Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-m8qmq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-20T06:02:08.827Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Contexts of State Violence: Jewish Expulsions in the Holy Roman Empire

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 December 2020

Kerice Doten-Snitker*
University of Washington, USA


Policies excluding ethnoracial and religious minorities reinforce the power of political elites. This study addresses an extreme case of exclusion: urban expulsions of Jews in the medieval western Holy Roman Empire. Expulsions were official edicts proclaimed by Christian princes, lords, or town councils, whomever ruled a territory. Changing religious and political culture, in the form of new value on community righteousness and the beginning of territorialization, provided incentives for polities to expel their Jewish residents. Using a new database of Jewish settlement and city development in the Western Holy Roman Empire 1000–1520 CE, I show that the relational structure of political power between Christian elites could insulate or expose Jewish communities to political contests of the time. Jews were derided, lesser members of Christian society, but in spite of increasing focus on Christian piety and legislating community purity, most cities did not expel their Jewish residents. City rulers that did expel were attempting to solve challenges for sovereignty through their policies toward Jews.

Research Article
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Social Science History Association

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adida, Claire L., Laitin, David D., and Valfort, Marie-Anne (2016) Why Muslim Integration Fails in Christian-Heritage Societies. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Warren, Johnson, Noel D., and Koyama, Mark (2017) “Jewish persecutions and weather shocks: 1100–1800.The Economic Journal 127 (602): 924–58. doi: 10.1111/ecoj.12331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkey, Karen, and Katznelson, Ira (2011) “States, regimes, and decisions: Why Jews were expelled from medieval England and France.Theory and Society 40 (5): 475503. doi: 10.1007/s11186-011-9150-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barzel, Yoram (1992) “Confiscation by the ruler: The rise and fall of Jewish lending in the Middle Ages.Journal of Law and Economics 35 (1): 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Battenberg, J. Friedrich (1995) “Jews in ecclesiastical territories of the Holy Roman Empire,” in Hsia, R. Po-chia and Lehmann, Hartmut (eds.) In and Out of the Ghetto: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany. Cambridge University Press: 247–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, Sascha O., and Pascali, Luigi (2019) “Religion, division of labor, and conflict: Anti-Semitism in Germany over 600 years.American Economic Review 109 (5): 17641804. doi: 10.1257/aer.20170279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Betancourt, Michael (2017) “How the shape of a weakly informative prior affects inferences.” Stan User’s Guide. March 17. Google Scholar
Blank, Meredith, Dincecco, Mark, and Zhukov, Yuri (2017) “Political regime type and warfare: Evidence from 600 years of European history.SSRN 1–43. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2830066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boes, Maria R. (2007) “Unwanted travellers: The tightening of city borders in early modern Germany,” in Betteridge, Thomas (ed.) Borders and Travellers in Early Modern Europe. Routledge: 87112.Google Scholar
Bossak, Brian H., and Welford, Mark R. (2015) “Spatio-temporal characteristics of the medieval Black Death,” in Kanaroglu, Pavlos, Eric Delmelle, , and Antonio Páez, (eds.) Spatial Analysis in Health Geography. Routledge: 7184.Google Scholar
Botticini, Maristella (2000) “A tale of ‘benevolent’ governments: Private credit markets, public finance, and the role of Jewish lenders in medieval and renaissance Italy.The Journal of Economic History 60 (1): 164–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Botticini, Maristella, and Eckstein, Zvi (2005) “Jewish occupational selection: Education, restrictions, or minorities?The Journal of Economic History 65 (4): 922–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Botticini, Maristella, and Eckstein, Zvi (2012) The Chosen Few: How Education Shaped Jewish History, 70–1492. Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breen, Richard, Karlson, Kristian Bernt, and Holm, Anders (2018) “Interpreting and understanding logits, probits, and other nonlinear probability models.Annual Review of Sociology 44 (1): 3954. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-073117-041429 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brubaker, Rogers, and Laitin, David D. (1998) “Ethnic and nationalist violence.Annual Review of Sociology 24: 423–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, and Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan (2018) “From investiture to worms: A political economy of European development and the rise of secularism.” 1–52.Google Scholar
Burgard, Friedhelm, Haverkamp, Alfred, Irsigler, Franz, and Reichert, Winfried, eds. (1996) Hochfinanz im Westen des Reiches 1150–1500. Trierer Historische Forschungen 31. Trierer historische Forschungen.Google Scholar
Bush, Kenneth (2003) The Intra-Group Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Learning to Read between the Lines. Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantoni, Davide, and Yuchtman, Noam (2014) “Medieval universities, legal institutions, and the commercial revolution.Quarterly Journal of Economics 129 (2): 823–87. doi: 10.1093/qje/qju007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Weidmann, Nils B., and Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede (2011) “Horizontal inequalities and ethnonationalist civil war: A global comparison.American Political Science Review 105 (3): 478–95. doi: 10.1017/S0003055411000207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, Samuel (1998) “International competition and the treatment of minorities: Seventeenth-century cases and general propositions.American Journal of Sociology 103 (5): 12671308. doi: 10.1086/231353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cluse, Christoph (1999) “Zum Zusammenhang von Wuchervorwurf und Judenvertreibung im 13. Jahrhundert,” in Burgard, Friedhelm, Haverkamp, Alfred, and Mentgen, Gerd (eds.) Judenvertreibungen in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit. Hahn: 135–64.Google Scholar
Cluse, Christoph (2009) “Jewish community and civic commune in the high middle ages,” in Gestrich, Andreas, Raphael, Lutz, and Uerlings, Herbert (eds.) Strangers and Poor People: Changing Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion in Europe and the Mediterranean World from Classical Antiquity to the Present Day. Peter Lang: 26.Google Scholar
Cluse, Christoph (2013) “Ecclesiastical courts and the issue of ‘usury’ in the fifteenth century.” Paper presented at the World Congress of Jewish Studies, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
Creasman, Allyson F. (2002) “The Virgin Mary against the Jews: Anti-Jewish polemic in the pilgrimage to the Schöne Maria of Regensburg, 1519–25.The Sixteenth Century Journal 33 (4): 963-80. doi: 10.2307/4144117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Distler, Eva-Marie (2006) Städtebünde im deutschen Spätmittelalter: eine rechtshistorische Untersuchung zu Begriff, Verfassung und Funktion. Klostermann.Google Scholar
Dorin, Rowan William (2015) “Banishing usury: The expulsion of foreign moneylenders in medieval Europe, 1200–1450.” PhD diss., Harvard University.Google Scholar
Finley, Theresa, and Koyama, Mark (2018) “Plague, politics, and pogroms: The Black Death, the rule of law, and the persecution of Jews in the Holy Roman Empire.The Journal of Law and Economics 61 (2): 253–77. doi: 10.1086/699016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FitzGerald, Brian D. (2017) Inspiration and Authority in the Middle Ages: Prophets and Their Critics from Scholasticism to Humanism. Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gelman, Andrew, Jakulin, Aleks, Pittau, Maria Grazia, and Su, Yu Sung (2008) “A weakly informative default prior distribution for logistic and other regression models.Annals of Applied Statistics 2 (4): 1360–83. doi: 10.1214/08-AOAS191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giddens, Anthony (1987) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism, Volume 2: The Nation-State and Violence. University of California Press.Google Scholar
Gill, Anthony, and Keshavarzian, Arang (1999) “State building and religious resources: An institutional theory of church-state relations in Iran and Mexico.Politics & Society 27 (3): 431–65. doi: 10.1177/0032329299027003006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greif, Avner (1989) “Reputation and coalitions in medieval trade: evidence on the Maghribi traders.The Journal of Economic History 49 (4): 857–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greif, Avner (1993) “Contract enforceability and economic institutions in early trade: The Maghribi traders’ coalition.The American Economic Review 83 (3): 525–48.Google Scholar
Greif, Avner (1994) “Cultural beliefs and the organization of society: A historical and theoretical reflection on collectivist and individualist societies.Journal of Political Economy 102 (5): 912–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greif, Avner (2008) “Contract enforcement and institutions among the Maghribi traders: Refuting Edwards and Ogilvie.” SSRN 131. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1153826 Google Scholar
Gurr, Ted Robert (1993) “Why minorities rebel: A global analysis of communal mobilization and conflict since 1945.International Political Science Review 14 (2): 161–201. doi: 10.1177/019251219301400203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hale, Henry E. (2008) The Foundations of Ethnic Politics: Separatism of States and Nations in Eurasia and the World. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haverkamp, Alfred (1988) Medieval Germany, 1056–1273. Trans. Helga Braun and Richard Mortimer. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Haverkamp, Alfred (1995) “The Jewish quarters in German towns during the Late Middle Ages,” in Hsia, R. Po-chia and Lehmann, Hartmut (eds.) In and Out of the Ghetto: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany. Cambridge University Press: 13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haverkamp, Alfred (1999) “Judenvertreibungen in Mittelalter und Frühneuzeit—Erscheinungsformen und Zusammenhänge, Betrachtungsweisen und Erkenntnischancen. Zur Orientierung,” in Burgard, Friedhelm, Haverkamp, Alfred, and Mentgen, Gerd (eds.) Judenvertreibungen in Mittelalter Und Früher Neuzeit. Hahn: 122.Google Scholar
Haverkamp, Alfred, ed. (2002) Geschichte der Juden im Mittelalter von der Nordsee bis zu den Südalpen: Kommentiertes Kartenwerk, 1: Kommentarband; 2: Ortskatalog; 3: Karten. Hahn.Google Scholar
Hechter, Michael (1987) Principles of Group Solidarity. University of California Press.Google Scholar
Hechter, Michael (2013) Alien Rule. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hjerm, Mikael, Maureen, A. Eger, and Danell, Rickard (2018) “Peer attitudes and the development of prejudice in adolescence.Socius 4. doi: 10.1177/2378023118763187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Housley, Norman (2017) “Crusade and reform, 1414–1449: Allies or rivals?” In Housley, Norman (ed.) Reconfiguring the Fifteenth-Century Crusade. Palgrave Macmillan: 45–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsia, R. Po-Chia (1995) “The usurius Jew: Economic structure and religious representations in an antisemitic discourse,” in Hsia, R. Po-chia and Lehmann, Hartmut (eds.) In and Out of the Ghetto: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany. Cambridge University Press: 161–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isenmann, Eberhard (2012) Die deutsche Stadt im Mittelalter 1150–1550, Stadtgestalt, Recht, Verfassung, Stadtregiment, Kirche, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft. Böhlau.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jha, Saumitra (2013) “Trade, institutions, and ethnic tolerance: Evidence from South Asia.American Political Science Review 107 (4): 806–32. doi: 10.1017/S0003055413000464 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jha, Saumitra (2014) “‘Unfinished business’: Historic complementarities, political competition and ethnic violence in Gujarat.Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 104 (August): 18–36. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2014.02.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Noel D., and Koyama, Mark (2013) “Legal centralization and the birth of the secular state.Journal of Comparative Economics 41 (4): 959–78. doi: 10.1016/j.jce.2013.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Noel D., and Koyama, Mark (2017a) “States and economic growth: Capacity and constraints.Explorations in Economic History 64 (April): 1–20. doi: 10.1016/j.eeh.2016.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Noel D., and Koyama, Mark (2017b) “Jewish communities and city growth in preindustrial Europe.Journal of Development Economics 127 (July): 339–54. doi: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2016.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Noel D., and Koyama, Mark (2019) Persecution and Toleration: The Long Road to Religious Freedom. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jordan, William Chester (1989) The French Monarchy and the Jews. University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jordan, William Chester (1998) “Jews, regalian rights, and the constitution in medieval France.AJS Review 23 (1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katznelson, Ira (2005) “‘To give counsel and to consent’: Why the king (Edward I) expelled his Jews (in 1290),” in Katznelson, Ira and Weingast, Barry R. (eds.) Preferences and Situations. Russell Sage Foundation: 88–126.Google Scholar
Kedar, Benjamin Z. (1996) “Expulsion as an issue of world history.Journal of World History 7 (2): 165–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Key, V. O. (1950) Southern Politics in State and Nation. A. A. Knopf.Google Scholar
Kim, Hyojoung, and Pfaff, Steven (2012) “Structure and dynamics of religious insurgency: students and the spread of the reformation.American Sociological Review 77 (2): 188–215. doi: 10.1177/0003122411435905 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopstein, Jeffrey S., and Wittenberg, Jason (2018) Intimate Violence: Anti-Jewish Pogroms on the Eve of the Holocaust. Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koyama, Mark (2010) “The political economy of expulsion: The regulation of Jewish moneylending in medieval England.Constitutional Political Economy 21 (4): 374–406. doi: 10.1007/s10602-010-9087-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kroneberg, Clemens, and Wimmer, Andreas (2012) “Struggling over the boundaries of belonging: A formal model of nation building, ethnic closure, and populism.American Journal of Sociology 118 (1): 176–230. doi: 10.1086/666671 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lachmann, Richard (1989) “Elite conflict and state formation in 16th- and 17th-century England and France.American Sociological Review 54 (2): 141–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landa, Janet Tai (2016) Economic Success of Chinese Merchants in Southeast Asia: Identity, Ethnic Cooperation and Conflict. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levi, Margaret (1988) Of Rule and Revenue. University of California Press.Google Scholar
Levi, Margaret (1983) “The predatory theory of rule,” in Hechter, Michael (ed.) The Microfoundations of Macrosociology. Temple University Press: 216–49.Google Scholar
Liddy, Christian D. (2017) Contesting the City: The Politics of Citizenship in English Towns, 1250–1530. Oxford Studies in Medieval European History. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipton, Sara (2014) Dark Mirror: The Medieval Origins of Anti-Jewish Iconography. Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
Maimon, Ayre, Breuer, Mordechai, and Guggenheim, Yaakov (19872003) Germania Judaica, Band III: 1350–1519. Mohr Siebeck.Google Scholar
Mann, Michael (1986) Sources of Social Power, Volume 1: A History of Power from the Beginning to AD 1760. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAdam, Doug, Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles (2001) Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mentgen, Gerd (2016) “Über die Jüdische Hochzeitsfeier in Münster bei Bingen (1495) und die ausrichtende Ärztefamilie.Aschkenas 26 (1): 117–55. doi: 10.1515/asch-2016-0008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miethke, Jürgen (2011) “The university of Heidelberg and the Jews: Founding and financing the needs of a new university,” in Young, Spencer E. (ed.) Crossing Boundaries at Medieval Universities. Brill: 317–40.Google Scholar
Minty, J. M. (1996) “Judengasse to Christian Quarter: The phenomenon of the converted synagogue in the late medieval and early modern Holy Roman Empire,” in Scribner, Bob and Johnson, Trevor (eds.) Popular Religion in Germany and Central Europe, 1400–1800. St. Martin’s Press: 58–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, Robert I. (2007 [1987]) The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Authority and Deviance in Western Europe 950–1250. Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Müller, Jörg R. (2002) “Judenverfolgungen und -vertreibungen zwischen Nordsee und Südalpen im hohen und späten Mittelalter,” in Haverkamp, Alfred (ed.) Geschichte der Juden im Mittelalter von der Nordsee bis zu den Südalpen, Vol. 1: Kommentarband. Hahn: 189–222.Google Scholar
Nirenberg, David (1996) Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Olson, Mancur (1993) “Dictatorship, democracy, and development.American Political Science Review 87 (3): 567–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olzak, Susan (1989) “Labor unrest, immigration, and ethnic conflict in urban America, 1880–1914.American Journal of Sociology 94 (6): 1303–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pfaff, Steven (2013) “The true citizens of the city of god: The cult of saints, the Catholic social order, and the urban reformation in Germany.Theory and Society 42: 189–218. doi: 10.1007/s11186-013-9188-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pfaff, Steven, and Corcoran, Katie E. (2012) “Piety, power, and the purse: Religious economies theory and urban reform in the Holy Roman Empire.Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51 (4): 757–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reichert, Winfried (1996) “Hochfinanz und Territorialfinanz im 14. Jahrhundert: Arnold von Arlon—Rat und Finanzier der Luxemburger,” in Burgard, Friedhelm, Haverkamp, Alfred, Irsigler, Franz, and Reichert, Winfried (eds.) Hochfinanz im Westen Des Reiches 1150–1500. Trierer historische Forschungen: 219–80.Google Scholar
Ries, Rotraud (1995) “German territorial princes and the Jews,” in Hsia, R. Po-chia and Lehmann, Hartmut (eds.) In and Out of the Ghetto: Jewish-Gentile Relations in Late Medieval and Early Modern Germany. Cambridge University Press: 215–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothkrug, Lionel (1980) “Religious practices and collective perceptions: Hidden homologies in the Renaissance and Reformation.Historical Reflections/Reflexions Historiques 7 (1).Google Scholar
Rubin, Jared (2014) “Printing and protestants: An empirical test of the role of printing in the Reformation.Review of Economics & Statistics 96 (2): 270–86. doi: 10.1162/REST_a_00368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, Jared (2017) Rulers, Religion, and Riches: Why the West Got Rich and the Middle East Did Not. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, Miri (1999) Gentile Tales: The Narrative Assault on Late Medieval Jews. Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Rydgren, Jens (2007) “The power of the past: A contribution to a cognitive sociology of ethnic conflict.Sociological Theory 25 (3): 225–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schlueter, Elmar, Schmidt, Peter, and Wagner, Ulrich (2008) “Disentangling the causal relations of perceived group threat and outgroup derogation: Cross-national evidence from German and Russian panel surveys.European Sociological Review 24 (5): 567–81. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcn029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scribner, R. W. (1991) “Pastoral care and the reformation in Germany.Studies in Church History Subsidia 8: 77–97. doi: 10.1017/S0143045900001575 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siroky, David, and Hechter, Michael (2016) “Ethnicity, class, and civil war: The role of hierarchy, segmentation, and cross-cutting cleavages.Civil Wars 18 (1): 91–107. doi: 10.1080/13698249.2016.1145178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stacey, Robert C. (1988) “1240–60: A watershed in Anglo-Jewish relations?Historical Research 61 (145): 135–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stacey, Robert C. (1992) “The conversion of Jews to Christianity in thirteenth-century England.Speculum 67 (2): 263–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stacey, Robert C. (1997) “Parliamentary negotiation and the expulsion of Jews from England,” in Prestwich, Michael, Britnell, Richard, and Frame, Robin (eds.) Thirteenth Century England VI. The Boydell Press: 77101.Google Scholar
Stan Development Team (2018a) rstanarm: Bayesian Applied Regression Modeling via Stan (version 2.17.4). Scholar
Stan Development Team (2018b) “Stan development repository: Prior choice recommendations.” May 4. Scholar
Stasavage, David (2007) “Cities, constitutions, and sovereign borrowing in Europe, 1274–1785.International Organization 61 (3): 489525. doi: 10.1017/S002081830707018X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stasavage, David (2011) States of Credit: Size, Power, and the Development of European Polities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Stasavage, David (2014) “Was Weber right? The role of urban autonomy in Europe’s rise.American Political Science Review 108 (02): 337–54. doi: 10.1017/S0003055414000173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stasavage, David (2016) “Representation and consent: Why they arose in Europe and not elsewhere.Annual Review of Political Science 19 (1): 145–62. doi: 10.1146/annurev-polisci-043014-105648 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, Megan A. (2018) “Civil war as state-making: Strategic governance in civil war.International Organization 72 (1): 205–26. doi: 10.1017/S0020818317000418 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stow, Kenneth R. (1992) Alienated Minority: The Jews of Medieval Latin Europe. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Tilly, Charles (1990) Coercion, Capital and European States, A.D. 990–1990. B. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Toch, Michael (2003) Peasants and Jews in Medieval Germany. Ashgate.Google Scholar
Vehtari, Aki, Gelman, Andrew, and Gabry, Jonah (2017) “Practical Bayesian model evaluation using leave-one-out cross-validation and WAIC.Statistics and Computing 27 (5): 1413–32. doi: 10.1007/s11222-016-9696-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vehtari, Aki, Gabry, Jonah, Yao, Yuling, and Gelman, Andrew (2018) loo: Efficient Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation and WAIC for Bayesian Models (version 2.0.0). Google Scholar
Veitch, John M. (1986) “Repudiations and confiscations by the medieval state.The Journal of Economic History 46 (1): 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voigtländer, Nico, and Voth, Hans-Joachim (2012) “Persecution perpetuated: The medieval origins of anti-Semitic violence in Nazi Germany.The Quarterly Journal of Economics 127 (3): 1339–92. doi: 10.1093/qje/qjs019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Volckart, Oliver (2000) “State building by bargaining for monopoly rents.Kyklos 53 (3): 265–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Volckart, Oliver (2002) “No utopia: Government without territorial monopoly in medieval Central Europe.Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 158 (2): 325–43. doi: 10.1628/0932456022975411 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wahl, Fabian (2016a) “Origins of political change: Structural vs. exogenous factors as cause of the late medieval guild revolts.” SSRN 149. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2633496 Google Scholar
Wahl, Fabian (2016b) “Participative political institutions in pre-modern Europe: Introducing a new database.Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History 49 (2): 67–79. doi: 10.1080/01615440.2015.1033582 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wahl, Fabian (2019) “Political participation and economic development. Evidence from the rise of participative political institutions in the late medieval German lands.European Review of Economic History 23 (2): 193–213. doi: 10.1093/ereh/hey009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wenninger, Markus (1981) Man bedarf keiner Juden mehr. Ursachen und Hintergründe ihrer Vertreibung aus den deutschen Reichsstädten im 15. Jahrhundert. Böhlaus.Google Scholar
Wimmer, Andreas (2013) Ethnic Boundary Making: Institutions, Power, Networks. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ziwes, Franz-Josef (1996) “Zum jüdischen Kapitalmarkt im spätmittelalterlichen Koblenz,” in Friedhelm Burgard, Haverkamp, Alfred, Irsigler, Franz, and Reichert, Winfried (eds.) Hochfinanz im Westen Des Reiches 1150–1500. Trierer historische Forschungen: 49–74.Google Scholar