Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

New Radiocarbon-based assessment Supports the Prominence of Tel Lachish during late Bronze age IB-IIA

  • Lyndelle Webster (a1) (a2), Katharina Streit (a3), Michael Dee (a4), Irka Hajdas (a5) and Felix Höflmayer (a1)...

Abstract

This article presents a new suite of radiocarbon (14C) dates for the lower portion of the Late Bronze Age (LBA) sequence of Area S, Tel Lachish. The results show that the lowest levels reached by Ussishkin in the 1980s (S-2 and S-3) date significantly earlier than was previously thought. Level S-3, with its monumental architecture, belongs in the 2nd half of the 15th century BCE, as does the commencement of Level S-2. The laminated deposit of S-2 continues through the first half of the 14th century BCE, coinciding at least in part with the Amarna period. This redating leads to improved agreement between archaeological and textual evidence regarding the presence of a substantial, prominent settlement at Lachish during LB IB-IIA, from the reign of Thutmoses III through the Amarna period.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      New Radiocarbon-based assessment Supports the Prominence of Tel Lachish during late Bronze age IB-IIA
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      New Radiocarbon-based assessment Supports the Prominence of Tel Lachish during late Bronze age IB-IIA
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      New Radiocarbon-based assessment Supports the Prominence of Tel Lachish during late Bronze age IB-IIA
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: lyndelle.webster@oeaw.ac.at

Footnotes

Hide All

Selected Papers from the 23rd International Radiocarbon Conference, Trondheim, Norway, 17–22 June, 2018

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Albright, WF. 1944. A prince of Taanach in the fifteenth century BC. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 94:1227.
Barkay, G, Ussishkin, D. 2004. Area S: The Late Bronze Age strata. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume I. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 316410.
Bietak, M. 2002. The function and some architectural roots of the Fosse Temple at Lachish. In: Ahituv, S, Oren, ED, editors. Aharon Kempinski Memorial Volume: Studies in archaeology and related disciplines. Beer Sheva: Ben Gurion University of the Negev Press. p. 5685.
Bliss, FJ. 1894. A mound of many cities. Tell El Hesy excavated. London: Macmillan.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009a. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1):337360.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009b. Dealing with outliers and offsets in radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 51(3):10231045.
Bronk Ramsey, C, Dee, MW, Rowland, JM, Higham, TF, Harris, SA, Brock, F, Quiles, A, Wild, EM, Marcus, ES, Shortland, AJ. 2010. Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt. Science 328:15541557.
Bourke, SJ. 1993. The transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age in Syria: the evidence from Tell Nebi Mend. Levant 25:155195.
Buck, CE, Kenworthy, JB, Litton, CD, Smith, AFM. 1991. Combining archaeological and radiocarbon information: a Bayesian approach to calibration. Antiquity 65(249):808821.
Buck, CE, Litton, CD, Smith, AFM. 1992. Calibration of radiocarbon results pertaining to related archaeological events. Journal of Archaeological Science 19(5):497512.
Carmi, I, Ussishkin, D. 2004. 14C dates. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume V. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p 25082513.
Clamer, C. 2004. Additional Late Bronze Age pottery assembages. Section A: The pottery from levels P-2 and P-1 in Area P. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume III. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p 11551234.
Dee, MW. 2013a. Investigating the accuracy of radiocarbon dating in Egypt: checks with samples of known age. In: Shortland, AJ, Bronk Ramsey, C, editors. Radiocarbon and the Chronologies of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxbow Books. p. 5364.
Dee, MW. 2013b. A radiocarbon-based chronology for the New Kingdom. In: Shortland, AJ, Bronk Ramsey, C, editors. Radiocarbon and the chronologies of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxbow Books. p. 6575.
Dee, MW, Brock, F, Harris, SA, Bronk Ramsey, C, Shortland, AJ, Higham, TF, Rowland, JM. 2010. Investigating the likelihood of a reservoir offset in the radiocarbon record for ancient Egypt. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(4):687–93.
Dee, MW, Bronk Ramsey, C. 2014. High-precision Bayesian modeling of samples susceptible to inbuilt age. Radiocarbon 56(1):8394.
Dever, WG. 1986. Gezer IV: the 1969–1971 Seasons in Field VI, the “Acropolis.” Jerusalem: Annual of the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology.
Duff, CA. 2015. Shechem V: The Late Bronze Age pottery from Field XIII at Shechem/Tell Balatah. Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research.
Epstein, C. 1963. A new appraisal of some lines from a long-known papyrus. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 49(1):4956.
Finkelstein, I. 1988. The archaeology of the Israelite Settlement. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.
Finkelstein, I. 1996. The territorial-political system of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age. Ugarit-Forschungen 28:221255.
Gadot, Y. 2009. Iron Age (Strata X11-X6). In: Gadot, Y, Yadin, E, editors. Aphek-Antipatris II. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 88108.
Garfinkel, Y, Hasel, MG, Klingbeil, MG, Kang, H-G, Choi, G, Chang, S-Y, Hong, S, Ganor, S, Kreimerman, I, Bronk Ramsey, C. 2019a. Lachish fortifications and state formation in the biblical kingdom of Judah in light of radiometric datings. Radiocarbon 61(3):695712.
Garfinkel, Y, Kreimerman, I, Hasel, MG, Klingbeil, MG. 2019b. First impression on the urban layout of the last Canaanite city of Lachish: A view from the northeast corner of the site. In: Maeir, AM, Shai, I, McKinny, C, editors. The Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages of Southern Canaan. Berlin: De Gruyter. p. 122135.
Golénischeff, W, ed. 1913. Les Papyrus Hiératiques Nos. 1115, 1116A, Et 1116B De l’Ermitage Impériale a St. Petersbourg. St. Petersburg: Manufacture Des Papiers De L’état.
Goren, Y, Finkelstein, I, Na’aman, N. 2004. Inscribed in Clay. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University.
Helck, W. 1971. Die Beziehungen Ägyptens Zu Vorderasien im 3. und. 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. 2nd edition. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Horowitz, W, Oshima, T, Sanders, SL. 2006. Cuneiform in Canaan: Cuneiform sources from the land of Israel in ancient Times. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.
Keel, O. 2004. Scarabs, stamp seal-amulets and impressions. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Vol. III. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 15371571.
Koch, I. 2017. Revisiting the Fosse Temple at Tel Lachish. Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 17:6475.
Malamat, A. 1961. Campaigns of Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV to Canaan. Scripta Hierosolymitana 8:218231.
Manning, SW, Griggs, C, Lorentzen, B, Bronk Ramsey, C, Chivall, D, Jull, AT, Lange, TE. 2018. Fluctuating radiocarbon offsets observed in the southern Levant and implications for archaeological chronology debates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America:201719420.
Martin, MAS. 2011. Egyptian-type pottery in the Late Bronze Age Southern Levant. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie Der Wissenschaften.
Millard, AR. 2014. Conventions for reporting radiocarbon determinations. Radiocarbon 56(2):555559.
Mook, WG, Streurman, HJ. 1983. Physical and chemical aspects of radiocarbon dating. In: Mook, WG, Waterbolk, HT, editors. 14C and archaeology. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. p. 3154.
Moran, WL. 1992. The Amarna letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Na’aman, N. 1997. The network of Canaanite late Bronze kingdoms and the city of Ashdod. Ugarit-Forschungen 29:599626.
Na’aman, N. 2011. The Shephelah according to the Amarna Letters. In: Finkelstein, I, Na’aman, N, editors. The Fire Signals of Lachish. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. p. 281–99.
Panitz-Cohen, N. 2014. The southern Levant (Cisjordan) during the Late Bronze Age. In: Steiner, ML, Killebrew, AE, editors. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant c. 8000–332 BCE. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 541560.
Petrie, WMF. 1981. Tell El Hesy (Lachish). London: Palestine Exploration Fund.
Rainey, AF. 2015. The El-Amarna correspondence: A new edition of the cuneiform letters from the site of El-Amarna based on collations of all extant tablets. Leiden: Brill.
Redford, DB. 1965. The coregency of Tuthmosis III and Amenophis II. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 51(1):107122.
Reimer, PJ, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Blackwell, PG, Bronk Ramsey, C, Buck, CE, Cheng, H, Edwards, RL, Friedrich, M, Grootes, PM, Guilderson, TP. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55(4):18691887.
Sala, M, Tucci, G. 2019. Egyptian worshippers in Canaanite sanctuaries: cultural negotiation in temples and paraphernalia from the LB IIB–IA IA Southern Levant. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 21:4867.
Sass, B, Garfinkel, Y, Hasel, MG, Klingbeil, MG. 2015. The Lachish jar sherd: an early alphabetic inscription discovered in 2014. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 374:233245.
Shahack-Gross, R, Gafri, M, Finkelstein, I. 2013. Identifying threshing floors in the archaeological record: a test case at Iron Age Tel Megiddo, Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology 34(2):171184.
Shaw, I, editor. 2000. The Oxford history of ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Singer-Avitz, L. 2004a. The pottery of the Late Bronze I phase. Section A: The Area P assemblage. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume III. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 10121022.
Singer-Avitz, L. 2004b. The pottery of the Late Bronze I phase. Section B: The Cypriot Bichrome Ware. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume III. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p 10231031.
Streit, K. 2019. Archaeological evidence for the presence of Egyptians in the southern Levant during the Late Bronze Age—a reappraisal. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 21:6887.
Streit, K, Webster, L, Becker, V, Jeske, A, Misgav, H, Höflmayer, F. 2018. Between destruction and diplomacy in Canaan: the Austrian-Israeli expedition to Tel Lachish. Near Eastern Archaeology 81(4):259268.
Stuiver, M, Polach, HA. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355363.
Toffolo, MB, Arie, E, Martin, MAS, Boaretto, E, Finkelstein, I. 2014. Absolute chronology of Megiddo, Israel, in the Late Bronze and Iron Ages: high-resolution radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 56(1):221244.
Tufnell, O. 1958. Lachish IV: the Bronze Age. London: Oxford University Press.
Tufnell, O, Inge, CH, Harding, L. 1940. Lachish II: the Fosse Temple. London: Oxford University Press.
Ussishkin, D. 2004a. A synopsis of the stratigraphical, chronological and historical issues. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume I. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 50119.
Ussishkin, D. 2004b. The mound and excavation strategy. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume I. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 2349.
Ussishkin, D. 2004c. Area P: the Late Bronze Age strata. In: Ussishkin, D, editor The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume I. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 188214.
Ussishkin, D. 2004d. Area D: the Bronze Age strata. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume I. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 282315.
Ussishkin, D. 2004e. Area GE: the inner city-gate. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume II. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 624689.
Webster, LC, Sergi, O, Kleiman, S, Lipschits, O, Hua, Q, Jacobsen, GE, Tristant, Y, Gadot, Y. 2018. Preliminary radiocarbon results for Late Bronze Age strata at Tel Azekah and their Implications. Radiocarbon 60(1):309331.
Webster, L, Streit, K, Dee, MW, Hajdas, I, Höflmayer, F. 2019. Identifying the Lachish of Papyrus Hermitage 1116A Verso and the Amarna Letters: implications of new radiocarbon dating. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 21:8899.
Weissbein, I, Garfinkel, Y, Hasel, MG, Klingbeil, MG. 2016. Goddesses from Canaanite Lachish. Strata: Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society 34:4155.
Wild, EM, Steier, P, Fischer, PM and Höflmayer, F. 2013. 14C dating of humic acids from Bronze and Iron Age plant remains from the Eastern Mediterranean. Radiocarbon 55(2–3):599607.
Yannai, E. 2004. The Late Bronze Age pottery from Area S. In: Ussishkin, D, editor. The renewed archaeological excavations at Lachish (1973–1994). Volume III. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. p. 10321146.

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Webster et al. supplementary material
Webster et al. supplementary material

 PDF (2.3 MB)
2.3 MB

New Radiocarbon-based assessment Supports the Prominence of Tel Lachish during late Bronze age IB-IIA

  • Lyndelle Webster (a1) (a2), Katharina Streit (a3), Michael Dee (a4), Irka Hajdas (a5) and Felix Höflmayer (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed