, Lotter, AF, Ammann, B, Conedera, M, Hubschmid, P, van Leeuwen, JFN, Wehrli, M. 2003. Climatic change and contemporaneous land-use phases north and south of the Alps 2300 BC to 800 AD. Quaternary Science Reviews 22(14): 1447–60.
Trachsel, M. 2004. Untersuchungen zur relativen und absoluten Chronologie der Hallstattzeit. Bonn: Habelt.
van Geel, B, Buurman, J, Waterbolk, HT. 1996. Archaeological and palaeoecological indications of an abrupt climate change in The Netherlands, and evidence for climatological teleconnections around 2650 BP. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(6):451–60.
van Geel, B, van der Plicht, J, Kilian, MR, Klaver, ER, Kouwenberg, JHM, Renssen, H, Reynaud-Farrera, I, Waterbolk, HT. 1998. The sharp rise of Δ14C ca. 800 cal BC: possible causes, related climatic teleconnections and the impact on human environments. Radiocarbon 40(1):535–50.
van der Plicht, J, van Geel, B, Bohncke, SJP, Bos, JAA, Blaauw, M, Speranza, AOM, Muscheler, R, Bjorck, S. 2004. The Preboreal climate reversal and a subsequent solar-forced climate shift. Journal of Quaternary Science 19(3):263–9.
van der Plicht, J, Bruins, HJ, Nijboer, AJ. 2009. The Iron Age around the Mediterranean: a High chronology perspective from the Groningen Radiocarbon Database. Radiocarbon 51(1):213–42.
Whitehouse, R. 1993. Datazioni radiocarboniche da Fabbrica dei Soci (Villabartolomea-VR). In: De Guio, A, Whitehouse, R, Wilkins, J, editors. Progetto Alto-Medio Polesine-Basso Veronese: sesto rapporto. Quaderni di Archeologia del Veneto IX:175–6.
Whitehouse, R. 1994. Radiocarbon dates from Fondo Paviani (VR). In: De Guio, A, Whitehouse, R, Wilkins, J, editors. Il progetto Alto-Medio Polesine-Basso Veronese: settimo rapporto. Quaderni di Archeologia del Veneto X:126.
Whitehouse, R. 1997. Radiocarbon dating and the Alto-Medio Polesine-Basso Veronese Project. In: De Guio, A, Whitehouse, R, Wilkins, J, editors. Il progetto Alto-Medio Polesine-Basso Veronese: nono rapporto. Quaderni di Archeologia del Veneto XIII: 165–7.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Radiocarbon
  • ISSN: 0033-8222
  • EISSN: 1945-5755
  • URL: /core/journals/radiocarbon
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed