1WHO. Obesity and Overweight. 2011. Report No. 311.
2Neovius, K, Rasmussen, F, Sundstrom, J, Neovius, M. Forecast of future premature mortality as a result of trends in obesity and smoking: nationwide cohort simulation study. Eur J Epidemiol 2010; 25: 703–9.
3Stewart, ST, Cutler, DM, Rosen, AB. Forecasting the effects of obesity and smoking on US life expectancy. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 2252–60.
4Zamboni, M, Mazzali, G, Zoico, E, Harris, TB, Meigs, JB, Di Francesco, V, Fantin, F, Bissoli, L, Bosello, O. Health consequences of obesity in the elderly: a review of four unresolved questions. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005; 29: 1011–29.
5Bleich, SN, Wang, YC, Wang, Y, Gortmaker, SL. Increasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among US adults: 1988–1994 to 1999–2004. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 372–81.
6Cohen, JD, Cziraky, MJ, Cai, Q, Wallace, A, Wasser, T, Crouse, JR, Jacobson, TA. 30-year trends in serum lipids among United States adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys II, III, and 1999–2006. Am J Cardiol 2010; 106: 969–75.
7Crimmins, EM, Alley, D, Reynolds, SL, Johnston, M, Karlamangla, A, Seeman, T. Changes in biological markers of health: older Americans in the 1990s. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005; 60: 1409–13.
8Flegal, KM, Carroll, MD, Ogden, CL, Curtin, LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA 2010; 303: 235–41.
9Ford, ES, Li, C, Zhao, G, Pearson, WS, Capewell, S. Trends in the prevalence of low risk factor burden for cardiovascular disease among United States adults. Circulation 2009; 120: 1181–88.
10Ford, ES, Li, C, Zhao, G, Tsai, J. Trends in obesity and abdominal obesity among adults in the United States from 1999–2008. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011; 35: 736–43.
11Stenholm, S, Simonsick, EM, Ferrucci, L. Secular trends in body weight in older men born between 1877 and 1941: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Ageing. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010; 65: 105–10.
12Kaplan, MS, Huguet, N, Newsom, JT, McFarland, BH, Lindsay, J. Prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among older adults: findings from the Canadian National Population Health Survey. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003; 58: 1018–30.
13Torrance, GM, Hooper, MD, Reeder, BA. Trends in overweight and obesity among adults in Canada (1970–1992): evidence from national surveys using measured height and weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 797–804.
14Macdonald, SM, Reeder, BA, Chen, Y, Despres, JP. Obesity in Canada: a descriptive analysis. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group. CMAJ 1997; 157 suppl 1: S3–9.
15Bruce, SG, Riediger, ND, Zacharias, JM, Young, TK. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities in a Canadian First Nation population. Chronic Dis Can 2010; 31: 27–32.
16Lix, LM, Bruce, S, Sarkar, J, Young, TK. Risk factors and chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. Health Rep 2009; 20: 21–29.
17Al Snih, S, Ray, L, Markides, KS. Prevalence of self-reported arthritis among elders from Latin America and the Caribbean and among Mexican Americans from the southwestern United States. J Ageing Health 2006; 18: 207–23.
18Monteiro, CA, Conde, WL, Popkin, BM. Income-specific trends in obesity in Brazil: 1975–2003. Am J Public Health 2007; 97: 1808–12.
19Ruiz-Arregui, L, Castillo-Martinez, L, Orea-Tejeda, A, Mejia-Arango, S, Miguel-Jaimes, A. Prevalence of self-reported overweight-obesity and its association with socioeconomic and health factors among older Mexican adults. Salud Publica Mex 2007; 49 suppl 4: S482–87.
20Kotseva, K, Wood, D, De, BG, De, BD, Pyorala, K, Keil, U. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries. Lancet 2009; 373: 929–40.
21Andreyeva, T, Michaud, PC, van Soest, A. Obesity and health in Europeans aged 50 years and older. Public Health 2007; 121: 497–509.
22Charles, MA, Eschwege, E, Basdevant, A. Monitoring the obesity epidemic in France: the Obepi surveys 1997–2006. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 2182–86.
23Dugravot, A, Sabia, S, Stringhini, S, Kivimaki, M, Westerlund, H, Vahtera, J, Guéguen, A, Zins, M, Goldberg, M, Nabi, H, Singh-Manoux, A. Do socioeconomic factors shape weight and obesity trajectories over the transition from midlife to old age? Results from the French GAZEL cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 16–23.
24Hubbard, RE, Lang, IA, Llewellyn, DJ, Rockwood, K. Frailty, body mass index, and abdominal obesity in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010; 65: 377–81.
25Lang, IA, Llewellyn, DJ, Alexander, K, Melzer, D. Obesity, physical function, and mortality in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 1474–78.
26Morabia, A, Costanza, MC. The obesity epidemic as harbinger of a metabolic disorder epidemic: trends in overweight, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes treatment in Geneva, Switzerland, 1993–2003. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 632–35.
27Gomez-Cabello, A, Pedrero-Chamizo, R, Olivares, PR, Luzardo, L, Juez-Bengoechea, A, Mata, E et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in non-institutionalized people aged 65 or over from Spain: the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. Obes Rev 2011; 12: 583–92.
28Michaud, PC, van Soest, A, Andreyeva, T. Cross-country variation in obesity patterns among older Americans and Europeans. Research Paper. SEDAP; 2007. Report No. 185.
29Young, TK, Bjerregaard, P, Dewailly, E, Risica, PM, Jorgensen, ME, Ebbesson, SE. Prevalence of obesity and its metabolic correlates among the circumpolar Inuit in 3 countries. Am J Public Health 2007; 97: 691–95.
30WHO. The Asia-Pacific perspective: Redefining obesity and its treatment. Health Communications Australia; 2001.
31AIHW; Bennet, SA, Magnus, P, Gibson, D. Obesity trends in older Australians. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2004. Report No. 12.
32Fried, LP, Ferrucci, L, Darer, J, Williamson, JD, Anderson, G. Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: implications for improved targeting and care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004; 59: 255–63.
33Guralnik, JM, Simonsick, EM, Ferrucci, L, Glynn, RJ, Berkman, LF, Blazer, DG, Scherr, PA, Wallace, RB. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol 1994; 49: M85–94.
34Terry, DF, Sebastiani, P, Andersen, SL, Perls, TT. Disentangling the roles of disability and morbidity in survival to exceptional old age. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 277–83.
35Verbrugge, LM, Reoma, JM, Gruber-Baldini, AL. Short-term dynamics of disability and well-being. J Health Soc Behav 1994; 35: 97–117.
36Al Snih, S, Ottenbacher, KJ, Markides, KS, Kuo, YF, Eschbach, K, Goodwin, JS. The effect of obesity on disability vs mortality in older Americans. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 774–80.
37Ferraro, KF, Su, YP, Gretebeck, RJ, Black, DR, Badylak, SF. Body mass index and disability in adulthood: a 20-year panel study. Am J Public Health 2002; 92: 834–40.
38Reynolds, SL, Saito, Y, Crimmins, EM. The impact of obesity on active life expectancy in older American men and women. Gerontologist 2005; 45: 438–44.
39Sturm, R, Ringel, JS, Andreyeva, T. Increasing obesity rates and disability trends. Health Aff (Millwood) 2004; 23: 199–205.
40Visscher, TL, Rissanen, A, Seidell, JC, Heliovaara, M, Knekt, P, Reunanen, A, Aromaa, A. Obesity and unhealthy life-years in adult Finns: an empirical approach. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 1413–20.
41Walter, S, Kunst, A, Mackenbach, J, Hofman, A, Tiemeier, H. Mortality and disability: the effect of overweight and obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009; 33: 1410–18.
42Wilkins, K, de Groh, M. Body mass and dependency. Health Reports 2005; 17: 27–39.
43Wee, CC, Huskey, KW, Ngo, LH, Fowler-Brown, A, Leveille, SG, Mittlemen, MA, McCarthy, EP. Obesity, race, and risk for death or functional decline among medicare beneficiaries: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2011; 154: 645–55.
44Al Snih, S, Graham, JE, Kuo, YF, Goodwin, JS, Markides, KS, Ottenbacher, KJ. Obesity and disability: relation among older adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 171: 1282–88.
45Alley, DE, Chang, VW. The changing relationship of obesity and disability, 1988–2004. JAMA 2007; 298: 2020–27.
46Berraho, M, Nejjari, C, Raherison, C, El, AY, Tachfouti, N, Serhier, Z, Dartigues, JF, Barberger-Gateau, P. Body mass index, disability, and 13-year mortality in older French adults. J Ageing Health 2010; 22: 68–83.
47Chen, H, Bermudez, OI, Tucker, KL. Waist circumference and weight change are associated with disability among elderly Hispanics. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57: M19–M25.
48Chen, H, Guo, X. Obesity and functional disability in elderly Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 689–94.
49Himes, CL. Obesity, disease, and functional limitation in later life. Demography 2000; 37: 73–82.
50Zoico, E, Di Francesco, V, Guralnik, JM, Mazzali, G, Bortolani, A, Guariento, S, Sergi, G, Bosello, O, Zamboni, M. Physical disability and muscular strength in relation to obesity and different body composition indexes in a sample of healthy elderly women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28: 234–41.
51Pedersen, AN, Ovesen, L, Schroll, M, Avlund, K, Era, P. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability. J Nutr Health Ageing 2002; 6: 413–20.
52Rolland, Y, Lauwers-Cances, V, Cristini, C, Abellan Van, KG, Janssen, I, Morley, JE, Vellas, B. Difficulties with physical function associated with obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic-obesity in community-dwelling elderly women: the EPIDOS (EPIDemiologie de l'OSteoporose) Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 1895–900.
53Vincent, HK, Vincent, KR, Lamb, KM. Obesity and mobility disability in the older adult. Obes Rev 2010; 11: 568–79.
54Woo, J, Leung, J, Kwok, T. BMI, body composition, and physical functioning in older adults. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15: 1886–94.
55Auyeung, TW, Lee, JS, Leung, J, Kwok, T, Leung, PC, Woo, J. Survival in older men may benefit from being slightly overweight and centrally obese – a 5-year follow-up study in 4,000 older adults using DXA. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010; 65: 99–104.
56Kapoor, JR, Heidenreich, PA. Obesity and survival in patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function: a U-shaped relationship. Am Heart J 2010; 159: 75–80.
57Amador, LF, Al, SS, Markides, KS, Goodwin, JS. Weight change and mortality among older Mexican Americans. Ageing Clin Exp Res 2006; 18: 196–204.
58Locher, JL, Roth, DL, Ritchie, CS, Cox, K, Sawyer, P, Bodner, EV, Allman, RM. Body mass index, weight loss, and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62: 1389–92.
59Daviglus, ML, Liu, K, Yan, LL, Pirzada, A, Manheim, L, Manning, W, Garside, DB, Wang, R, Dyer, AR, Greenland, P, Stamler, J. Relation of body mass index in young adulthood and middle age to Medicare expenditures in older age. JAMA 2004; 292: 2743–49.
60Raebel, MA, Malone, DC, Conner, DA, Xu, S, Porter, JA, Lanty, FA. Health services use and health care costs of obese and non-obese individuals. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 2135–40.
61Nafiu, OO, Kheterpal, S, Moulding, R, Picton, P, Tremper, KK, Campbell, DA Jr, Eliason, JL, Stanley, JC. The association of body mass index to postoperative outcomes in elderly vascular surgery patients: a reverse J-curve phenomenon. Anesth Analg 2011; 112: 23–29.
62Schafer, MH, Ferraro, KF. Long-term obesity and avoidable hospitalization among younger, middle-aged, and older adults. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 2220–25.
63Zacharias, A, Schwann, TA, Riordan, CJ, Durham, SJ, Shah, AS, Habib, RH. Obesity and risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Circulation 2005; 112: 3247–55.
64Caterson, ID, Hubbard, V, Bray, GA, Grunstein, R, Hansen, BC, Hong, Y, Labarthe, D, Seidell, JC, Smith, SC Jr; American Heart Association. Prevention Conference VII: Obesity, a worldwide epidemic related to heart disease and stroke: Group III: worldwide comorbidities of obesity. Circulation 2004; 110: e476–83.
65Kurth, T, Gaziano, JM, Berger, K, Kase, CS, Rexrode, KM, Cook, NR, Buring, JE, Manson, JE. Body mass index and the risk of stroke in men. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 2557–62.
66Hayashi, T, Boyko, EJ, Leonetti, DL, McNeely, MJ, Newell-Morris, L, Kahn, SE, Fujimoto, WY. Visceral adiposity is an independent predictor of incident hypertension in Japanese Americans. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 992–1000.
67Kaplan, NM. Resistant hypertension: what to do after trying ‘the usual’. Geriatrics 1995; 50: 24–30.
68Wang, TJ, Larson, MG, Levy, D, Benjamin, EJ, Leip, EP, Wilson, PW, Vasan, RS. Impact of obesity on plasma natriuretic peptide levels. Circulation 2004; 109: 594–600.
69Uretsky, S, Messerli, FH, Bangalore, S, Champion, A, Cooper-Dehoff, RM, Zhou, Q, Pepine, CJ. Obesity paradox in patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease. Am J Med 2007; 120: 863–70.
70Al Suwaidi, J, Higano, ST, Hamasaki, S, Holmes, DR, Lerman, A. Association between obesity and coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88: 1300–3.
71Al Suwaidi, J, Higano, ST, Holmes, DR Jr, Lennon, R, Lerman, A. Obesity is independently associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients with normal or mildly diseased coronary arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37: 1523–28.
72Russo, C, Jin, Z, Homma, S, Rundek, T, Elkind, MS, Sacco, RL, Di Tullio, MR. Effect of obesity and overweight on left ventricular diastolic function: a community-based study in an elderly cohort. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 57: 1368–74.
73Dublin, S, French, B, Glazer, NL, Wiggins, KL, Lumley, T, Psaty, BM, Smith, NL, Heckbert, SR. Risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in relation to body mass index. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 2322–28.
74Golledge, J, Clancy, P, Jamrozik, K, Norman, PE. Obesity, adipokines, and abdominal aortic aneurysm: Health in Men study. Circulation 2007; 116: 2275–79.
75Bahrami, H, Bluemke, DA, Kronmal, R, Bertoni, AG, Lloyd-Jones, DM, Shahar, E, Szklo, M, Lima, JA. Novel metabolic risk factors for incident heart failure and their relationship with obesity: the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 1775–83.
76Fontana, L, Eagon, JC, Trujillo, ME, Scherer, PE, Klein, S. Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans. Diabetes 2007; 56: 1010–13.
77Lorgis, L, Cottin, Y, Danchin, N, Mock, L, Sicard, P, Buffet, P, L'huillier, I, Richard, C, Beer, JC, Touzery, C, Gambert, P, Zeller, M; RICO survey working group. Impact of obesity on the prognostic value of the N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Heart 2011; 97: 551–56.
78Karter, AJ, Mayer-Davis, EJ, Selby, JV, D'Agostino, RB Jr, Haffner, SM, Sholinsky, P, Bergman, R, Saad, MF, Hamman, RF. Insulin sensitivity and abdominal obesity in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men and women. The Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes 1996; 45: 1547–55.
79Smith, SCJr, . Clark, LT, Cooper, RS, Daniels, SR, Kumanyika, SK, Ofili, E, Quinones, MA, Sanchez, EJ, Saunders, E, Tiukinhoy, SD; American Heart Association Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hypertension Writing Group. Discovering the full spectrum of cardiovascular disease: Minority Health Summit 2003: report of the Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hypertension Writing Group. Circulation 2005; 111: e134–39.
80Vega, GL. Results of Expert Meetings: Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J 2001; 142: 1108–16.
81Goodpaster, BH, Krishnaswami, S, Harris, TB, Katsiaras, A, Kritchevsky, SB, Simonsick, EM, Nevitt, M, Holvoet, P, Newman, AB. Obesity, regional body fat distribution, and the metabolic syndrome in older men and women. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 777–83.
82Furukawa, S, Fujita, T, Shimabukuro, M, Iwaki, M, Yamada, Y, Nakajima, Y, Nakayama, O, Makishima, M, Matsuda, M, Shimomura, I. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest 2004; 114: 1752–61.
83Ruland, S, Hung, E, Richardson, D, Misra, S, Gorelick, PB. Impact of obesity and the metabolic syndrome on risk factors in African American stroke survivors: a report from the AAASPS. Arch Neurol 2005; 62: 386–90.
84ASCO. Cancer in Older Adults. 2010. American Society of Clinical Oncology.
85Renehan, AG. Epidemiology of overweight/obesity and cancer risk. In McTiernan, A (ed), Physical Activity, Dietary Calorie Restriction and Cancer, pp. 5–23. New York: Springer; 2010.
86Renehan, AG, Roberts, DL, Dive, C. Obesity and cancer: pathophysiological and biological mechanisms. Arch Physiol Biochem 2008; 114: 71–83.
87Kelly, T, Yang, W, Chen, CS, Reynolds, K, He, J. Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008; 32: 1431–37.
88Frezza, EE, Wachtel, MS, Chiriva-Internati, M. Influence of obesity on the risk of developing colon cancer. Gut 2006; 55: 285–91.
89NCI. Obesity and cancer: questions and answers. 2004.
90Renehan, AG, Soerjomataram, I, Leitzmann, MF. Interpreting the epidemiological evidence linking obesity and cancer: A framework for population-attributable risk estimations in Europe. Eur J Cancer 2010; 46: 2581–92.
91Roberts, DL, Dive, C, Renehan, AG. Biological mechanisms linking obesity and cancer risk: new perspectives. Ann Rev Med 2010; 61: 301–16.
92Reynolds, SL, McIlvane, JM. The impact of obesity and arthritis on active life expectancy in older Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17: 363–69.
93Gomez, R, Lago, F, Gomez-Reino, J, Dieguez, C, Gualillo, O. Adipokines in the skeleton: influence on cartilage function and joint degenerative diseases. J Mol Endocrinol 2009; 43: 11–18.
94Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, A, Metsios, GS, Koutedakis, Y, Kitas, GD. Obesity in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2011; 50: 450–62.
95Toivanen, AT, Heliovaara, M, Impivaara, O, Arokoski, JP, Knekt, P, Lauren, H, Kröger, H. Obesity, physically demanding work and traumatic knee injury are major risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – a population-based study with a follow-up of 22 years. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2010; 49: 308–14.
96Craft, S. The role of metabolic disorders in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia: two roads converged. Arch Neurol 2009; 66: 300–5.
97Kingwell, K. Dementia: Overweight or obesity during midlife is associated with late-life dementia. Nat Rev Neurol 2011; 7: 299.
98Xu, WL, Atti, AR, Gatz, M, Pedersen, NL, Johansson, B, Fratiglioni, L. Midlife overweight and obesity increase late-life dementia risk: a population-based twin study. Neurology 2011; 76: 1568–74.
99Banks, J, Marmot, M, Oldfield, Z, Smith, JP. Disease and disadvantage in the United States and in England. JAMA 2006; 295: 2037–45.
100Avendano, M, Glymour, MM, Banks, J, Mackenbach, JP. Health disadvantage in US adults aged 50 to 74 years: a comparison of the health of rich and poor Americans with that of Europeans. Am J Public Health 2009; 99: 540–48.