Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Modeling the Age of the Cape Riva (Y-2) Tephra

  • Sharen Lee (a1), Christopher Bronk Ramsey (a1) and Mark Hardiman (a2)

Tephra from the Cape Riva (Y-2) eruption of Santorini has been found across the eastern Mediterranean. It presents an important link between marine and terrestrial records. A Poisson process (P Sequence) age-depth prior, with model averaging, is used to model individual previously published radiocarbon sequences, cross-linked with an exponential phase model parameter to obtain a robust age. Multiple sequences and 14C determinations from 3 eastern Mediterranean data sets (Seymour et al. 2004; Margari et al. 2009; Müller et al. 2011; Roeser et al. 2012) are used in the model. The modeled age of the Y-2 tephra produced within this study is 22,329–21,088 cal BP at 95.4% probability.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Modeling the Age of the Cape Riva (Y-2) Tephra
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Modeling the Age of the Cape Riva (Y-2) Tephra
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Modeling the Age of the Cape Riva (Y-2) Tephra
      Available formats
Corresponding author
2 Corresponding author. Email:
Hide All
Aksu, AE, Jenner, G, Hiscott, RN, Isler, EB. 2008. Occurrence, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Late Quaternary tephra layers in the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea. Marine Geology 252(3–4): 174–92.
Barberi, F, Innocenti, F, Lirer, L, Munno, R, Pescatore, TS, Santacroce, R. 1978. The Campanian Ignimbrite: a major prehistoric eruption in the Neapolitan area (Italy). Bulletin of Volcanology 41 (1): 1031.
Blaauw, M, Christen, JA. 2011. Flexible paleoclimate age-depth models using an autoregressive Gamma process. Bayesian Analysis 6(3):457–74.
Blockley, SPE, Blaauw, M, Bronk Ramsey, C, van der Plicht, J. 2007. Building and testing age models for radiocarbon dates in Lateglacial and Early Holocene sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews 26(15–16): 1915–26.
Blockley, SPE, Bronk Ramsey, C, Higham, TFG. 2008a. The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition: dating, stratigraphy, and isochronous markers. Journal of Human Evolution 55(5):764–71.
Blockley, SPE, Bronk Ramsey, C, Pyle, DM. 2008b. Improved age modelling and high-precision age estimates of late Quaternary tephras, for accurate palaeoclimate reconstruction. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177(1):251–62.
Blockley, SPE, Lane, CS, Hardiman, M, Rasmussen, SO, Seierstad, IK, Steffensen, JP, Svensson, A, Lotter, AF, Turney, CS, Bronk Ramsey, C, members, INTIMATE. 2012. Synchronisation of palaeoenvironmental records over the last 60,000 years, and an extended INTIMATE event stratigraphy to 48,000 b2k. Quaternary Science Reviews 36:210.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: the OxCal program. Radiocarbon 37(2):425–30.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2008. Deposition models for chronological records. Quaternary Science Reviews 27(1–2): 4260.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337–60.
Bronk Ramsey, C, Dee, M, Lee, S, Nakagawa, T, Staff, RA. 2010. Developments in the calibration and modeling of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 52(2–3):953–61.
Bronk Ramsey, C, Lee, S. 2013. Recent and planned developments of the program OxCal. Radiocarbon, these proceedings, doi:10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16215.
Buck, CE, Christen, JA, James, GN. 1999. BCal: an online Bayesian calibration tool. Internet Archaeology. URL:
Çaǧatay, M, Görür, N, Algan, O, Eastoe, C, Tchapalyga, A, Ongan, D, Kuhn, T, Kuşcu, I. 2000. Late Glacial-Holocene palaeoceanography of the Sea of Marmara: timing of connections with the Mediterranean and the Black Seas. Marine Geology 167(3): 191–206.
Davies, SM, Abbott, PM, Pearce, NJG, Wastegärd, S. 2012. Integrating the INTIMATE records using tephrochronology: rising to the challenge. Quaternary Science Reviews 36:1127.
de Vivo, B, Rolandi, G, Gans, PB, Calvert, A, Bohrson, WA, Spera, FJ, Belkin, HE. 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology 73(1):4765.
Eriksen, U, Friedrich, WL, Buchardt, B, Tauber, H, Thomsen, MS. 1990. The Stronghyle Caldera: geological, palaeontological and stable isotope evidence from radiocarbon dated stromatolites from Santorini. In: Hardy, DA, editor. Thera and the Aegean World III. Volume 2. London: The Thera Foundation. p 139–50.
Kwiecien, O, Arz, HW, Lamy, F, Wulf, S, Bahr, A, Röhl, U, Haug, G. 2008. Estimated reservoir ages of the Black Sea since the last glacial. Radiocarbon 50(1):99118.
Lanphere, M. 2000. Comparison of conventional K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of young mafic volcanic rocks. Quaternary Research 53(3):294–301.
Margari, V, Pyle, DM, Bryant, C, Gibbard, PL. 2007. Mediterranean tephra stratigraphy revisited: results from a long terrestrial sequence on Lesvos Island, Greece. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 163(1–4):3454.
Margari, V, Gibbard, PL, Bryant, CL, Tzedakis, PC. 2009. Character of vegetational and environmental changes in southern Europe during the last glacial period; evidence from Lesvos Island, Greece. Quaternary Science Reviews 28(13–14):1317–39.
Müller, UC, Pross, J, Tzedakis, PC, Gamble, C, Kotthoff, U, Schmiedl, G, Wulf, S, Christanis, K. 2011. The role of climate in the spread of modern humans into Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews 30(3–4):273–9.
Pichler, H, Friedrich, W. 1976. Radiocarbon dates of Santorini volcanics. Nature 262(5567):373–4.
Pyle, DM, Ricketts, GD, Margari, V, van Andel, TH, Sinitsyn, AA, Praslov, ND, Lisitsyn, S. 2006. Wide dispersal and deposition of distal tephra during the Pleistocene ‘Campanian Ignimbrite/Y5’ eruption, Italy. Quaternary Science Reviews 25(21–22):2713–28.
Roeser, PA, Franz, SO, Litt, T, Ulgen, UB, Hilgers, A, Wulf, S, Wennrich, V, Ön, SA, Viehberg, FA, Çaǧatay, MN, Melles, M. 2012. Lithostratigraphic and geochronological framework for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last 36 ka cal BP from a sediment record from Lake Iznik (NW Turkey). Quaternary International 274:7387.
Seymour, KS, Christanis, K, Bouzinos, A, Papazisimou, S, Papatheodorou, G, Moran, E, Dénès, G. 2004. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology in the Philippi peat basin, Macedonia, Northern Hellas (Greece). Quaternary International 121(1) : 5365.
Singer, BS, Pringle, MS. 1996. Age and duration of the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal from incremental heating analyses of lavas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 139(1–2):4761.
Ton-That, T, Singer, B, Paterne, M. 2001. 40Ar/39Ar dating of latest Pleistocene (41 ka) marine tephra in the Mediterranean Sea: implications for global climate records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 184(3–4):645–58.
Wulf, S, Kraml, M, Kuhn, T, Schwarz, M, Inthorn, M, Keller, J, Kuscu, I, Halbach, P. 2002. Marine tephra from the Cape Riva eruption (22 ka) of Santorini in the Sea of Marmara. Marine Geology 183(1): 131–41.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0033-8222
  • EISSN: 1945-5755
  • URL: /core/journals/radiocarbon
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed