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Geoarchaeological Study of Szálka and Vajda Kurgans (Great Hungarian Plain) Based on Radiocarbon and Geophysical Analyses

  • Csaba Albert Tóth (a1), Zsolt Prónay (a2), Mihály Braun (a3), Péter Nagy (a4), Mihály Pethe (a5), Péter Tildy (a2), Botond Buró (a3), Titanilla Kertész (a3), Richard W McIntosh (a6) and Mihály Molnár (a3)...
Abstract

Two archaeologically unexplored mounds were studied in the area of the central Great Hungarian Plain. The age of the construction of the mounds was clarified on the basis of radiocarbon (14C) age determination of buried soil layers. Different, later-building phases of the mounds were detected by pedological and geo-electric analyses of the human-made layers. The age of the buried soils was corrected for the reservoir age of the recent soils found in the surroundings of the mounds. Radiocarbon ages of the carbon extracted from the soils at temperatures 400 and 800ºC were almost completely the same. Based on the calibrated ages of cal BP 4830–5270 (Szálka Mound) and cal BP 4880–5290 (Vajda Mound) of the buried soil layers, the identified kurgans were built by people of the Copper Age Yamnaya Culture. On the basis of the pedological and geophysical analysis of the layers, Szálka Mound and Vajda Mound were built in two and in three phases respectively from the chernozem-like humus-rich topsoil layers of the surrounding area. The former shallow quarry sites have been almost completely filled and cannot be identified at the foot of the mounds even using geodetic methods.

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*Corresponding author. Email: toth.csaba@science.unideb.hu.
References
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Radiocarbon
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