This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1L Forsgren , E Beghi , A Oun , M Sillanpaa . The epidemiology of epilepsy in Europe – a systematic review. Eur J Neurol 2005; 12:245–53.
3SD Lhatoo , JW Sander . Cause-specific mortality in epilepsy. Epilepsia 2005; 46 (suppl 11):36–39.
4MJ Pugh , J Cramer , J Knoefel Potentially inappropriate antiepileptic drugs for elderly patients with epilepsy. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52:417–22.
5MJV Pugh , AC Van Cott , JA Cramer Trends in antiepileptic drug prescribing for older patients with new-onset epilepsy: 2000–2004. Neurology 2008; 70:2171–78.
8CA Galimberti , F Magri , B Magnani Antiepileptic drug use and epileptic seizures in elderly nursing home residents: a survey in the province of Pavia, Northern Italy. Epilepsy Res 2006; 68:1–8.
9SL Harms , LE Eberly , JM Garrard Prevalence of appropriate and problematic antiepileptic combination therapy in older people in the nursing home. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53:1023–08.
10F Huying , S Klimpe , KJ Werhahn . Antiepileptic drug use in nursing home residents: a cross-sectional, regional study. Seizure 2006; 15:194–97.
11J Loiseau , P Loiseau , B Duche A survey of epileptic disorders in southwest France: seizures in elderly patients. Ann Neurol 1990; 27:232–37.
12SM LaRoche , SL Helmers . Epilepsy in the elderly. Neurologist 2003; 9:241–49.
13WA Hauser , JF Annegers , LT Kurland . Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935–1984. Epilepsia 1993; 34:453–68.
14MJ Brodie , P Kwan . Epilepsy in elderly people. BMJ 2005; 331:1317–22.
15YM Hart , JW Sander , AL Johnson , SD Shorvon . National General Practice Study of Epilepsy: recurrence after a first seizure. Lancet 1990; 336:1271–74.
16WA Hauser , SS Rich , Lee JR, JF Annegers , VE Anderson . Risk of recurrent seizures after two unprovoked seizures. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:429–34.
17A Marson , A Jacoby , A Johnson Immediate versus deferred antiepileptic drug treatment for early epilepsy and single seizures: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005; 365:2007–13.
18LG Kim , TL Johnson , AG Marson , DW Chadwick . Prediction of risk of seizure recurrence after a single seizure and early epilepsy: further results from the MESS trial. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5:317–22.
19I Drury , A Beydoun . Interictal epileptiform activity in elderly patients with epilepsy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1998; 106:369–73.
20CF Bladin , AV Alexandrov , A Bellavance Seizures after stroke: a prospective multicenter study. Arch Neurol 2000; 57:1617–22.
21C Lamy , V Domigo , F Semah Early and late seizures after cryptogenic ischemic stroke in young adults. Neurology 2003; 60:400–04.
22MI Lossius , OM Ronning , GD Slapo , P Mowinckel , L Gjerstad . Poststroke epilepsy: occurrence and predictors–a long-term prospective controlled study (Akershus Stroke Study). Epilepsia 2005; 46:1246–51.
23TS Olsen . Post-stroke epilepsy. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001; 3:340–44.
24CY Sung , NS Chu . Epileptic seizures in thrombotic stroke. J Neurol 1990; 237:166–70.
25DC Hesdorffer , WA Hauser , JF Annegers , E Kokmen , WA Rocca . Dementia and adult-onset unprovoked seizures. Neurology 1996; 46:727–30.
26JC Amatniek , WA Hauser , C Del Castillo-Castaneda Incidence and predictors of seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Epilepsia 2006; 47: 867–72.
27G Kramer . Epilepsy in the elderly: some clinical and pharmacotherapeutic aspects. Epilepsia 2001; 42 (suppl 3):5–9.
28R Mohanraj , MJ Brodie . Diagnosing refractory epilepsy: response to sequential treatment schedules. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13:277–82.
29E Faught . Monotherapy in adults and elderly persons. Neurology 2007; 69 (suppl 3): S3–9.
31A Piazzini , MP Canevini , K Turner , R Chifari , R Canger . Elderly people and epilepsy: cognitive function. Epilepsia 2006; 47 (suppl 5):82–84.
32T Glauser , E Ben-Menachem , B Bourgeois ILAE treatment guidelines: evidence-based analysis of antiepileptic drug efficacy and effectiveness as initial monotherapy for epileptic seizures and syndromes. Epilepsia 2006; 47:1094–20.
33AJ Rowan , RE Ramsay , JF Collins New-onset geriatric epilepsy: a randomized study of gabapentin, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine. Neurology 2005; 64:1868–73.
34MJ Brodie , PW Overstall , L Giorgi . Multicentre, double-blind, randomised comparison between lamotrigine and carbamazepine in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. The UK Lamotrigine Elderly Study Group. Epilepsy Res 1999; 37:81–87.
35MD Privitera , MJ Brodie , RH Mattson Topiramate, carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy: double-blind comparison in newly diagnosed epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 2003; 107:165–75.
36E Saetre , E Perucca , J Isojarvi , L Gjerstad . An international multicenter randomized double-blind controlled trial of lamotrigine and sustained-release carbamazepine in the treatment of newly diagnosed epilepsy in the elderly. Epilepsia 2007; 48:1292–302.
37AG Marson , AM Al-Kharusi , M Alwaidh The SANAD study of effectiveness of carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, or topiramate for treatment of partial epilepsy: an unblinded randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 369:1000–15.
38JA Cramer , IE Leppik , KD Rue , P Edrich , G Kramer . Tolerability of levetiracetam in elderly patients with CNS disorders. Epilepsy Res 2003; 56:135–45.
39TM Alsaadi , S Koopmans , M Apperson , S Farias . Levetiracetam monotherapy for elderly patients with epilepsy. Seizure 2004; 13:58–60.
40JA Ferrendelli , J French , I Leppik Use of levetiracetam in a population of patients aged 65 years and older: a subset analysis of the KEEPER trial. Epilepsy Behav 2003; 4:702–09.
41J Bauer , E Ben-Menachem , G Kramer Levetiracetam: a long-term follow-up study of efficacy and safety. Acta Neurol Scand 2006; 114:169–76.
42J Groselj , R Guerrini , J Van Oene Experience with topiramate monotherapy in elderly patients with recent-onset epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 2005; 112:144–50.
43E Kutluay , K McCague , J D'Souza , A Beydoun . Safety and tolerability of oxcarbazepine in elderly patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2003; 4:175–80.
44RH Mattson , JA Cramer , JF Collins . A comparison of valproate with carbamazepine for the treatment of complex partial seizures and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults. The Department of Veterans Affairs Epilepsy Cooperative Study No. 264 Group. N Engl J Med 1992; 327:765–71.
46A Birnbaum , NA Hardie , IE Leppik Variability of total phenytoin serum concentrations within elderly nursing home residents. Neurology 2003; 60:555–59.
47PN Patsalos , DJ Berry , BF Bourgeois Antiepileptic drugs–best practice guidelines for therapeutic drug monitoring: a position paper by the subcommission on therapeutic drug monitoring, ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. Epilepsia 2008; 49:1239–76.
49HB Newton , SA Goldlust , D Pearl . Retrospective analysis of the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in brain tumor patients. J Neurooncol 2006; 78:99–102.
50CJ Vecht , GL Wagner , EB Wilms . Interactions between antiepileptic and chemotherapeutic drugs. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2:404–09.
51KE Ensrud , TS Walczak , T Blackwell Antiepileptic drug use increases rates of bone loss in older women: a prospective study. Neurology 2004; 62:2051–57.
52Y Sato , I Kondo , S Ishida Decreased bone mass and increased bone turnover with valproate therapy in adults with epilepsy. Neurology 2001; 57:445–49.
53S Mintzer , P Boppana , J Toguri , A DeSantis . Vitamin D levels and bone turnover in epilepsy patients taking carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine. Epilepsia 2006; 47:510–15.
55HB Persson , KA Alberts , BY Farahmand , T Tomson . Risk of extremity fractures in adult outpatients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 2002; 43:768–72.
56RD Sheth , CL Harden . Screening for bone health in epilepsy. Epilepsia 2007; 48 (suppl 9):39–41.
57G Kenneback , M Ericson , T Tomson , L Bergfeldt . Changes in arrhythmia profile and heart rate variability during abrupt withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs. Implications for sudden death. Seizure 1997; 6:369–75.
58TD Fife , D Blum , RS Fisher . Measuring the effects of antiepileptic medications on balance in older people. Epilepsy Res 2006; 70:103–09.
59KE Ensrud , TL Blackwell , CM Mangione Central nervous system-active medications and risk for falls in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50:1629–37.
60P Ryvlin , A Montavont , N Nighoghossian . Optimizing therapy of seizures in stroke patients. Neurology 2006; 67 (suppl 4):S3–9.
62LB Goldstein . Common drugs may influence motor recovery after stroke. The Sygen In Acute Stroke Study Investigators. Neurology 1995; 45:865–1071.
63AM Naidech , KT Kreiter , N Janjua Phenytoin exposure is associated with functional and cognitive disability after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 2005; 36:583–87.
64J Alvarez-Sabin , J Montaner , L Padro Gabapentin in late-onset poststroke seizures. Neurology. 2002; 59:1991–93.
67PN Patsalos , E Perucca . Clinically important drug interactions in epilepsy: interactions between antiepileptic drugs and other drugs. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2:473–81.
68KJ Goulden , JM Dooley , PR Camfield , AD Fraser . Clinical valproate toxicity induced by acetylsalicylic acid. Neurology 1987; 37:1392–94.
69NB Sandson , C Marcucci , DL Bourke , R Smith-Lamacchia . An interaction between aspirin and valproate: the relevance of plasma protein displacement drug-drug interactions. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163:1891–96.
72KJ Meador . Cognitive outcomes and predictive factors in epilepsy. Neurology 2002; 58 (suppl 5):S21–26.
73C Cordonnier , H Henon , P Derambure , F Pasquier , D Leys . Early epileptic seizures after stroke are associated with increased risk of new-onset dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007; 78:514–16.
74K Turnheim . When drug therapy gets old: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the elderly. Exp Gerontol 2003; 38:843–53.
75HR Griffith , RC Martin , JK Bambara , DC Marson , E Faught . Older adults with epilepsy demonstrate cognitive impairments compared with patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Epilepsy Behav 2006; 8:161–68.
76DB Smith , RH Mattson , JA Cramer Results of a nationwide Veterans Administration Cooperative Study comparing the efficacy and toxicity of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone. Epilepsia 1987; 28 (suppl 3):S50–58.
77WO Tatum , JA French , E Faught Postmarketing experience with topiramate and cognition. Epilepsia 2001; 42:1134–40.
78AP Aldenkamp , G Baker , OG Mulder A multicenter, randomized clinical study to evaluate the effect on cognitive function of topiramate compared with valproate as add-on therapy to carbamazepine in patients with partial-onset seizures. Epilepsia 2000; 41:1167–78.
79AP Aldenkamp , J Arends , HP Bootsma Randomized double-blind parallel-group study comparing cognitive effects of a low-dose lamotrigine with valproate and placebo in healthy volunteers. Epilepsia 2002; 43:19–26.
80JS Aulakh , JW Hawkins , HS Athwal Tolerability and effectiveness of lamotrigine in complex elderly patients. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2005; 18:8–11.
81KJ Meador , DW Loring , PG Ray Differential cognitive and behavioral effects of carbamazepine and lamotrigine. Neurology 2001; 56:1177–82.
82V Belcastro , C Costa , F Galletti Levetiracetam monotherapy in Alzheimer patients with late-onset seizures: a prospective observational study. Eur J Neurol 2007; 14:1176–68.
83HH Kyomen , TH Whitfield , RJ Baldessarini . Levetiracetam for manic behavior in hospitalized geriatric patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2007; 27:408–10.
85GK Bergey . Initial treatment of epilepsy: special issues in treating the elderly. Neurology 2004; 63 (suppl 4):S40–48.
86DP McLaughlin , NA Pachana , K McFarland . Depression in a community-dwelling sample of older adults with late-onset or lifetime epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2008; 12:281–85.
87E Perucca , D Berlowitz , A Birnbaum Pharmacological and clinical aspects of antiepileptic drug use in the elderly. Epilepsy Res 2006; 68 (suppl 1):S49–63.
88RV Sheorajpanday , PP De Deyn . Epileptic fits and epilepsy in the elderly: general reflections, specific issues and therapeutic implications. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2007; 109:727–43.
90V Biton , W Mirza , G Montouris Weight change associated with valproate and lamotrigine monotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Neurology 2001; 56:172–77.
91E Faught , R Ayala , GG Montouris , IE Leppik . Randomized controlled trial of zonisamide for the treatment of refractory partial-onset seizures. Neurology 2001; 57:1774–79.
92E Ben-Menachem , M Axelsen , EH Johanson , A Stagge , U Smith . Predictors of weight loss in adults with topiramate-treated epilepsy. Obes Res 2003; 11:556–62.
93AM Chihorek , B Abou-Khalil , BA Malow . Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with seizure occurrence in older adults with epilepsy. Neurology 2007; 69:1823–27.
94M Nieto-Barrera , M Brozmanova , G Capovilla A comparison of monotherapy with lamotrigine or carbamazepine in patients with newly diagnosed partial epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2001; 46:145–55.
95JC Cloyd , RP Remmel . Antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetics and interactions: impact on treatment of epilepsy. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20 (Pt 2):139S–51S.