Skip to main content
×
Home

A classification system for seed dormancy

  • Jerry M. Baskin (a1) and Carol C. Baskin (a1) (a2)
Abstract

The proposal is made that seed scientists need an internationally acceptable hierarchical system of classification for seed dormancy. Further, we suggest that a modified version of the scheme of the Russian seed physiologist Marianna G. Nikolaeva be adopted. The modified system includes three hierarchical layers – class, level and type; thus, a class may contain levels and types, and a level may contain only types. The system includes five classes of dormancy: physiological dormancy (PD), morphological dormancy (MD), morphophysiological dormancy (MPD), physical dormancy (PY) and combinational dormancy (PY + PD). The most extensive classification schemes are for PD, which contains three levels and five types (in the non-deep level), and MPD, which contains eight levels but no types. PY is not subdivided at all but probably should be, for reasons given. Justifications are presented for not including mechanical dormancy or chemical dormancy in the modified scheme. PD (non-deep level) is the most common kind of dormancy, and occurs in gymnosperms (Coniferales, Gnetales) and in all major clades of angiosperms. Since, first, this is the class and level of dormancy in seeds of wild populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and, secondly, Type 1 (to which seeds of A. thaliana belong) is also common, and geographically and phylogenetically widespread, it seems that biochemical, molecular and genetic studies on seed dormancy in this model species might have rather broad application in explaining the basic mechanism(s) of physiological dormancy in seeds.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A classification system for seed dormancy
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A classification system for seed dormancy
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A classification system for seed dormancy
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence Fax: +1 859?257 1717 Email: jmbask0@uky.edu
References
Hide All
Adams C.A. (2003) A comparative study of seed morphology, dormancy, and germination of four closely-related Aristolochia subgenus Siphisia species (Aristolochiaceae, Piperales): A test of two hypotheses on ecological changes in species within a lineage through geological time. PhD thesis, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
Alvarado V., Hiroyaki H. and Bradford K.J. (2000) Expression of endo-β-mannanase and SNF-related protein kinase genes in true potato seeds in relation to dormancy, gibberellin and abscisic acid. pp. 347364. In Viémont J.-D., Crabbé J. (Eds) Dormancy in plants: From whole plant behavior to cellular control. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Amen R.D. (1968) A model of seed dormancy. The Botanical Review 34, 131.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) (1998) An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85, 531553.
Baskin C.C. and Baskin J.M. (1998) Seeds: Ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, Academic Press.
Baskin C.C. and Baskin J.M. (2004b) Determining dormancy-breaking and germination requirements from the fewest seeds. In Guerrant E.;Havens K.;Maunder M. (Eds) Ex situ plant conservation: supporting species survival in the wild. Covelo, CA, Island Press(in press).
Baskin C.C., Chesson P.L. and Baskin J.M. (1993) Annual seed dormancy cycles in two desert winter annuals. Journal of Ecology 81, 551556.
Baskin C.C., Zackrisson O. and Baskin J.M. (2002) Role of warm stratification in promoting germination of seeds of Empetrum hermaphroditum (Empetraceae), a circumboreal species with a stony endocarp. American Journal of Botany 89, 486493.
Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1972) Ecological life cycle and physiological ecology of seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana. Canadian Journal of Botany 50, 353360.
Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1980) Ecophysiology of secondary dormancy in seeds of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Ecology 61, 475480.
Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1983) Seasonal changes in the germination responses of buried seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and ecological interpretation. Botanical Gazette 144, 540543.
Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1985) The annual dormancy cycle in buried weed seeds: A continuum. BioScience 35, 492498.
Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1986) Changes in dormancy status of Frasera caroliniensis seeds during overwintering on parent plant. American Journal of Botany 73, 510.
Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1989) Physiology of dormancy and germination in relation to seed bank ecology. pp. 5366. In Leck M.A., Parker V.T., Simpson R.L. (Eds) Ecology of soil seed banks. San Diego, Academic Press.
Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1997) Methods of breaking seed dormancy in the endangered species Iliamna corei (Sherff) Sherff (Malvaceae), with special attention to heating. Natural Areas Journal 17, 313323.
Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (2004a) Classification, biogeography, and phylogenetic relationships of seed dormancy. In Pritchard H. (Ed.) Seed conservation: turning science into practice. Kew, The Royal Botanic Gardens (in press).
Baskin J.M., Nan X. and Baskin C.C. (1998) A comparative study of seed dormancy and germination in an annual and a perennial species of Senna (Fabaceae). Seed Science Research 8, 501512.
Baskin J.M., Baskin C.C. and Li X. (2000) Taxonomy, ecology, and evolution of physical dormancy in seeds. Plant Species Biology 15, 139152.
Beadle N.C.W. (1952) Studies in halophytes. I. The germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings of five species of Atriplex in Australia. Ecology 33, 4962.
Beaudoin N., Serizet C., Gosti F. and Giraudat J. (2000) Interactions between abscisic acid and ethylene signaling cascades. The Plant Cell 12, 11031115.
Berry T. and Bewley J.D. (1992) A role of the surrounding fruit tissues in preventing the germination of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seeds. A consideration of the osmotic environment and abscisic acid. Plant Physiology 100, 951957.
Bewley J.D. (1997a) Seed germination and dormancy. The Plant Cell 9, 10551066.
Bewley J.D. (1997b) Breaking down the walls – a role for endo-β-mannanase in release from seed dormancy? Trends in Plant Science 2, 464469.
Bewley J.D. and ack M. (1994) Seeds. Physiology, development and germination (2nd edition). New York, Plenum Press.
Bouwmeester H.J. and Karssen C.M. (1992) The dual role of temperature in the regulation of the seasonal changes in dormancy and germination of seeds of Polygonum persicaria L. Oecologia 90, 8894.
Bremer K., Bremer B. and Thulin M. (1999) Introduction to phylogeny and systematics of flowering plants. Department of Systematic Botany, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Burrows C.J. (1993) Germination requirements of the seeds of native trees, shrubs, and vines. Canterbury Botanical Journal 27, 4246.
Burrows C.J. (1995) Germination behavior of the seeds of the New Zealand species Aristotelia serrata, Coprosma robusta, Cordyline australis, Myrtus obcordata, and Schefflera digitata. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33, 257264.
Burrows C.J. (1999) Germination behavior of seeds of the New Zealand woody species Alseuosmia macrophylla, A. pusilla, Cordyline banksii, Geniostoma rupestre, Myrtus bullata, and Solanum aviculare. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37, 277287.
Corbineau F., Côme D. (2000) Dormancy of cereal seeds as related to embryo sensitivity to ABA and water potential. pp. 183194. In Viémont J.-D., Crabbé J. (Eds) Dormancy in plants: From whole plant behavior to cellular control. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Debeaujon I. and Koornneef M. (2000) Gibberellin requirement for Arabidopsis seed germination is determined both by testa characteristics and embryonic abscisic acid. Plant Physiology 122, 415424.
de Miguel L., Sánchez R.A. (1992) Phytochrome-induced germination, endosperm softening and embryo growth potential in Datura ferox seeds: Sensitivity to low water potential and time to escape FR reversal. Journal of Experimental Botany 43, 969974.
Derkx M.P.M. and Karssen C.M. (1994) Are seasonal dormancy patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana regulated by changes in seed sensitivity to light, nitrate and gibberellin? Annals of Botany 73, 129136.
Downie B. and Bewley J.D. (1996) Dormancy in white spruce ( Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seeds imposed by tissues surrounding the embryo. Seed Science Research 6, 915.
Downie B., Hilhorst H.W.M. and Bewley J.D. (1997) Endo-β-mannanase activity during dormancy alleviation and germination of white spruce ( Picea glauca ) seeds. Physiologia Plantarum 101, 405415.
Dyer W.E. (1993) Dormancy-associated embryonic mRNAs and proteins in imbibing Avena fatua caryopses. Physiologia Plantarum 88, 201211.
Fennimore S.A. and Foley M.E. (1998) Genetic and physiological evidence for the role of gibberellic acid in the germination of dormant Avena fatua seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany 49, 8994.
Foley M.E. (2001) Seed dormancy: An update on terminology, physiological genetics, and quantitative trait loci regulating germinability. Weed Science 49, 305317.
Foley M.E. and Fennimore S.A. (1998) Genetic basis for seed dormancy. Seed Science Research 8, 173182.
Forbis T.A. and Diggle P.K. (2001) Subnivean embryo development in the alpine herb Caltha leptosepala (Ranunculaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 79, 635642.
Forbis T.A., Floyd S.K., de Querioz A. (2002) The evolution of embryo size in angiosperms and other seed plants: Implications for the evolution of seed dormancy. Evolution 56, 21122125.
Garello G., Barthe P., Bonelli M., Bianco-Trinchant J., Bianco J., Le Page-Degivry M.-T. (2000) Abscisic acid-regulated responses of dormant and non-dormant embryos of Helianthus annuus: Role of ABA-inducible proteins. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 38, 473482.
Garvin S.C. and Meyer S.E. (2003) Multiple mechanisms for seed dormancy regulation in shadscale ( Atriplex confertifolia: Chenopodiaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 81, 601610.
Ghassemian M., Nambara E., Cutler S., Kawaide H., Kamiya Y. and McCourt P. (2000) Regulation of abscisic acid signaling by the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell 12, 11171126.
Goldmark P.J., Curry J., Morris C.F., Walker-Simmons M.K. (1992) Cloning and expression of an embryo-specific mRNA up-regulated in hydrated dormant seeds. Plant Molecular Biology 19, 433441.
Grappin P., Bouinot D., Sotta B., Miginiac E. and Jullien M. (2000) Control of seed dormancy in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia: Post-imbibition abscisic acid synthesis imposes dormancy maintenance. Planta 210, 279285.
Groot S.P.C. and Karssen C.M. (1992) Dormancy and germination of abscisic acid-deficient tomato seeds. Studies with the sitiens mutant. Plant Physiology 99, 952958.
Gunn C.R. (1984) Fruits and seeds of genera in subfamily Mimosoideae (Fabaceae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin Number 1681. Washington, DC, United States Department of Agriculture.
Gunn C.R. (1991) Fruits and seeds of genera in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Fabaceae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin Number 1755. Washington, DC, United States Department of Agriculture.
Gutterman Y. (1993) Seed germination in desert plants. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
Gutterman Y. (2000) Maternal effects on plants during development. pp. 5984. in Fenner M.Seeds: The ecology of regeneration in plant communities (2nd edition). Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Harper J.L. (1957) The ecological significance of dormancy and its importance in weed control. Proceedings of the international congress on crop protection (Hamburg) 4, 415420.
Harper J.L. (1977) Population biology of plants. London, Academic Press.
Hilhorst H.W.M. (1993) New aspects of seed dormancy. pp. 571579. in Côme D., Corbineau F. (Eds) Proceedings of the international workshop on seeds. Basic and applied aspects of seed biology, Angers, France, 20–24. July 1992, Vol. 2, Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie.
Hilhorst H.W.M. (1995) A critical update on seed dormancy. I. Primary dormancy. Seed Science Research 5, 6173.
Hilhorst H.W.M. (1998) The regulation of secondary dormancy. The membrane hypothesis revisited. Seed Science Research 8, 7790.
Hilhorst H.W.M. and Cohn M.A. (2000) Are cellular membranes involved in the control of seed dormancy? 275289. in Viémont J.-D., Crabbé J. (Eds) Dormancy in plants: From whole plant behavior to cellular control. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Hilhorst H.W.M. and Downie B. (1995) Primary dormancy in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker): Studies with the sitiens mutant. Journal of Experimental Botany 47, 8997.
Hilhorst H.W.M. and Karssen C.M. (1992) Seed dormancy and germination: The role of abscisic acid and gibberellins and the importance of hormone mutants. Plant Growth Regulation 11, 225238.
Hilhorst H.W.M., Derkx M.P.M. and Karssen C.M. (1996) An integrating model for seed dormancy cycling. pp. 341360. In Lang G.A. (Ed.) Plant dormancy: Physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Wallingford, CAB International.
Hilhorst H.W.M., Groot S.P.C. and Bino R.J. (1998) The tomato seed as a model system to study seed development and germination. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 47, 169183.
Holdsworth M., Kurup S. and McKibbin R. (1999) Molecular and genetic mechanisms regulating the transition from embryo development to germination. Trends in Plant Science 4, 275280.
Jarvis S.B., Taylor M.A., MacLeod M.R. and Davies H.V. (1996) Cloning and characterisation of the cDNA clones of three genes that are differentially expressed during dormancy-breakage in the seeds of Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ). Journal of Plant Physiology 147, 559566.
Jarvis S.B., Taylor M.A., Bianco J., Corbineau F. and Davies H.V. (1997) Dormancy-breakage in seeds of Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Support for the hypothesis that LEA gene expression is essential for the process. Journal of Plant Physiology 151, 457464.
Johnson R.R., Cranston H.J., Chaverra M.E. and Dyer W.E. (1995) Characterization of cDNA clones for differentially expressed genes in embryos of dormant and nondormant Avena fatua L. caryopses. Plant Molecular Biology 28, 113122.
Jullien M., Bouinot D., Ali-Rachedi S., Sotta B. and Grappin P. (2000) Abscisic acid control of dormancy expression in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Arabidopsis thaliana. pp. 195210. in Viémont J.-D., Crabbé J. (Eds) Dormancy in plants: From whole plant behavior to cellular control. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Karssen C.M. (1995) Hormonal regulation of seed development, dormancy, and germination studied by genetic control. pp. 333350. in Kigel J., Galili G. (Eds) Seed development and germination. New York, Marcel Dekker.
Karssen C.M., Groot S.P.C. (1987) The hormone-balance theory of dormancy evaluated. pp. 1730. in Pinfield N.J., Black M.British plant growth regulator group monograph 15 – Growth regulators and seeds. Bristol, UK, British Plant Growth Regulator Group.
Karssen C.M. and Lacka E. (1986) A revision of the hormone balance theory of seed dormancy: Studies on gibberellin and/or abscisic acid-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. pp. 315323. in Bopp M.Plant growth substances 1985. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
Kępczyński J., Kępczyńska E. (1997) Ethylene in seed dormancy and germination. Physiologia Plantarum 101, 720726.
Khan A.A. (1994) Induction of dormancy in nondormant seeds. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119, 408413.
Koller D. (1957) Germination-regulating mechanisms in some desert seeds. I. Atriplex dimorphostegia Kar. et Kir. Ecology 38, 113.
Koornneef M. and Karssen C.M. (1994) Seed dormancy and germination. pp. 313334. in Myerowitz E.M., Somerville C.R. (Eds) Arabidopsis. Plainview, NY, Cold Spring Harbor Press.
Koornneef M., Alonso-Blanco C., Bentsink L., Blankestijn-de Vries H., Debeaujon I., Hanhart C.J., Léon-Kloosterziel K.M., Peeters A.J.M. and Raz V. (2000) The genetics of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana. pp. 365373. In Viémont J.D., Crabbé J. (Eds) Dormancy in plants: From whole plant behavior to cellular control. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Koornneef M., Bentsink L. and Hilhorst H. (2002) Seed dormancy and germination. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5, 3336.
Lang G.A. (1987) Dormancy: A new universal terminology. HortScience 22, 817820.
Lang G.A., Early J.D., Arroyave N.J., Darnell R.L., Martin G.C. and Stutte G.W. (1985) Dormancy: Toward a reduced, universal terminology. HortScience 20, 809812.
Lang G.A., Early J.D., Martin G.C. and Darnell R.L. (1987) Endo-, para-, and ecodormancy: Physiological terminology and classification for dormancy research. HortScience 22, 371377.
LePage-Degivry M.-T., Bianco J., Barthe P. and Garello G. (1996) Changes in hormone sensitivity in relation to onset and breaking of sunflower embryo dormancy. pp. 221231. In Lang G.A. (Ed.) Plant dormancy: Physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Wallingford, CAB International.
Leubner-Metzger G. (2003) Functions and regulation of β-1,3-glucanases during seed germination, dormancy release and after-ripening. Seed Science Research 13, 1734.
Leubner-Metzger G., Fründt C., Vögeli-Lange R. and Meins F. (1995) Class 1 β-1,3-glucanases in the endosperm of tobacco during germination. Plant Physiology 109, 751759.
Li B. and Foley M.E. (1994) Differential polypeptide patterns in imbibed dormant and after-ripened Avena fatua embryos. Journal of Experimental Botany 45, 275279.
Li B. and Foley M.E. (1995) Cloning and characterization of differentially expressed genes in imbibed dormant and afterripened Avena fatua embryos. Plant Molecular Biology 29, 823831.
Li B. and Foley M. (1996) Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of dormancy-associated gene expression by afterripening in wild oat. Plant Physiology 110, 12671273.
Li B. and Foley M.E. (1997) Genetic and molecular control of seed dormancy. Trends in Plant Science 2, 384389.
Li X., Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1999) Physiological dormancy and germination requirements of seeds of several North American Rhus species (Anacardiaceae). Seed Science Research 9, 237245.
Lorenzo O., Nicolás C., Nicolás G. and Rodriquez D. (2002) GA 3 -induced expression of a new functional AAA-ATPase (FsA1) is correlated with the onset of germination in Fagus sylvatica L. seeds. Plant and Cell Physiology 43, 2734.
Mabberley D.J. (1997) The plant-book. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants (2nd edition). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Mandák B., Pyšek P. (2001) The effect of light quality, nitrate concentration and presence of bracteoles on germination of different fruit types in heterocarpous Atriplex sagittata. Journal of Ecology 89, 149158.
Matilla A.J. (2000) Ethylene in seed formation and germination. Seed Science Research 10, 111126.
Mayer A.M., Poljakoff-Mayber A. (1989) The germination of seeds (4th edition). Oxford, Pergamon Press.
Meisert A. (2002) Physical dormancy in Geraniaceae seeds. Seed Science Research 12, 121128.
Meisert A., Schulz D. and Lehman H. (1999) Structural features underlying hardseededness in Geraniaceae. Plant Biology 1, 311314.
Morris C.F., Anderberg R.J., Goldmark P.J., Walker-Simmons M.K. (1991) Molecular cloning and expression of abscisic acid-responsive genes in embryos of dormant wheat seeds. Plant Physiology 95, 814821.
Morrison D.A., Auld T.D., Rish S., Porter C. and McClay K. (1992) Patterns of testa-imposed dormancy in native Australian legumes. Annals of Botany 70, 157163.
Morrison D.A., McClay K., Porter C. and Rish S. (1998) The role of the lens in controlling heat-induced breakdown of testa-imposed dormancy in native Australian legumes. Annals of Botany 82, 3540.
Nicolás C., Nicolás G. and Rodriquez D. (1996) Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and gibberellic acid on the breaking of dormancy of Fagus sylvatica seeds. Physiologia Plantarum 96, 244250.
Nikolaeva M.G. (1969) Physiology of deep dormancy in seeds. Leningrad, Russia, Izdatel'stvo ‘Nauka’. (Translated from Russian by Shapiro Z., National Science Foundation, Washington DC.)
Nikolaeva M.G. (1977) Factors controlling the seed dormancy pattern. pp. 5174. In Khan A.A. (Ed.) The physiology and biochemistry of seed dormancy and germination. Amsterdam, North-Holland.
Nikolaeva M.G. (1999) Patterns of seed dormancy and germination as related to plant phylogeny and ecological and geographical conditions of their habitats. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 46, 369373.
Nikolaeva M.G. (2001) Ecological and physiological aspects of seed dormancy and germination (review of investigations for the last century). Botanicheskii Zhurnal 86, 114. (in Russian with English summary)
Nikolaeva M.G., Rasumova M.V. and Gladkova V.N. (1985) Reference book on dormant seed germination. In Danilova M.F. (Ed.). Leningrad, ‘Nauka’ Publishers (in Russian).
Nikolaeva M.G., Lyanguzova I.V. and Pozdova L.M. (1999) Biology of seeds St. Petersburg, V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences (in Russian with English summary and English table of contents).
Osmond C.B., Björkman O. and Anderson D.J. (1980) Physiological processes in plant ecology – Toward a synthesis with Atriplex. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
Pallais N. (1995a) Storage factors control germination and seedling establishment of freshly harvested true potato seed. American Potato Journal 72, 427436.
Pallais N. (1995b) High temperature and low moisture reduce the storage requirement of freshly harvested true potato seed. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 120, 699702.
Probert R.J. (2000) The role of temperature in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination. pp. 261292. In Fenner M. (Ed.) Seeds: The ecology of regeneration in plant communities (2nd edition). Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Ratcliffe D. (1976) Germination characteristics and their inter- and intra-population variability in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis Information Service 13, 3445.
Ren C. and Kermode A.R. (1999) Analyses to determine the role of the megagametophyte and other seed tissues in dormancy maintenance of yellow cedar ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis ) seeds: Morphological, cellular and physiological changes following moist chilling and during germination. Journal of Experimental Botany 50, 14031419.
Sánchez R.A., de Miguel L. (1997) Phytochrome promotion of mannan-degrading enzyme activities in the micropylar endosperm of Datura ferox seeds requires the presence of the embryo and gibberellin synthesis. Seed Science Research 7, 2733.
Simpson G.M. (1990) Seed dormancy in grasses. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Steinbach H.S., Benech-Arnold R.L., Sánchez R.A. (1997) Hormonal regulation of dormancy in developing sorghum seeds. Plant Physiology 113, 149154.
Takhtajan A.L. (1980) Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). The Botanical Review 46, 225359.
Thompson K., Ceriani R.M., Bakker J.P. and Bekker R.M. (2003) Are seed dormancy and persistence in soil related? Seed Science Research 13, 97100.
Thorne R.F. (2000) The classification and geography of flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae. The Botanical Review 66, 441647.
Threadgill P.F., Baskin J.M. and Baskin C.C. (1981) Dormancy in seeds of Frasera caroliniensis (Gentianaceae). American Journal of Botany 68, 8086.
Van der Schaar W., Alonso-Blanco C., Léon-Kloosterziel K.M., Jansen R.C., Van Ooijen J.W. and Koornneef M. (1997) QTL analysis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines and MQM mapping. Heredity 79, 190200.
Vegis A. (1964) Dormancy in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 15, 185224.
Vleeshouwers L.M., Bouwmeester H.J. and Karssen C.M. (1995) Redefining seed dormancy: An attempt to integrate physiology and ecology. Journal of Ecology 83, 10311037.
Walck J.L., Baskin C.C. and Baskin J.M. (1999) Seeds of Thalictrum mirabile (Ranunculaceae) require cold stratification for loss of nondeep simple morphophysiological dormancy. Canadian Journal of Botany 77, 17691776.
Wareing P.F. and Saunders P.F. (1971) Hormones and dormancy. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 22, 261288.
Welbaum G.E., Tissaoui T. and Bradford K.J. (1990) Water relations of seed development and germination in muskmelon ( Cucumis melo L.). III. Sensitivity of germination to water potential and abscisic acid during development. Plant Physiology 92, 10291037.
Welbaum G.E., Muthui W.J., Wilson J.H., Grayson R.L. and Fell R.D. (1995) Weakening of muskmelon perisperm envelope tissue during germination. Journal of Experimental Botany 46, 391400.
Went F.W. (1949) Ecology of desert plants. II. The effect of rain and temperature on germination and growth. Ecology 30, 113.
White C.N. and Rivin C.J. (2000) Gibberellins and seed development in maize. II. Gibberellin synthesis inhibition enhances abscisic acid signaling in cultured embryos. Plant Physiology 122, 10891097.
White C.N., Proebsting W.M., Hedden P. and Rivin C.J. (2000) Gibberellins and seed development in maize. I. Evidence that gibberellin/abscisic acid balance governs germination versus maturation pathways. Plant Physiology 122, 10811088.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Seed Science Research
  • ISSN: 0960-2585
  • EISSN: 1475-2735
  • URL: /core/journals/seed-science-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 18
Total number of PDF views: 2969 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3202 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.