Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Phytic acid and phosphorus in crop seeds and fruits: a global estimate

  • John N.A. Lott1 (a1), Irene Ockenden (a1), Victor Raboy (a2) and Graeme D. Batten (a3)

A very important mineral storage compound in seeds is phytate, a mixed cation salt of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakis phosphoric acid). This compound is important for several reasons: (1) It is vital for seed/grain development and successful seedling growth. (2) It is often considered to be an antinutritional substance in human diets, but it may have a positivenutritional role as an anti-oxidant and an anti-cancer agent. (3) It represents a very significant amount of phosphorus being extracted from soilsand subsequently removed with the crop. (4) It plays a role in eutrophication of waterways. A key part of this review is an estimate of the annualtonnage of phosphorus and phytic acid sequestered in up to 4.1 billion metric tonnes of crop seeds and fruits globally each year. We estimate thatnearly 35 million metric tonnes of phytic acid, containing 9.9 million metric tonnes of P, is combined with about 12.5 and 3.9 million metric tonnes of K and Mg respectively, to form each year over 51 million metric tonnes of phytate. The amount of P inthis phytate is equal to nearly 65÷ of the elemental P sold world wide for use in mineral fertilizers. Dry cereal grains account for 69÷ of the total crop seed/fruit production but account for 77÷ of the total phytic acid stored each year. Low phytate mutants, that are now available for some key staple food crops such as maize and barley, offer potential benefits in such areas as the sustainability of lands used to grow crops, the mineral nutrition of humans and animals, and reduction in pollution of waterways.

Corresponding author
*Fax: (905) 522-6066 Email:
Hide All
Adams, C.F. (1977) Encyclopedia of food and nutrition. New York, London, Drake Publishers Inc.
Alexandratos, N. (1995) World agriculture: Towards 2010. An FAO study, (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Chichester, John Wiley & Sons.
Anderson, G. (1980) Assessing organic phosphorus in soils. pp. 411432 in Dinauer, R.C. (Ed.) The role of phosphorus in agriculture. Madison, Wisconsin, SoilScience Society of America.
Anderson, G.H., Harris, L., Rao, A.V. and Jones, J.D. (1976) Trace mineral deficiencies in rats caused by feeding rapeseed flours during growth, gestation and lactation. Journal of Nutrition 106, 11661174.
Barrier-Guillot, B., Casado, P., Maupetit, P., Jondreville, C., Gatel, F. and Larbier, M. (1996) Wheat phosphorus availability: 1-In vitro study; factors affecting endogenous phytasic activity and phytic phosphorus content. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 70, 6268.
Bartnik, M. and Szafrańska, I. (1987) Changes in phytate content and phytase activity during the germinationof some cereals. Journal of Cereal Science1 5, 2328.
Bassiri, A. and Nahapetian, A. (1977) Differences in concentrations and interrelationships of phytate, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and iron in wheat varieties grown under drylan and irrigated conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 25, 11181122.
Batten, G.D. (1986a) Phosphorus fractions in the grain of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat grown with contrasting phosphorus supplies. Cereal Chemistry 63, 384387.
Batten, G.D. (1986b) The uptake and utilization of phosphorus and nitrogen by diploid, tetraploid and hexapoloid wheats (Triticum spp). Annals of Botany 58, 4959.
Batten, G.D. (1992) A review of phosphorus efficiency in wheat. Plant and Soil 146, 163168.
Batten, G.D. (1994) Concentrations of elements in wheat grains grown in Australia, North America, and the United Kingdom. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34, 5156.
Batten, G.D. and Khan, M.A. (1987) Uptake and utilization of phosphorus and nitrogen by bread wheats grown under natural rainfall. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 27, 405410.
Batten, G.D. and Lott, J.N.A. (1986) The influence of phosphorus nutrition on the appearance an composition of globoid crystals in wheat aleurone cells. Cereal Chemistry 63, 1418.
Batten, G.D., Marr, K.M. and Blakeney, A.B. (1995) Removal of plant-essential elements by high-yielding temperate rice crops. pp. 334342. in Fragile lives in fragile ecosystems. Proceedings of the international rice research conference. Los Baños, Laguna (Philippines), International Rice Research Institute.
Beecroft, P. and Lott, J.N.A. (1996) Changes in the element composition of globoids from Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita andreana cotyledons during early seedling growth. Canadian Journal of Botany 74, 838847.
Bernal-Lugo, I., Prado, G., Parra, C., Moreno, E., Ramírez, J. and Velazco, O. (1990) Phytic acid hydrolysis and bean susceptibility to storage induced hardening. Journal of Food Biochemistry 14, 253261.
Bhatty, R.S. and Slinkard, A.E. (1989) Relationship between phytic acid and cooking quality in lentil. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 22, 137142.
Bolland, M.D.A., Jarvis, R.J., Coates, P. and Harris, D.J. (1993) Effect of phosphate fertilisers onthe elemental composition of seed of wheat, lupin, and triticale. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 24, 19912014.
Bolley, D.S. and McCormack, R.H. (1952) Separation of phytin from oil seed protein flours. The Journal of the American Oil ChemistsSociety 29, 470472.
Bouis, H. (1996) Enrichment of food staples throughplant breeding: a new strategy for fighting micronutrient malnutrition. Nutrition Reviews 54, 131137.
Branch, W.D. and Gaines, T.P. (1983) Seed mineral composition of diverse peanut germplasm. Peanut Science 10, 58.
Brearley, C.A. and Hanke, D.E. (1996) Inositol phosphates in the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L. Biochemical Journal 314, 215225.
Brenchley, W.E. (1929) The phosphate requirement of barley at different periods of growth. Annals of Botan 43, 89110.
,Brown, E.C., Heit, M.L. and Ryan, D.E. (1961) Phytic acid: an analytical investigation. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 39, 12901297.
Buttrose, M.S. and Lott, J.N.A. (1978) Inclusions in seed protein bodies in members of the Compositae and Anacardiaceae: comparison with other dicotyledonous families. Canadian Journal of Botany 56, 20622071.
Campbell, M., Dunn, R., Ditterline, R., Pickett, S. and Raboy, V. (1991) Phytic acid represents 10 to 15÷ of total phosphorus in alfalfa root and crown. Journal of Plant Nutrition 14, 925937.
Carnovale, E., Lugaro, E. and Lombardi-Boccia, G. (1988) Phytic acid in faba bean and pea: effect on protein avilability. Cereal Chemistry 65, 114117.
Chang, R., Kennedy, B.M. and Schwimmer, S. (1979) Effects of autolysis on the nutritional qualities of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Food Science 44, 11411143.
Chen, L.H. and Pan, S.H. (1977) Decrease of phytates during germination of pea seeds (Pisum sativa). Nutrition Reports International 16, 125131.
Chen, P. and Lott, J.N.A. (1992) Studies of Capsicum annuum seeds: structure, storage reserves, and mineral nutrients. Canadian Journal of Botany 70, 518529.
Comerford, N.B. (1998) Soil phosphorus bioavailability. pp. 136147 in Lynch, J.P., Deikman, J. (Eds.)Phosphorus in plant biology: Regulatory roles in molecular,cellular,organisms, and ecosystem processes (Current Topics in Plant Physiology Volume 19) Rockville, Maryland,American Society of Plant Physiologists.
Considine, D.M. and Considine, G.D. (1982) Foods and food production encyclopedia. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc.
Constant, K.M. and Sheldrick, W.F. (1991) An outlook for fertilizer demand, supply, and trade, 1988/89–1993/94. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington DC, Technical Paper Number 137.
Cosgrove, D.J. (1966) The chemistry and biochemistry of inositol polyphosphates. Review of Pure and Applied Chemistry 16, 209224.
Cosgrove, D.J. (1976) Microbial transformations in thephosphorus cycle. pp. 95134 in Alexander, M. (Ed.) Advances in microbial ecology. New York, Plennum Press.
Cosgrove, D.J. (1980a) Chromatography and analytical methods. pp. 1225 in Cosgrove, D.J. (Ed.) Inositol phosphates. Their chemistry, biochemistry and physiology. Amsterdam, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.
Cosgrove, D.J. (1980b) Inositol hexakis phosphates. pp.2643 in Cosgrove, D.J. (Ed.) Inositol phosphates. Their chemistry, biochemistry and physiology. Amsterdam, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.
Coté, G.G., Quarmby, L.M., Satter, R.L., Morse, M.J. and Crain, R.C. (1990) Extraction, separation and characterization of the metabolites of the inositol phosp olipid cycle. pp. 113137 in Morré, D.J., Boss, W.F., Loewus, F.A. (Eds.) Inositol metabolismin plants. New York, Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Coyle, L.P. (1982) The world encyclopedia of food. New York. Facts on File, Inc.
Dalal, R.C. (1977) Soil organic phosphorus. Advances in Agronomy 29, 83117.
de Boland, A.R., Garner, G.B. and O′Dell, B.L. (1975) Identification and properties of ‘Phytate’ in cereal grains and oilseed production. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 23, 11861189.
DeMaggio, A.E. and Stetler, D.A. (1985) Mobilisation of storage reserves during fern spore germination. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 86B, 195202.
Deosthale, Y.G. (1979) Mineral and trace element composition of maize. Current Science 48, 5455.
Deosthale, Y.G. (1981) Trace element composition of common oilseeds. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 58, 988990.
Dikeman, E., Pomeranz, Y. and Lai, F.S. (1982) Minerals and protein contents in hard red winter wheat. Cereal Chemistry 59, 139142.
Doherty, C., Faubion, J.M. and Rooney, L.W. (1982) Semiautomated determination of phytate in sorghum and sorghum products. Cereal Chemistry 59, 373377.
Duke, J.A. and Atchley, A.A. (1986) CRC handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, CRC Press, Inc.
Ensminger, A.H., Ensminger, M.E., Konlande, J.E. and Robson, J.R.K. (1994) Food & nutrition encyclopedia. (2nd Edition) Boca Raton, CRC Press, Inc.
Erdman, J.A. and Moul, R.C. (1982) Mineralcomposition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 30, 169174.
Ergle, D.R. and Guinn, G. (1959) Phosphorus compounds of cotton embryos and their changes during germination. Plant Physiology 34, 476481.
Ertl, D.S., Young, K.A. and Raboy, V. (1998) Plant genetic approaches to phosphorus management in agricultural production. Journal of Environmental Quality 27,299304.
Fantozzi, P. (1981) Grape seed: A potential sourceof protein. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 58, 10271031.
FAO Production Yearbook 1973 (1974) Volume 27. Rome, Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations.
FAO Yearbook on Production 1996 (1997) Volume 50. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO Yearbook on Fertilizer 1996(1997) Volume 46. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO/WHO (1992) Preventing specific micronutrient deficiencies.Theme Paper 6, International Conference on Nutrition. Rome,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization.
Farinu, G.O. and Ingrao, G. (1991) Gross composition, amino acid, phytic acid and trace element contents of thirteen cowpea cultivars and their nutritional significance. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 55, 401410.
Feil, B. and Fossati, D. (1995) Mineral composition of triticale grains as related to grain yield and grain protein. Crop Science 35, 14261431.
Fretzdorff, B. and Brümmer, J.-M. (1992) Reduction of phytic acid during breadmaking of whole-meal breads. Cereal Chemistry 69, 266270.
Fretzdorff, B. and Weipert, D. (1986) Phytinsäure in getreide und getreideerzeugnissen. Mitteilung I: Phytinsäure und phytase in roggen und roggenprodukten. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung 182, 287293.
Frølich, W., Drakenberg, T. and Asp, N.-G. (1986) Enzymic degradation of phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate) in whole grain flour suspension and dough. A comparison between 31P NMR spectroscopy and a ferric ion method.Journal of Cereal Science 4, 325334.
Gfeller, F. and Halstead, R.L. (1967) Selection for cooking quality in field peas. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 47, 631634.
Glass, A.D.M. (1989) Plant nutrition. An introduction to current concepts. Boston/Portola Valley, Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Graf, E. (1986) Phytic acid chemistry and applications. Minneapolis, Pilatus Press.
Graf, E. and Eaton, J.W. (1990) Antioxidant functions of phytic acid. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 8, 6169.
Graham, R.D. and Welch, R.M. (1996) Breeding for staple food crops with high micronutrient density. Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute.
Greenwood, J.S. (1989) Phytin synthesis and deposition. pp.109125 in Taylorson, R.B. (Ed.) Recent advances in the development and germination of seeds. New York, Plenum Press.
Greenwood, J.S. and Bewley, J.D. (1982) Seed development in Ricinus communis (castor bean). I. Descriptive morphology. Canadian Journal of Botany 60, 17511760.
Greenwood, J.S. and Bewley, J.D. (1984) Subcellular distribution of phytin in the endosperm of developing castor bean: a possibility for its synthesis in the cytoplasm prior to deposition within protein bodies. Planta 160, 113120.
Greenwood, J.S., Gifford, D.J. and Bewley, J.D. (1984) Seed development in Ricinus communis cv. Hale (castor bean).II. Accumulation of phytic acid in the developing endosperm andembryo in relation to the deposition of lipid, protein, and phosphorus. Canadian Journal of Botany 62, 255261.
Griffiths, D.W. (1982) The phytate content and iron-binding capacity of various field bean (Vicia faba) preparations and extracts. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 33, 847851.
Griffiths, D.W. and Thomas, T.A. (1981) Phytate and total phosphorus content of field beans (Vicia faba L.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 32, 187192.
Guardiola, J.L. and Sutcliffe, J.F. (1971) Mobilization of phosphorus in the cotyledons of young seedlings of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). Annals of Botany 35, 809823.
Harland, B.F. and Oberleas, D. (1987) Phytate in foods. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 52, 235259.
Hartmann, H.T., Kofranek, A.M., Rubatzky, V.E. and Flocker, W.J. (1988) Plant science:growth, development, and utilization of cultivatedplants. (2nd Edition).Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
Helsper, J.P.F.G., Linskens, H.F. and Jackson, J.F. (1984) Phytate metabolism in Petunia pollen. Phytochemistry 23, 18411845.
Hocking, P.J. (1980) Redistribution of nutrient elements from cotyledons of two species of annual legumes during germination and seedling growth.Annals of Botany 45, 383396.
Hocking, P.J. (1982) Accumulation and distributionof nutrients in fruits of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). Annals of Botany 49, 5162.
Horvatic, M. and Balint, L. (1996) Relationship among the phytic acid and protein content during maize grain maturation. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 176, 7377.
Horino, T., Fukuoka, T. and Hagio, T. (1992) Differences in nitrogen and mineral contents in the kernels ofcereals, buckwheats and pulses. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 61, 2833.
Hsiao, A.I., Quick, W.A. and Jain, J.C. (1984) Phosphoruscontaining compounds at comparable germination stages of caryopses of Avena species. Journal of Experimental Botany 35, 617625.
Hussein, L., Ghanem, K., Khalil, S., Nassib, A. and Ezilarab, A. (1989) The effect of phytate and fiber content on cooking quality in faba beans. Journal of Food Quality 12, 331340.
IUPAC and IUPAC-IUB (1968) The nomenclature of cyclitols. European Journal of Biochemistry 5, 112.
Jackson, J.F., Jones, G. and Linskens, H.F. (1982) Phytic acid in pollen. Phytochemistry 21, 12551258.
Janick, J., Schery, R.W., Woods, F.W. and Ruttan, V.W. (1974) Plant Science. An introduction to world crops. (2nd Edition). San Francisco, W.H. Freeman and Company.
Johnson, L.F. and Tate, M.E. (1969) Structure of ‘phytic acid’. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 47, 6373.
Juliano, B.O. and Bechtel, D.B. (1985) The rice grain and its gross composition. pp. 1757 in Juliano, B.O. (Ed.) Rice chemistry and technology. St. Paul, The American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Khan, N., Zaman, R. and Elahi, M. (1991) Effect of heat treatments on the phytic acid content of maize products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 54, 153156.
Kikunaga, S., Takahashi, M. and Huzisige, H. (1985) Accurate and simple measurement of phytic acid contentsin cereal grains. Plant and Cell Physiology 26, 13231330.
Kumar, K.G., Venkataraman, L.V., Jaya, T.V. and Krishnamurthy, K.S. (1978) Cooking characteristicsof some germinated legumes: changes in phytins, Ca++,Mg++ and pectins. Journal of Food Science 43, 8588.
Labanauskas, C.K., Shouse, P. and Stolzy, L.H. (1981) Effects of water stress at various growth stages on seed yield and nutrient concentrations of field-grown cowpeas. Soil Science 131, 249256.
L′Annunziata, M.F., Gonzalez, J. and Olivares, L.A. (1977) Microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol in soil. Journal of the Soil Science Society of America 41, 733736.
Larson, S.R., Young, K.A., Cook, A.,Blake, T.K. and Raboy, V. (1998) Linkagemapping of two mutations that reduce phytic acid content of barleygrain. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 97, 141146.
Lásztity, R. and Lásztity, L. (1990) Phytic acid in cereal technology. pp. 309371 in Pomeranz, Y. (Ed.) Advances in cereal science and technology Volume X. St. Paul, The American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Lásztity, R., Abd El Samei, M. and El Shafei, M. (1986) Biochemical studies on somenon-conventionalsources of protein. Part 1. Tomato seeds and peels. Die Nahrung 30, 615620.
Lee, E.J., Kenkel, N.C. and Booth, T. (1996) Pollen deposition in the boreal forest of west-central Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 74, 12651272.
Le Buanec, B. (1996) Globalization of the seed industry: current situation and evolution. Seed Science and Technology 24, 409417.
Li, M.G., Osaki, M., Rao, I.M. and Tadano, T. (1997) Secretion of phytase from the roots of severalplant species under phosphorus-deficient conditions. Plant and Soil 195, 161169.
Loewus, F.A. (1990) Structure and occurrence of inositols in plants. pp. 111 in Morré, D.J., Boss, W.F., Loewus, F.A. (Eds.) Inositol metabolism in plants. New York, Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Lolas, G.M. and Markakis, P. (1975) Phyticacid and other phosphorus compounds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 23, 1315.
Lolas, G.M., Palamidis, N. and Markakis, P. (1976) The phytic acid-total phosphorus relationship in barley,oats, soybeans, and wheat. Cereal Chemistry 53, 867871.
Lönnerdal, B., Sandberg, A.-S., Sandström, B. and Kunz, C. (1989) Inhibitory effects of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates on zinc and calcium absorption in suckling rats. Journal of Nutrition 119, 211214.
Lorenz, K., Reuter, F.W. and Sizer, C. (1974) The mineral composition of triticales and triticale milling fractions by X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption. Cereal Chemistry 51, 534542.
Lott, J.N.A. (1984) Accumulation of seed reserves of phosphorus and other minerals. pp. 139166 in Murray, D.R. (Ed.) Seed physiology, volume i. Sydney, Academic Press.
Lott, J.N.A. and Buttrose, M.S. (1978a) Location of reserves of mineral elements in seed protein bodies: macadamia nut, walnut and hazel nut. Canadian Journal of Botany 56, 20722082.
Lott, J. N. A. and Buttrose, M.S. (1978b) Thin sectioning, freeze fracturing, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, andchemical analysis in the study of inclusions in seed protein bodies: almond, Brazil nut, and quandong. Canadian Journal of Botany 56, 20502061.
Lott, J.N.A. and Ockenden, I. (1986) The fine structures of phytate-rich particles in plants. pp. 4355 in Graf, E. (Ed.) Phytic acid: chemistry and applications. Minneapolis, Pilatus Press.
Lott, J.N.A., Greenwood, J.S. and Batten, G.D. (1995a) Mechanisms and regulation of mineral nutrient storage duringseed development. pp. 215235 in Kigel, J., Galili, G. (Eds.) Seed development and germination. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Lott, J.N.A., Ockenden, I., Kerr, P., West, M., Leech, T. and Skilnyk, H. (1994) Theinfluence of experimentally induced changes in the (Mg + Ca):K balance on protein bodies formed in developing Cucurbita seeds. Canadian Journal of Botany 72, 364369.
Lott, J.N.A., Randall, P.J., Goodchild, D.J. and Craig, S. (1985) Occurrence of globoid crystals in cotyledonaryprotein bodies of Pisum sativum as influenced by experimentally inducedchanges in Mg, Ca and K contents of seeds. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 12, 341353.
Lott, J.N.A., West, M.M., Clark, B. and Beecroft, P. (1995b) Changes in the composition of globoidsin castor bean cotyledons and endosperm during early seedling growth withand without complete mineral nutrients. Seed Science Research 5., 121125.
Lu, S.-Y., Kim, H., Eskin, N.A.M., Latta, M. and Johnson, S. (1987) Changes in phytase activity and phytate during the germination of six canola cultivars. Journal of Food Science 52, 173175.
Lynch, J.P. (1998) Introduction. pp. vi–viii in Lynch, J.P., Deikman, J. (Eds.) Phosphorus in plant biology: Regulatory roles in molecular, cellular, organismic, and ecosystemprocesses. (Current Topics in Plant Physiology Volume 19) Rockville, American Society of Plant Physiologists.
Macrae, R., Robinson, R.K., and Sadler, M.J. (Eds.) (1993) Encyclopaedia of food science, food technology and nutrition. London, Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.
Makower, R.U. (1970) Extraction and determination of phytic acid in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Cereal Chemistry 47, 288295.
Marr, K.M., Batten, G.D. and Blakeney, A.B. (1995) Relationships between minerals in Australian brown rice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 68, 285291.
Marzo, F., Aguirre, A., Castiella, M.V. and Alonso, R. (1997) Fertilization effects of phosphorus and sulfur on chemical composition of seeds of Pisum sativum L. and relative infestation by Bruchus pisorum L. Journal of Agricultural andFood Chemistry 45, 18291833.
Mendoza, C., Viteri, F., Lönnerdal, B., Young, K., Raboy, V. and Brown, K.H. (1998) Effect of genetically modified low-phytate maize on absorption of iron from tortillas. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 11231127.
Menninger, E.A. (1977) Edible nuts of the world. Stuart, Horticultural Books, Inc.
Miller, D.F. (1958) Composition of cereal grains and forages. Washington D.C., National Academy of Sciences.
Miller, G.A., Youngs, V.L. and Oplinger, E.S. (1980a) Environmental and cultivar effects on oat phytic acid concentration. Cereal Chemistry 57, 189191
Miller, G.A., Youngs, V.L. and Oplinger, E.S. (1980b) Effect of available soil phosphorus and environment onthe phytic acid concentrations in oats. Cereal Chemistry 57, 192194.
Miller, N., Pretorius, H.E. and du Toit, L.J. (1986) Phytic acid in sunflower seeds, pressed cake, and protein concentrate. Food Chemistry 21, 205209.
Nield, H. and Lott, J.N.A. (1989) Distribution of minerals within different regions of Cucurbita maxima fruits. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 201, 10851100.
Nwokolo, E.N. and Bragg, D.B. (1977) Influence of phytic acid and crude fibre on the availability of minerals from four protein supplements in growing chicks. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 57, 475477.
Ockenden, I. and Lott, J.N.A. (1986) Variation in extraction of calcium from dry-ashed embryos of cucurbits and other lipid-rich seeds. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 17, 627644.
Ockenden, I. and Lott, J.N.A. (1988) Mineral storage in Cucurbita embryos. III. Calcium storage as compared with storage of magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus. Canadian Journal of Botany 66, 14861489.
Ockenden, I., Falk, D.E. and Lott, J. N.A. (1997) Stability of phytate in barley and beans during storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45, 16731677.
Ockerman, H.W. (1991) Food science sourcebook. Part 2, Food composition, prop rties, and general data. (2nd Edn) New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
O′Dell, B.L., de Boland, A.R. and Koirtyohann, S.R. (1972) Distribution of phytate and nutritionally important elements among the morphological components of cereal grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 20, 718721.
Oerke, E.-C., Dehne, H.-W., Schönbeck, F. and Weber, A. (1994) Crop production and crop protection. Estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science B.V.
Ogawa, M., Tanaka, K. and Kasai, Z. (1977) Note on the phytin-containing particles isolated from rice scutellum. Cereal Chemistry 54, 10291034,.
Ogawa, M., Tanaka, K. and Kasai, Z. (1979) Energydispersive x-ray analysis of phytin globoids in aleurone particles of developing rice grains. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 25, 437448.
Opeke, L.K. (1982) Tropical tree crops. Chichester, John Wiley and Sons.
Parish, D.H. (1993) Agricultural productivity, su tainability, and fertilizer use. Muscle Shoals, Alabama, International Fertilizer Development Center Publications.
Paul, A.A. and Southgate, D.A.T. (1978) McCance and Widdowson's The composition of foods. (4th Edn.) pp.11. Amsterdam, Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.
Phillippy, B.Q. and Bland, J.M. (1988) Gradient ion chromatography of inositol phosphates. Analytical Biochemistry 175, 162166.
Piper, C.S. and de Vries, M.P.C. (1964) The residual value of superphosphate on a red-brown earth in South Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 15, 234272.
Pitt, M.W. and Lott, J.N.A. (1996) Large globoid particles in the cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima seedlings. Canadian Journal of Botany 74, 11861189.
Pitterman, J., West, M. and Lott, J.N.A. (1996) Characterization of globoids and iron-rich particles in cotyledons of Pinus banksiana seeds and seedlings. Canadian Journalof Forestry Research 26, 16971702.
Plaami, S. and Kumpulainen, J. (1991) Determination of phytic acid in cereals using ICP-AES to determine phosphorus. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 74, 3236.
Poirier, Y., Thoma, S., Somerville, C. and Schiefelbein, J. (1991) A mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in xylem loading of phosphate. Plant Physiology 97, 10871093.
Prattley, C.A. and Stanley, D.W. (1983) Protein-phytate interactions in soybeans. I. Localization of phytate in protein bodies and globoids. Journal of Food Biochemistry 6, 243253.
Raboy, V. (1990) Biochemistry and genetics of phytic acid synthesis. pp. 5576 in Morré, D.J., Boss, W.F., Loewus, F.A. (Eds.) Inositol metabolism in plants. New York, Wiley- Liss, Inc.
Raboy, V. (1997) Accumulation and storage of phosphateand minerals. pp. 441477 in Larkins, B.A., Vasil, I.K.(Eds.) Cellular and molecular biology of plant seed development. The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Raboy, V. and Dickinson, D.B. (1984) Effect of phosphorus and zinc nutrition on soybean seed phytic acid and zinc. Plant Physiology 75, 10941098.
Raboy, V. and Dickinson, D.B. (1993) Phytic acid levels in seeds of Glycine max and G. soja as influenced by phosphorus status. Crop Science 33, 13001305.
Raboy, V., Dickinson, D.B. and Below, F.E. (1984) Variation in seed total phosphorus, phytic acid, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and protein among lines of Glycine max and G. soja. Crop Science 24, 431434.
Raboy, V. and Gerbasi, P. (1996) Genetics of myo-inositol phosphate synthesis and accumulation. pp. 257285 inBiswas, B.B., Biswas, S. (Eds.) Subcellular biochemistry.New York, Plenum Press.
Raboy, V., Noaman, M.M., Taylor, G.A. and Pickett, S.G. (1991) Grain phytic acid and protein are highly correlated in winter wheat. Crop Science 31, 631635.
Radhakrishnan, M.R. and Sivaprassad, J. (1980) Tannin content of sorghum varieties and their role in iron bioavailability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 28, 5557.
Rao, P.U. and Deosthale, Y.G. (1983) Effect of germination and cooking on mineral composition of pulses. Journal of Food Science and Technology 20, 195197.
Reddy, N.R., Balakrishnan, C.V. and Salunkhe, D.K. (1978) Phytate phosphorus and mineral changes during germination and cooking of black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds. Journal of Food Science 43, 540543.
Reddy, N.R., Sathe, S.K. and Salunkhe, D.K. (1982) Phytates in legumes and cereals. Advances in Food Research 28, 192.
Richardson, A.E. and Hadobas, P.A. (1997) Soil isolates of Pseudomonas spp. that utilize inositol phosphates. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 43, 509516.
Roberts, R.M. and Loewus, F. (1968) Inositol metabolism in plants. VI. Conversion of myo-inositol to phytic acid in Wolffiella floridana. Plant Physiology 43, 17101716.
Saastamoinen, M., Plaami, S. and Kumpulainen, J. (1992) β-Glucan and phytic acid content of oats cultivated in Finland. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. Section B, Soiland Plant Science 42, 611.
Saeed, M. and Cheryan, M. (1988) Sunflowerprotein concentrates and isolates low in polyphenols and phytate. Journal of Food Science 53, 11271131, 1143.
Saio, K. (1964) The change in inositol phosphates during the ripening of rice grains. Plant and Cell Physiology 5, 393400.
Sandberg, A.-S., Brune, M., Carlsson, N.-G., Hallberg, L., Rossander-Hulthen, L. and Sandström, B. (1993) The effect of various inositol phosphates on ironand zinc absorption in humans. pp. 53–57 in Proceedings of the international conference on bioavailability 1993 - Nutrition chemical and food processing implications of nutrient availability.
Sasakawa, N., Sharif, M. and Hanley, M.R. (1995) Metabolism and biological activities of inositol pentakisphosphate and inositol hexakisphosphate. Biochemical Pharmacology 50, 137146.
Saura-Calixto, F. and Cañellas, J. (1982) Mineral composition of almond varieties (Prunus amygdalus). Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung 174, 129131.
Schachtman, D.P., Reid, R.J. and Ayling, S.M. (1998) Phosphorus uptake by plants: from soil to cell. Plant Physiology 60, 447453.
Scherz, H. and Senser, F. (1994) Food composition and nutrition tables. Boca Raton, CRC Press.
Shamsuddin, A.M., Ullah, A. and Chakravarthy, A.K. (1989) Inositol and inositol hexaphosphate suppress cellproliferation and tumor formation in CD-1 mice. Carcinogenesis 10, 14611463.
Simwemba, C.G., Hoseney, R.C., Varriano-Marston, E. and Zeleznak, K. (1984) Certain B vitamin and phytic acid contents of pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.)Leeke]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 32, 3134.
Singh, B. and Reddy, N.R. (1977) Phytic acid and mineral compositions of triticales. Journal of Food Science 42, 10771083.
Singh, U., Jain, K.C., Jambunathan, J.R. and Faris, D.G. (1984) Nutritional quality of vegetable pigeonpeas [Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp.]: mineral and trace elements. Journal of Food Science 49, 645646.
Sørensen, C. and Truelsen, E. (1985) Chemical composition of barley varieties with different nutrient supplies I. Concentration of nitrogen, tannins, phytate, β-glucans and minerals. Danish Journal of Plant and Soil Science 89, 253261.
Stevenson, F.J. (1986) Cycles of soil, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, micronutrients. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Strother, S. (1980) Homeostasis in germinating seeds. Annals of Botany 45, 217218.
Sugiura, S.H., Raboy, V., Young, K.A., Dong, F.M. and Hardy, R.W. (1999) Availability of phosphorus and trace elements in low-phytate varieties of barley and corn for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 170, 285296.
Takemasa, M. and Hijikuro, S. (1984) The relationship between total phosphorus and phytate phosphorus in plant-source ingredients, especially in domestic barley. Bulletin of the National Institute of Animal Industry 42, 3739.
Thompson, L.U. (1993) Potential health benefits and problems associated with antinutrients in foods. Food ResearchInternational 26, 131149.
Thompson, L.U. and Zhang, L. (1991) Phyticacid and minerals: effect on early markers of risk for mammary and colon carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 121, 20412045.
Thomson, B.D., Bell, R.W. and Bolland, M.D.A. (1992) Low seed phosphorus concentration depresses early growth and nodulation of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Gungurru). Journal of Plant Nutrition 15, 11931214.
Toma, R.B., Tabekhia, M.M. and Williams, J.D. (1979) Phytate and oxalate contents in sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.). Nutritional Reports International 20, 2531.
Trugo, L.C., Donangelo, C.M., Duarte, Y.A. and Tavares, C.L. (1993) Phytic acid and selected mineral composition of seed from wild species and cultivated varieties of lupin. Food Chemistry 47, 391394.
Tsatsaronis, G.C. and Boskou, D.G. (1975) Amino acid and mineral salt content of tomato seed and skin waste. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 26, 421423.
Ullah, A. and Shamsuddin, A.M. (1990) Dose-dependent inhibition of large intestinal cancer by inositol hexaphosphate in F344 rats. Carcinogenesis 11, 22192222.
Uppström, B. and Svensson, R. (1980) Determination of phytic acid in rapeseed meal. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31, 651656.
Vaughan, J.G. (1970) The structure and utilizationof oil seeds. London, Chapman and Hall Ltd.
Vaughan, J.G. and Geissler, C. (1997) The new Oxford book of food plants. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Wada, T. and Lott, J.N.A. (1997) Light andelectron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis studies ofgloboids in protein bodies of embryo tissues and the aleurone layer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains. Canadian Journal of Botany 75, 11371147.
Wada, T. and Maeda, E. (1980) A cytological study on the phosphorus accumulating tissues in the gramineous seeds of barley, oat, orchard grass, rice, rye and wheat. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 49, 475481.
Watt, B.K. and Merrill, A.L. (1975) Handbook of the nutritional contents of foods. New York, Dover Publications, Inc.
Welch, R. (1998) Bioavailability of iron in high iron rice varieties. Stuttgart, Arkansas, International Workshop on Micronutrient Enhancement of Rice for Developing Countries.
Welch, R.M., House, W.A., and Allaway, W.H. (1974) Availability of zinc from pea seeds to rats. Journal of Nutrition 104, 733740.
Weinberg, E.D. (1994) Association of iron with colorectal cancer. BioMetals 7, 211216.
WHO (1992) (World Health Organization) National strategies forovercoming micronutrient malnutrition. Geneva.
Wozenski, J. and Woodburn, M. (1975) Phytic acid (myoinositol hexaphosphate) and phytase activity in four cottonseed protein products. Cereal Chemistry 52, 665669.
Zhou, J.R., Fordyce, E.J., Raboy, V., Dickinson, D.B., Wong, M.-S., Burns, R.A. and Erdman, J.W. (1992) Reduction of phytic acid in soybean productsimproves zinc bioavailability in rats. Journal of Nutrition 122, 24662473.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Seed Science Research
  • ISSN: 0960-2585
  • EISSN: 1475-2735
  • URL: /core/journals/seed-science-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed