1McCully KS. Vascular pathology of homocysteinaemia: implication for the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Am J Pathol 1969; 56: 111–28.
2Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischaemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2002; 288: 2015–22.
3Giles WH, Croft JB, Greenland KJ, Ford ES, Kittner SJ. Total homocysteine concentration and the likelihood of nonfatal stroke. Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Stroke 1998; 29: 2473–77.
4Mayer EL, Jacobsen DW, Robison K. Homocysteine and coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 27; 517–27.
5Verhof P, Stampfer MJ, Buring JE et al. Homocysteine metabolism and risk of myocardial infarction: relation with vitamin B6, B12 and folate. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: 845–59.
6Rees MM, Rodgers GM. Homocysteinaemia : association of a metabolic disorder with vascular disease and thrombosis. Thromb Res 1993; 71: 337–59.
7Ubbink JB. Assay methods for the measurement of total homocysteine in plasma. Semin Thromb Hemost 2006; 26: 233–41.
8Ueland PM, Refsum H, Stabler SP, Malinow MR, Andersson A, Allen RH. Total homocysteine in plasma or serum : methods and clinical applications. Clin Chem 1993; 39: 1764–79.
9Kang SS, Wong PW, Malinow MR. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and risk factors for occlusive vascular disease. Ann Rev Nutr 1992; 12: 279–98.
10Malinow MR. Homocysteine, vitamins and genetic interaction in vascular disease. Can J Cardiol 1999; 15 (suppl B): 31B–34B.
11Robinson K, Mayer E, Jacobson DW. Homocysteine and coronary artery disease. Cleve Clin J Med 1994; 61: 438–50.
12Brattstrom L, Wilcken DE, Onrik J, Brudin L. Common methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene metabolism leads to hyperhomocysteinaemia, but not to vascular disease: result of a meta-analysis. Circulation 1998; 98: 2520–26.
13Wilken B, Bamforth F et al. Geographical and ethnic variation of the 677 C → T allele of 5, 10 methyltetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR: finding over 7000 newborns from 16 areas worldwide. J Med Genet 2003; 40: 619–25.
14Frost P, Bloom HJ, Milos R et al. A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease : a common mutation in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase. Nat Genet 1995; 10: 111–13.
15Bruschi F, Daguati R, Parazzini F et al. Age, menopausal status and homocysteine levels in women around menopause. Eur J Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Biol 2005; 120: 195–97.
16Lindgren A, Brattstrom L, Norving B, Hultberg B, Anderson A, Johansen BB. Plasma homocysteine in the acute and convalescent phase after stroke. Stroke 1995; 26: 795–800.
17Meiklejohn DJ, Vickers MA, Dijkhuisen R, Greaves M. Plasma homocysteine concentration in the acute and convalescent periods of atherothrombotic stroke. Stroke 2001; 32: 57–62.
18Howard VJ, Sides EG, Newman GC et al. Stability of Plasma Homocysteine in Acute Stroke Patients (SHASP) Study Investigators. Changes in plasma homocysteine in the acute phase after stroke. Stroke 2002; 33: 473–78.
19Alfthan G, Pekkanen J, Jauhiainen M et al. Relationship of serum homocysteine and lipoprotein concentrations to atherosclerotic disease in a prospective Finnish population-based study. Atherosclerosis 1994; 106: 9–19.
20Verhoef P, Hennekens CH, Malinow MR et al. A prospective study of plasma homocysteine and risk of ischaemic stroke. Stroke 1994; 25: 1924–30.
21Nygard O, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Stensvold I et al. Total plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk profile : the Hordaland Homocysteine study. JAMA 1995; 274: 1526–33.
22Perry IJ, Refsum H, Morris RW, Ebrahim SB, Cleland PM, Sharper AG. Prospective study of serum total homocysteine concentration and risk of stroke in middle-aged British men. Lancet 1995; 346: 1395–98.
23Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chamblers LE et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischaemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention VISP randomised controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 565–75.
24Bots ML, Launer LJ, Lindemans et al. Homocysteine and short-term risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in the elderly : the Rotterdam Study. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 38–44.
25Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischaemic heart disease and stroke. JAMA 2002; 288: 2015–23.
26Bostom AG, Rosenberg IH, Silbershatz H, Jacques PF et al. Non-fasting plasma total homocysteine levels and stroke incidence in the elderly person: The Framingham Study. Ann Int Med 1999; 131: 352–55.
27Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ, Anand SS, Lofthouse E, Staples N, Baker RI. Association between high homocysteine and ischaemic stroke due to large- and small-artery disease but not other aetiologic subtypes of ischaemic stroke. Stroke 2000; 31: 1069–75.
28Tan NC-K, Vanketasubramanian N, Saw SM, Tjia HTL. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and risk of ischaemic stroke among young Asian adults. Stroke 2002; 33: 1956–62.
29Van Der Meer IM, de Maat MPM, Hak AE et al. C reactive protein predicts progression of atherosclerosis measured at various sites in the arterial tree. The Rotterdam study. Stroke 2002; 33: 2750–55.
30Harker LA, Stichter SJ, Scott CR, Ross R. Homocysteinaemia: vascular injury and arterial thrombosis. N Eng J Med 1974; 291: 537–43.
31Harker LA, Ross R, Stichter SJ, Scott CR. Homocysteine-induced arteriosclerosis: the role of endothelial cell injury and platelet response in its genesis. J Clin Invest 1976; 58: 731–41.
32Ratnoff OD. Activation of Hageman factor by L-homocysteine. Science 1968; 162: 1007–9.
33Rodgers GM, Kane WH. Activation of endogenous factor V by a homocysteine-induced vascular endothelial cell activator. J Clin Invest 1986; 77: 1909–16.
34Rodgers GM, Conn MT. Homocysteine, an atherogenic stimulus, reduces protein C activation by arterial and venous endothelial cells. Blood 1990; 75: 895–901.
35Lentz SR, Sadler JE. Inhibition of thrombomodulin surface expression and protein C activation by the thrombogenic agent homocysteine. J Clin Invest 1991; 88: 1906–14.
36Fryer RH, Wilson BD, Eubler DB, Fitzgerald LA, Rodgers GM. Homocysteine, a risk factor for premature vascular disease and thrombosis, induces tissue factor activity in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb 1993; 13: 1327–33.
37Nishinaga M, Ozawa T, Shimade K. Homocysteine, a thrombogenic agent, suppresses anticoagulant heparin sulfate expression in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 1993; 92: 1381–6.
38Tsai JC, Wang H, Perrella MA et al. Induction of cyclin A gene expression by homocysteine in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 146–53.
39Hermann W, Hermann M, Obeid R. Hyperhomocysteinaemia: a critical review of old and new aspects. Curr Drug Metab 2007; 8: 17–31.
40The Heart Outcome Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 2 Investigators. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N Eng J Med 2006; 354: 1567–77.
41Bonaa KH, Njostad I, Cleland PM et al. Homocysteine-lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Eng J Med 2006; 354: 1578–88.