Ahmad, Feroz (2014) The Young Turks and the Ottoman Nationalities: Armenians, Greeks, Albanians, Jews, and Arabs, 1908–1918. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Akçuraoğlu, Yusuf (1911 ) Üç Tarz-i Siyaset. Istanbul, Turkey: Matbaa-ı Kadr.
Aksakal, Mustafa (2010) The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Anscombe, Frederick F. (2014) State, Faith, and Nation in Ottoman and Post-Ottoman Lands. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Antonius, George (1939) The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.
Baer, Marc (2006) “Turkish nationalism and the Dönme,” in Kieser, Hans-Lukas (ed.) Turkey beyond Nationalism: Towards Post-Nationalist Identities. London: I. B. Tauris: 67–73.
Barkey, Karen (2008) Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Beissinger, Mark R. (2002) Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brubaker, Rogers (2002) “Ethnicity without groups.” European Journal of Sociology 43 (2): 163–89.
Çelik, Bilgin (2004) İttihadçılar ve Arnavutlar. Istanbul, Turkey: Büke Kitapları.
Clark, Christopher (2012) The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914. New York: HarperCollins.
Dawn, C. Ernest (1973) From Ottomanism to Arabism: Essays on the Origins of Arab Nationalism. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Clark, Christopher (1991) “The origins of Arab nationalism,” in Khalidi, Rashid, Anderson, Lisa, Muslih, Muhammad, and Simon, Reeva S. (eds.) The Origins of Arab Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press: 3–30.
Deringil, Selim (1998) The Well-Protected Domains: Ideology and the Legitimation of Power in the Ottoman Empire, 1876–1909. London: I. B. Tauris.
Der Matossian, Bedross (2014) Shattered Dreams of Revolution: From Liberty to Violence in the Late Ottoman Empire. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Pasha, Djemal (1922) Memories of a Turkish statesman: 1913–1919. New York: George H. Doran Company.
Durham, Edith (1985 ) High Albania. London: Virago [Edward Arnold].
Paşa, Enver (1991) Enver Paşa'nın Anıları (1881–1908). Erdoğan Cengiz, Halil (ed.). Istanbul, Turkey: İletişim Yayınları.
Erickson, Edward J. (2003) Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Ferid, Ahmed (1911 ) “Bir Mektub,” in Üç Tarz-i Siyaset. Istanbul, Turkey: Matbaa-ı Kadr: 46–64.
Gawrych, George W. (2006) The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. London: I. B. Tauris.
Gellner, Ernest (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gounaris, Basil G. (1996) “Social cleavages and national ‘awakening’ in Ottoman Macedonia.” East European Quarterly 29 (4): 409–26.
Guy, Nicola (2012) The Birth of Albania: Ethnic Nationalism, the Great Powers of World War I and the Emergence of Albanian Independence. London: I. B. Tauris.
Haddad, Mahmoud (1994) “The rise of Arab nationalism reconsidered.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 26 (2): 201–22.
Hall, Richard C. (2000) The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: Prelude to the First World War. London: Routledge.
Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü (2001) Preparation for a Revolution: The Young Turks, 1902–1908. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü (2006) “Turkism and the Young Turks, 1889–1908,” in Kieser, Hans-Lukas (ed.) Turkey beyond Nationalism: Towards Post-Nationalist Identities. London: I. B. Tauris: 3–19.
Hechter, Michael (2000) Containing Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Höpken, Wolfgang (2018) “‘Modern wars’ and ‘backward societies’: The Balkan Wars in the history of twentieth-century European warfare,” in Boeckh, Katrin and Rutar, Sabine (eds.) The Wars of Yesterday: The Balkan Wars and the Emergence of Modern Military Conflict 1912–1913. Oxford: Berghahn-Books.
Hourani, Albert (1968) “Ottoman reform and the politics of notables,” in Polk, William R. and Chambers, Richard L. (eds.) Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle East: The Nineteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 41–68.
Karakasidou, Anastasia N. (1997) Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood: Passages to Nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870–1990. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Karpat, Kemal (1982) “Millets and nationality: The roots of the incongruity of nation and state in the post-Ottoman era,” Braude, Benjamin and Lewis, Bernard (eds.) Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society. Vol. 1. New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers: 141–69.
Kayalı, Hasan (1997) Arabs and the Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908–1918. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kazım (Kadri), Hüseyin (1914 ) Arnavudlar Ne Yaptılar? Istanbul, Turkey: Yeni Turan Matbaası.
Kazım Kadri, Hüseyin (Şeyh Muhsin Fani) (1920 ) 10 Temmuz İnkılabı ve Netaici: Türkiye İnkırazının Saikaları: Makedonya, Ermenistan ve Suriye Meseleleri. Istanbul, Turkey: Matbaa-ı Orhaniye.
Kemal, Ismail (1920) The Memoirs of Ismail Kemal Bey. Story, Sommerville (ed.). London: Constable and Company.
Khalidi, Rashid (1980) British Policy towards Syria and Palestine, 1906–1914: A Study of the Antecedents of the Hussein—the McMahon Correspondence, the Sykes-Picot Agreement, and the Balfour Declaration. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press.
Khalidi, Rashid (1991) “Ottomanism and Arabism in Syria before1914: A reassessment,” Khalidi, Rashid, Anderson, Lisa, Muslih, Muhammad, and Simon, Reeva S. (eds.) The Origins of Arab Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press: 50–69.
Khoury, Philip S. (1983) Urban Notables and Arab Nationalism: The Politics of Damascus 1860–1920. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Knight, E. F. (1909) The Awakening of Turkey: A History of the Turkish Revolution. London: John Milne.
Külçe, Süleyman (1944) Osmanlı Tarihinde Arnavutluk. Izmir: n.p.
Mazower, Mark (2002) The Balkans: A Short History. New York: The Modern Library.
Mazower, Mark (2005) Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims, and Jews, 1430–1950. New York: Harper Perennial.
Miles, William F. S. (1994) Hausaland Divided: Colonialism and Independence in Niger and Nigeria. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Osterhammel, Jürgen (2014) The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Remak, Joachim (1971) “1914—The Third Balkan War: Origins reconsidered.” The Journal of Modern History 43 (3): 353–66.
Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars (1914) Publication no. 4. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Washington, DC: The Endowment.
Rodrigue, Aron (1995) “Difference and tolerance in the Ottoman Empire.” Stanford Humanities Review 5 (1): 81–90.
Scott, James C. (2009) The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Skendi, Stavro (1967) The Albanian National Awakening, 1878–1912. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Smith, Anthony D. (1986) The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.
Smith, Anthony D. (2000) The Nation in History: Historiographical Debates about Ethnicity and Nationalism. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Sohrabi, Nader (2011) Revolution and Constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire and Iran. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sönmez, Banu İşlet (2007) II. Meşrutiyette Arnavut Muhalefeti. Istanbul, Turkey: Yapıkredi.
Weber, Eugen (1976) Peasants into Frenchmen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Yosmaoğlu, İpek (2014) Blood Ties: Religion, Violence, and the Politics of Nationhood in the Ottoman Macedonia, 1878–1908. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Zeine, Zeine N. (1966) The Emergence of Arab Nationalism, with a Background Study of Arab-Turkish Relations in the Near East. Beirut: Khayats.
Zürcher, Erik J. (1993) Turkey: A Modern History. London: I. B. Tauris.