Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa



We describe a general logical framework, Justification Logic, for reasoning about epistemic justification. Justification Logic is based on classical propositional logic augmented by justification assertions t: F that read t is a justification for F. Justification Logic absorbs basic principles originating from both mainstream epistemology and the mathematical theory of proofs. It contributes to the studies of the well-known Justified True Belief vs. Knowledge problem. We state a general Correspondence Theorem showing that behind each epistemic modal logic, there is a robust system of justifications. This renders a new, evidence-based foundation for epistemic logic. As a case study, we offer a resolution of the Goldman–Kripke ‘Red Barn’ paradox and analyze Russell’s ‘prime minister example’ in Justification Logic. Furthermore, we formalize the well-known Gettier example and reveal hidden assumptions and redundancies in Gettier’s reasoning.

Corresponding author
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

S. Artemov (2006). Justified common knowledge. Theoretical Computer Science, 357(1–3), 422.

S. Artemov (2007). On two models of provability. In D. M. Gabbay , M. Zakharyaschev , and S. S. Goncharov , editors. Mathematical Problems From Applied Logic II. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 152.

S. Artemov , & L Beklemishev . (2005). Provability logic. In D. Gabbay , and F. Guenthner , editors. Handbook of Philosophical Logic (second edition), Vol. 13. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, pp. 189360.

S. Artemov , & E Nogina . (2005). Introducing justification into epistemic logic. Journal of Logic and Computation, 15(6), 10591073.

V. Brezhnev , & R Kuznets . (2006). Making knowledge explicit: how hard it is. Theoretical Computer Science, 357(1–3), 2334.

F. Dretske (1971). Conclusive reasons. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 49, 122.

R. Fagin , & J Halpern . (1988). Belief, awareness, and limited reasoning. Artificial Intelligence, 34(1), 3976.

M Fitting . (2005). The logic of proofs, semantically. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, 132(1), 125.

M. Fitting , & R. L Mendelsohn . (1998). First-Order Modal Logic. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

E. Gettier (1963). Is justified true belief knowledge? Analysis, 23, 121123.

A. Goldman (1967). A causal theory of knowing. The Journal of Philosophy, 64, 335372.

V. F Hendricks . (2003). Active Agents. Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 12(4), 469495.

A Heyting . (1934). Mathematische Grundlagenforschung. Intuitionismus. Beweistheorie. Berlin, Germany: Springer.

J. Hintikka (1975). Impossible possible worlds vindicated. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 4, 475484.

V. N Krupski . (2001). The single-conclusion proof logic and inference rules specification. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, 113(1–3), 181206.

V. N Krupski . (2006). Referential logic of proofs. Theoretical Computer Science, 357(1), 143166.

K. Lehrer , & T Paxson . (1969). Knowledge: undefeated justified true belief. The Journal of Philosophy, 66, 122.

R. Milnikel (2007). Derivability in certain subsystems of the logic of proofs is $\Pi _2^p $-complete. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, 145(3), 223239.

A. S Troelstra . (1998). Realizability. In S. Buss , editor. Handbook of Proof Theory, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, pp. 407474.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Review of Symbolic Logic
  • ISSN: 1755-0203
  • EISSN: 1755-0211
  • URL: /core/journals/review-of-symbolic-logic
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 47 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 350 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 29th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.