Skip to main content
×
×
Home

New Dates for Old Kilns: A Revised Radiocarbon Chronology of Stoneware Production for Angkorian Cambodia

  • Gary P Marriner (a1), Peter Grave (a1), Lisa Kealhofer (a2), Miriam T Stark (a3), Darith Ea (a4), Rachna Chhay (a4), Phon Kaseka (a5) and Tan Boun Suy (a4)...
Abstract

Radiocarbon dates from recent excavations of a range of Angkorian Khmer (~9th–14th CE) stoneware kiln complexes provide a new and independent perspective on the timing and geography of Khmer ceramic production. These data demonstrate a clear two-phase sequence. The first, in the late 9th to late 12th centuries CE, marks a period of intensive production located both to the east of Angkor and to the south at Cheung Ek, south of Phnom Penh. A second shorter phase of production occurred in the late 13th to late 14th CE at more distant provincial settings following the collapse of the Angkorian state.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Email: gmarrine@myune.edu.au.
References
Hide All
Aoyagi, Y, Sasaki, T. 2007. The Tani Kiln Site in Cambodia. Tokyo: Sophia University. Rengo Shuppan.
Aoyagi, Y, Saski, T, Tanaka, K, Nogami, T, Marui, M, Sumida, T. 2000. Excavation of a Khmer Ceramic Kiln Site: Report of the Investigation of Kiln B1, Tani Kiln Complex. Udaya 1:235253.
Aoyagi, Y, Saski, T, Tanaka, K, Nogami, T, Marui, M, Sumida, T. 2001. The Angkor monuments: excavation of a kiln site for Khmer ceramics. Renaissance culturelle du Cambodge 16:271277.
APSARA Authority. 2009. Thnal Mrech Kiln Site, Phnom Kulen, Cambodia, Final Activities Report. Internal Report.
APSARA Authority. 2010. Stoneware production Bangkong kiln site and their conservation plan, Angkor. Final Activities Report. Internal Report.
Aymonier, E. 1900. Le Cambodge - Le Royaume Actuel. Paris: Leroux.
Aymonier, E. 1901. Le Cambodge: II - Les Provinces Siamoises. Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Aymonier, E. 1904. Le Cambodge - Le Groupe d’Angkor et l’Histoire. Paris: Leroux.
Barbetti, M, Hein, D. 1989. Palaeomagnetism and high-resolution dating of ceramic kilns in Thailand: a progress report. World Archaeology 21:5170.
Bâty, P, Desbart, A, Sellami, F, Marquié, S. 2014. Le tertre E à Trapeang Ropou. Aséanie 33:331387.
Beavan, N, Halcrow, S, McFadgen, B, Hamilton, D, Buckley, B, Tep, S, Shewan, L, Sokha, O, Fallon, S, Miksic, J, Armstrong, R, O’Reilly, D, Domett, K, Chhem, KR. 2012. Radiocarbon dates from jar and coffin burials of the Cardamom Mountains reveal a unique mortuary ritual in Cambodia’s late-to-post-Angkor period (15th–17th centuries AD). Radiocarbon 54(1):122.
Beavan, N, Hamilton, D, Tep, S, Sayle, K. 2015. Radiocarbondates from the Highland Jar and Coffin Burial Site of Phnom Khnang Peung Cardamom Mountains Cambodia. Radiocarbon 57(1):1531.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51:337360.
Brown, R, Childress, V, Gluckman, M. 1972. A Khmer Kiln Site—Surin Province. Journal of The Siam Society 62(2):239252.
Brown, RM. 1981. Khmer ceramics of the Korat Plateau: unravelling the mysteries. In: Stock D, editor. Khmer Ceramics 9th–14th Century. Singapore: Southeast Asian Ceramic Society.
Brumfiel, EM, Earle, T. 1987. Specializaion Exchange and Complex Societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chandavij, N. 1990. Ancient kiln sites in Buriram Province northeastern Thailand. In: Chuimei H, editor. Ancient Ceramic Kiln Technology in Asia. University of Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies.
Chanthawanit, N, Chanthawanit, P, PrachāBan, M, Sinlapakon, K. 1989. Ancient Kiln Sites in Buriram Province. Bangkok: Khrungthep.
Chapman, J. 1999. Arhcaeological proxy-data for demographic reconstructions: facts factoids or fiction. In: Bintliff J, Sbonias K, editors. Reconstructing Past Population Trends in Mediterranean Europe (3000 BC–AD 1800). Oxbow Books.
Chhay, V, Chhay, R, Kosal, S, Ly, SH, Yukitsugu, T. 2009. Preliminary results of the Anlong Thom kiln excavation on Phnom Kulen in Angkor: a case study of ALK01. In: McCarthy B, Chase ES, Cort LA, Douglas JG, Jett P, editors. Scientific Research on Historic Asian Ceramics. Proceedings of the Fourth Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art 2009. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. Archtype.
Chhay, R, Piphal, H, Chhay, V. 2013. Khmer Ceramic Technology: A Case Study from Thnal Mrech Kiln Site, Phnom Kulen 2013. In: Klokke, MJ, Degroot V, editors. Materializing Southeast Asia’s Past: Selected Papers from the 12th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Singapore. Vol 2. Singapore: NUS Press.
Cœdès, G. 1937–1966. Inscriptions du Cambodge (Volume 1–8). Paris: l’École française d’Extrême-Orient.
Coral Rémusat, GD. 1940. L’Art Khmer. Les Grandes Étapes de Son Évolution. Études d’Art et d’Ethnologie Asiatiques.
Costin, CL. 1991. Craft specialization: issues in defining documenting and explaining the organization of production. Archaeological Method and Theory 3:156.
Costin, CL. 2001a. Craft production systems. In: Feinman GM, Douglas Price T, editors. Archaeology at the Millennium. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Costin, CL. 2001b. Production and exchange of ceramics. In: D’Altroy TN, Hastorf CA, editors. Empire and Domestic Economy. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Costin, CL. 2005. Craft production. In: Maschner HDG, editor. Handbook of Methods in Archaeology. AltaMira Press.
Desbat, A. 2008. Les Céramiques de Prei Monti 2007. In: Pottier C, editor. Mission archéologique franco-khmère sur l’aménagement du territoire angkorien (Mafkata) Campagne 2008 Rapport. EFEO.
Desbat, A. 2009. L’étude du mobilier céramique. In: Pottier C, editor. Mission archéologique franco-khmère sur l’aménagement du territoire angkorien (Mafkata) Campagne 2009 Rapport. Siem Reap: EFEO.
Desbat, A. 2011. Pour une révision de la chronologie des grès khmers. Aséanie 27:1134.
Desbat, A, Vierstraete, A. 2009. La céramique des fouilles de Prah Ko. In: Pottier C, editor. Mission archéologique franco-khmère sur l’aménagement du territoire angkorien (Mafkata) Campagne 2009 Rapport. EFEO.
Ea, D. 2009. New data on the distribution of Khmer ceramic kilns and the study of ceramics. In: Blythe McCarthy ESC et al., editors. Scientific Research on Historic Asian Ceramics: Proceedings of the Fourth Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art. Smithsonian Institutue. Washington D.C.: Archtype.
Ea, D. 2010. Angkorian Stoneware Ceramics: The Evolution of Kiln Structure and Ceramic Typology. PhD thesis. Osaka Ohtani University.
Ea, D. 2013. Angkorian Stoneware Ceramics along the East Road from Angkor to Bakan at Torp Chey Village. Udaya 11:5998.
Ea, D. 2015. Torp Chey: Analysis of an Angkorian kiln and ceramic industry Cambodia. In: Latinis K, editor. Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre Archaeology Unit Archaeology Report Series. Singapore: ISEAS.
Elson, CM, Sherman, RJ. 2007. Crema ware and elite power at Monte Albán: ceramic production and iconography in the Oaxaca Valley Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 32:265282.
Evans, D, Pottier, C, Fletcher, R, Hensley, S, Tapley, I, Milne, A, Barbetti, M. 2007. A comprehensive archaeological map of the world’s largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor Cambodia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:1427714282.
Evans, DH, Fletcher, RJ, Pottier, C, Chevance, JB, Soutif, D, Tan, BS, Im, S, Ea, D, Tin, T, Kim, S, Cromarty, C, De Greef, S, Hanus, K, Baty, P, Kuszinger, R, Shimoda, I, Boornazian, G. 2013. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:1259512600.
Feneley, M, Penny, D, Fletcher, R. 2016. Claiming the hydraulic network of Angkor with Viṣṇu: a multidisciplinary approach including the analysis of archaeological remains digital modelling and radiocarbon dating: With evidence for a 12th century renovation of the West Mebon. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 9:275292.
Flad, RK. 2011. Salt Production and Social Hierarchy in Ancient China: An Archaeological Investigation of Specialization in China’s Three Gorges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fletcher, R, Penny, D, Evans, D, Christophe, P, Barbetti, M, Kummu, M, Lustig, T. 2015. The water management network of Angkor Cambodia. Antiquity 82:658670.
Graham, WA. 1922. Pottery in Siam. The Journal of the Siam Society 16.
Grave, P, Kealhofer, L, Marsh, B, Gates, M-H. 2008. Using neutron activation analysis to identify scales of interaction at Kinet Höyük Turkey. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:19741992.
Greene, K. 2005. Roman pottery: models proxies and economic interpretation. Journal of Roman Archaeology 18:3456.
Groslier, BP. 1957. Les Fouilles du Palais Royal D’Angkor Thom. Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Orientalists. London: Royal Asiatic Society.
Groslier, BP. 1981. Introduction to the ceramic wares of Angkor. In: Stock D, editor. Khmer Ceramics 9th–14th Century. Singapore: Southeast Asian Ceramic Society.
Groslier, BP. 1995. Introduction a la ceramique Angkorienne. Péninsule 31.
Halperin, CT, Foias, AE. 2010. Pottery politics: Late Classic Maya palace production at Motul de San José Petén Guatemala. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29:392411.
Hein, D, Cort, LA, Ea, D. 2013. The Chong Samrong Kiln Site in Cambodia. Siem Reap: Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
Hendrickson, M. 2008. New Evidence of Brown Glaze Stoneware Kilns along the East Road from Angkor. IPPA Bulletin 28:5256.
Hendrickson, M. 2010. Historic routes to Angkor: development of the Khmer road system (ninth to thirteenth centuries AD) in mainland Southeast Asia. Antiquity 84:480496.
Hendrickson, M, Evans, D. 2015. Reimagining the City of Fire and Iron: a landscape archaeology of the Angkor-Period Industrial Complex of Preah Khan of Kompong Svay Cambodia (ca. 9th to 13th centuries A.D.). Journal of Field Archaeology 40:644664.
Hendrickson, M, Hua, Q, Pryce, TO. 2013. Using in-slag charcoal as an indicator of “terminal” iron production within the Angkorian period (10th–13th centuries AD) center of Preah Khan of Kompong Svay Cambodia. Radiocarbon 55(1):3147.
Hendrickson, M, Penny, D, Pryce, TO, Kaseka, P, Malay, S. 2009. Industries of Angkor Project: Preah Khan of Kompong Svay (Bakan). University of Sydney.
Hirooka, K, Nakamura, H, Inoue, Y, Ikeda, Y, Sugiyama, H. 2009. Research result from natural science analysis archaeological and terrestrial research on Khmer ceramics kilns Cambodia. Khnar Po B1 kiln, Final Report of Excavation. Osaka-Otani University Museum Report 55.
Hirth, KG. 2009. Craft production household diversification and domestic economy in Prehispanic Mesoamerica. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 19:1332.
Hogg, AG, Hua, Q, Blackwell, PG, Niu, M, Buck, CE, Guilderson, TP, Heaton, TJ, Palmer, JG, Reimer, PJ, Reimer, RW, Turney, CSM, Zimmerman, SRH. 2013. SHCal13 Southern Hemisphere calibration 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(3):18891903.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M. 2007. Influence of atmospheric circulation on regional 14CO2 differences. Journal of Geophysical Research 112.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Levchenko, VA, D’arrigo, RD, Buckley, BM, Smith, AM. 2012. Monsoonal influence on Southern Hemisphere 14CO2 . Geophysical Research Letters 39.
Hua, Q, Barbetti, M, Zoppi, U, Fink, D, Watanasak, M, Jacobsen, GE. 2004. Radiocarbon in tropical tree rings during the Little Ice Age. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 223–24:489494.
Khwanyue, S. 1985. The Excavation of Baranse Kiln Site, Thailand. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Bangkok and Chiang Mai.
Lustig, E. 2011. Using inscription data to investigate power in Angkor’s Empire. Aséanie 27:3566.
Miksic, J. 2009. Kilns of Southeast Asia. In: Miksic J, editor. Southeast Asian Ceramics: New Light on Old Pot. Singapore: Southeast Asian Ceramic Society.
Miksic, J, Rachna, C, Piphal, H, Chhay, V. 2009. Archaeologicalreport on the Thnal Mrech kiln site (TMK 02) Anlong Thom Phnom, Kulen, Cambodia. Asia Research Institue Working Paper 16:143.
Miksic, JN, Chhay, R. 2010. Khmer potters emerge from the shadows: Thnal Mrech and Bangkong kiln sites. SPAFA Journal 20:514.
Nakamura, H, Ikeda, M, Hirooka, K, Sugiyama, H, Mitsuji, T, Ea, D, Sato, Y, Sovannara, SK, Aki, M. 2011. Bakong Kiln Ruins 6A B kiln traces: excavation report. Osaka Otani University Museum Report. Osaka: Osaka Otani University Museum.
Parmentier, H. 1927. L’art khmer primitif (vol. 1 & 2). Paris: EFEO.
Parmentier, H. 1935. Complément à L’Art khmèr primitif. Bulletin de l’Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient 35:1115.
Phon, K. 2002. Ancient Kiln Site at Cheung Ek. The Royal Academy of Cambodia.
Phon, K. 2007. Cheung Ek Circular Earthwork Archaeological and Cultural Resource Management Investigations. Royal Academy of Cambodia Institute of Culture and Fine Arts.
Phon, K, Rachna, C, Vuthy, V, Vicheata, C, Savon, K, Dega, M. 2013. The Ceramic Production Center of Cheung Ek. Friends of Khmer Culture (FOKCI) and CeraAngkor.
Polkinghorne, M. 2012. Sculpture workshops of Angkor: two recent excavations in Cambodia. TAASA Review 21:79.
Polkinghorne, M, Douglas, J, Carò, F. 2015. Carving at the Capital: a stone workshop at Hariharalaya Angkor. Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient 101:5590.
Polkinghorne, M, Vincent, B, Thomas, N, Bourgarit, D. 2014. Casting for the King: The Royal Palace Bronze workshop of Angkor Thom. Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient 100:327624.
Pottier, C, Chhem, KR. 2010. A la decouverte d’un hôpital angkorien: resultats preliminaires d’une campagne archeologique au Prasat Ta Muong. Udaya 6:169182.
Pryce, TO, Hendrickson, M, Phon, K, Chan, S, Charlton, MF, Leroy, S, Dillmann, P, Hua, Q. 2014. The Iron Kuay of Cambodia: tracing the role of peripheral populations in Angkorian to colonial Cambodia via a 1200 year old industrial landscape. Journal of Archaeological Science 47:142163.
Pullen, DJ. 2013. Crafts specialists and markets in Mycenaean Greece. Exchanging the Mycenaean economy. American Journal of Archaeology 117:437445.
Reimer, PJ, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Blackwell, PG, Bronk Ramsey, C, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Grootes, PM, Guilderson, TP, Hajdas, I, Heaton, T, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kaiser, KF, Kromer, B, McCormac, FG, Manning, SW, Reimer, RW, Richards, DA, Southon, JR, Talamo, S, Turney, CSM, van der Plicht, J, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2009. IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 51(4):11111150.
Rooney, DF. 1984. Khmer Ceramics. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Rooney, DF, Smithies, M. 1997. The Khmer Kilns of Ban Ya Kha. Journal of The Siam Society 85:151159.
Sachs, JP, Sachse, D, Smittenberg, RH, Zhang, Z, Battisti, DS, Golubic, S. 2009. Southward movement of the Pacific intertropical convergence zone AD 1400–1850. Nature Geoscience 2:519525.
Socheata, E. 2004. Ceramics from Khnar Po Kilns [BA thesis]. Royal University of Fine Arts, Phnom Penh.
Sok, KS. 2003. Kulàlabhàjana Lor Sar Sei (Ceramics of Sar Sei Kiln Site) [BA thesis]. Royal University of Fine-Arts, Phnom Penh.
Sonnemann, TF, Chhay, R. 2014. Non-destructive GPR analysis of threatened Angkorian ceramic kilns at Bangkong Siem Reap, Cambodia. Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology 34:4250.
Stern, P. 1927. Le Bayon d’Angkor Thom et l'évolution de l’art khmer. Paris: Annales du Musée Guimet Bibliothèque de Vulgarisation.
Stuiver, M, Kra, R. 1986. Editorial comment. Radiocarbon 28(2B):ii.
Stuiver, M, Polach, H. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355363.
Sugiyama, H. 2008. Research on the Sosai kiln. In: Sugiyama H, editor. A Study of Medieval Ruins and Japanese Town in Cambodia. Nara: Nara Cultural Properties Research Institute.
Sugiyama, H, Nishimura, K, Hanatani, H, Ea, D. 2005. Final Report of Joint Research Project at Angkor Excavation of Tani Kiln Site A6. Nara: National Research Institue for Cultural Properties.
Tabata, Y. 2005. Stoneware ceramics production in the Angkor Area in Cambodia: A comparative study of artifacts from the Tani Anglong Thom and Sar Sai kilns. The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies 23:735.
Tabata, Y. 2007. Technical aspects on Khmer stoneware ceramics from the Tani Kiln site. La Renaissance Culturelle du Cambodge 22:171182.
Tabata, Y. 2008. Some aspects of the Anglong Thom Kiln, Cambodia. Journal of Southeast Asian Archaeology 28:6174.
Tabata, Y, Sato, Y, Sok, KS, Sugiyama, H. 2015a. Preliminary report of the excavation of the Veal Svay kiln in Cambodia: December 2014. Waseda University Graduate School of Letters Bulletin 61:1935.
Tabata, Y, Sato, Y, Sok, KS, Sugiyama, H. 2015b. Preliminary report of the excavation of the Veal Svay kiln in Cambodia: Feb 2013–Dec 2013. Waseda University Graduate School of Letters Bulletin 60:5768.
Tin, T. 2004. Khmer Ceramics: A case study of the Ceramics from the Sar Sei kiln complex in the Angkor area [MA thesis]. Sophia University, Tokyo.
Uchida, E, Shimoda, I. 2013. Quarries and transportation routes of Angkor monument sandstone blocks. Journal of Archaeological Science 40:11581164.
Wong, WY. 2010. A Preliminary study of some economic activities of Khmer Empire: examining the relationship between the Khmer and Guangdong ceramic industries during the 9th to 14th centuries [PhD disseration]. National University of Singapore.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Radiocarbon
  • ISSN: 0033-8222
  • EISSN: 1945-5755
  • URL: /core/journals/radiocarbon
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 34 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 417 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 7th May 2018 - 19th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.