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The effect of exercise on hypertension and stroke

  • Bruce Arroll (a1) and Robert Beaglehole (a1)
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Corresponding author
Bruce Arroll, Department of General Practice, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1, New Zealand.
References
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1Casperson CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep 1985; 100: 126–31.
2Hillary Commission for Recreation and Sport. Life in New Zealand. Wellington: Hillary Commission for Sport, Fitness and Recreation, 1990.
3Beard K, Bulpitt C, Mascie-Taylor H, O'Malley K, Sever P, Webb S. Management of elderly patients with sustained hypertension. Br Med J 1992; 304: 412–16.
4Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S, Herbert P, Fiebach NH, Eberlein KA. Blood pressure, stroke, coronary heart disease. Part 2: short term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet 1990; 1: 827–38.
5Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL et al. A natural history of athleticism and cardiovascular health. JAMA 1984; 252: 491–95.
6Paffenbarger RS, Wing AL, Hyde RT et al. Physical activity and incidence of hypertension in college alumni. Am J Epidemiol 1983; 117: 245–57.
7Paffenbarger RS, Wing AL, Hyde RT, Lee I, Jung DL, Kampert JB. The association of changes in physical activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality in men. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 538–45.
8Wannamethee G, Shaper AG. Physical activity and stroke in British middle aged men. Br Med J 1992; 304: 597601.
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10Berlin J A, Colditz GA. A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 612–28.
11Arroll B, Beaglehole R. Does physical activity lower blood pressure. A critical review of the recent literature. J Clin Epi 1992; 45: 439–47.
12Hurley BF, Seals DR, Eshani AA et al. Effects of high-intensity strength training on cardiovascular function. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1984; 16: 483–88.
13Harris KA, Holly RG. Physiological response to circuit weight training in borderline hypertensive subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19: 246–52.
14Hurley BF, Hagberg JM, Goldberg AP et al. Resistive training can reduce coronary risk factors without altering VO2 max or percent body fat. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1988; 20: 150–54.
15Blair SN, Kohl HW, Gordon NF, Jr Paffenbarger RS. How much physical activity is good for health. Annu Rev Publ Health 1992; 13: 99126.
16Siscovik DS, Weiss NS, Fletcher RH, Lasky T. The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 874–77.
17Nelson L, Esler MD, Jennings GL, Korner PI. Effect of changing levels of physical activity on blood pressure on hemodynamics in essential hypertension. Lancet 1986; 11: 473–76.
18American College of Sports Medicine. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1990; 22: 265–74.
19Meredith IT, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Time-course of the antihypertensive and autonomic effects on blood pressure on hemodynamics in essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1990; 8: 859–66.
20Hagberg JM, Mountain SJ, Wade H et al. Effect of exercise training in 60–69 year old persons with essential hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1989; 64: 348–53.
21Grassi G, Servalle G, Calhoun D, Bolla G, Mancia G. Physical exercise in essential hypertension. Chest 1992; 101: s31214.
22Wood PD, Stefanik MI. Exercise fitness and atherosclerosis. In: Bouchard C ed. Exercise fitness and health: a consensus of current knowledge. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics, 1990;: 409–24.
23Thompson PD, Funk EJ, Carleton RA, Sturner WQ. Incidence of death during jogging in Rhode Island from 1975 through 1980. JAMA 1982; 247: 2535–38.
24Thompson PD. Cardiovascular hazards of physical activity. Ex Sport Sci Rev 1982; 10: 208–35.
25Dishman RK. Determinants of participation in physical activity. In: Bouchard C ed. Exercise fitness and health: a consensus of current knowledge. Champaign, II: Human Kinetics, 1990;: 7594.
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Reviews in Clinical Gerontology
  • ISSN: 0959-2598
  • EISSN: 1469-9036
  • URL: /core/journals/reviews-in-clinical-gerontology
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