Skip to main content Accessibility help

What's Left of Leftism?: Neoliberal Politics in Western Party Systems, 1945–2004

  • Stephanie Lee Mudge


A novel brand of laissez-faire that lay outside the political mainstream in the early postwar years was broadly hailed at the dawn of the twenty-first century as the common sense of a global age. Yet how to understand neoliberalism as a specifically political thing, especially in the unlikely terrains of Western European and leftist politics, is unclear. This article mobilizes field theory to conceptualize and investigate neoliberal politics in Western democracies, treating the left-right axis as a variable but fundamental organizing dichotomy over which mainstream political parties exert a unique definitional influence. To trace how this dichotomy has shifted over time, I develop a novel index of political neoliberalism using data on the electoral programs of mainstream parties across 22 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries between 1945 and 2004. I find that between the 1970s and 2004 a revised political center emerged, featuring a new concept of state responsibility and the means by which it should govern: a historical shift that took root across the left-right spectrum among mainstream parties and that was as much in evidence in Continental, Nordic, and southern countries as in Anglo-liberal countries. The overall trend can be fairly characterized as the rise of a specifically neoliberal politics. I suggest that a full explanation requires both a political sociology and a sociology of knowledge, attending to the organizational and cultural bases of Western party systems.



Hide All
Alesina, Alberto (1987) “Macroeconomic policy in a two-party system as a repeated game.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 102 (3): 65178.
Alesina, Alberto Mirrlees, James Neumann, Manfred J. M. (1989) “Politics and business cycles in industrial democracies.” Economic Policy 4 (8): 5598.
Alesina, Alberto Summers, Lawrence H. (1993) “Central bank independence and macroeconomic performance: Some comparative evidence.” Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking 25 (2): 15162.
Alt, James E. (1985) “Political parties, world demand, and unemployment: Domestic and international sources of economic activity.” American Political Science Review 79 (4): 101640.
Alvarez, R. Michael Garrett, Geoffrey Lange, Peter (1991) “Government partisanship, labor organization, and macroeconomic performance.” American Political Science Review 85 (2): 53956.
Anderson, Perry (1976a) “The antinomies of Antonio Gramsci.” New Left Review (100): 578.
Anderson, Perry (1976b) Considerations on Western Marxism. London: NLB.
Anderson, Perry (2000) “Renewals.” New Left Review (1): 524.
Andersson, Jenny (2006) Between Growth and Security: Swedish Social Democracy from a Strong Society to a Third Way. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Andersson, Jenny (2007) “Socializing capital, capitalizing the social: Contemporary social democracy and the knowledge economy.” Center for European Studies Working Paper Series (145): 121.
Apeldoorn, Bastiaan van Overbeek, Henk Ryner, Magnus (2003) “Theories of European integration: A critique,” in Cafruny, Alan W. Ryner, J. Magnus (eds.) A Ruined Fortress? Neo-liberal Hegemony and Transformation in Europe. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield: 1746.
Babb, Sarah (2001) Managing Mexico: Economics from Nationalism to Neoliberalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Babb, Sarah (2005) “The social consequences of structural adjustment: Recent evidence and current debates.” Annual Review of Sociology 31: 199222.
Baer, Kenneth (2000) Reinventing Democrats: The Politics of Liberalism from Reagan to Clinton. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Banks, Arthur S. Day, Alan J. Muller, Thomas C. (1997) Political Handbook of the World 1997. Binghamton: Binghamton University and State University of New York Press.
Bell, Daniel (2000 [1968]) The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties, with “The Resumption of History in the New Century.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Berman, Sheri (2006) The Primacy of Politics: Social Democracy and the Making of Europe’s Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blair, Tony (1998) The Third Way: New Politics for a New Century. London: Fabian Society.
Blair, Tony Schroeder, Gerhard (1999) “The third way: Die Neue Mitte.” London: Labour Party and SPD.
Block, Fred (1990) Postindustrial Possibilities: A Critique of Economic Discourse. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Blundell, Richard (2007 [2001]) Waging the War of Ideas. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Blyth, Mark (2002) Great Transformations: Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bobbio, Norberto (1996) Left and Right. Cambridge: Polity.
Boix, Carles (1997) “Political parties and the supply side of the economy: The provision of physical and human capital in advanced economies, 1960–90.” American Journal of Political Science 41 (3): 81445.
Boix, Carles (2000) “Partisan governments, the international economy, and macroeconomic policies in advanced nations, 1960–93.” World Politics 53 (1): 3873.
Boix, Carles (2003) Democracy and Redistribution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bonoli, Giuliano Powell, Martin, eds. (2004) Social Democratic Party Policies in Contemporary Europe. London: Routledge.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1988 [1984]) Homo Academicus, trans. Collier, Peter. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1990a) In Other Words: Essays towards a Reflexive Sociology, trans. Adamson, Matthew. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1990b [1982]) Language and Symbolic Power, ed. Thompson, John. Cambridge: Polity.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1991 [1968]) Craft of Sociology: Epistemological Preliminaries. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1996 [1989]) The State Nobility: Elite Schools in the Field of Power, trans. Clough, Lauretta C.. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1998) Acts of Resistance: Against the Tyranny of the Market. New York: New Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre (2008 [2002]) Political Interventions: Social Science and Political Action. London: Verso.
Bourdieu, Pierre et al. . (1999) The Weight of the World. Cambridge: Polity.
Bourdieu, Pierre Wacquant, Loïc J. D. (1992) An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre Wacquant, Loïc J. D. (1999) “On the cunning of imperialist reason.” Theory, Culture, and Society 16 (1): 4158.
Bradley, David Evelyne Huber, Stephanie Moller Nielsen, François Stephens, John D. (2003) “Distribution and redistribution in postindustrial democracies.” World Politics 55 (2): 193228.
Brady, David Beckfield, Jason Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin (2005) “Economic globalization and the welfare state in affluent democracies, 1975–2001.” American Sociological Review 70 (6): 92148.
Brenner, Neil (2004) “Urban governance and the production of new state spaces in Western Europe, 1960–2000.” Review of International Political Economy 11 (3): 44788.
Brenner, Neil Theodore, Nik (2002) “Cities and the geographies of ‘actually existing neoliberalism.’” Antipode 34 (3): 34979.
Brown, Wendy (2003) “Neoliberalism and the end of liberal democracy.” Theory and Event 7 (1): 123.
Budge, Ian Hans-Dieter Klingemann, Andrea Volkens Bara, Judith Tanenbaum, Eric (2001) Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments, 1945–1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Burnham, Peter (2001) “New Labour and the politics of depoliticisation.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 3 (2): 12749.
Cafruny, Alan W. Ryner, Magnus, eds. (2003) A Ruined Fortress? Neo-liberal Hegemony and Transformation in Europe. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Callinicos, Alex (2001) Against the Third Way. Cambridge: Polity.
Camp, R. A. (1995) Political Recruitment across Two Centuries: Mexico, 1884–1991. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Camp, R. A. (2002) Mexico’s Mandarins: Crafting a Power Elite for the Twenty-First Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Centeno, M. A. Silva, P., eds. (1998) The Politics of Expertise in Latin America. New York: St. Martin’s.
Cockett, Richard (1995 [1994]) Thinking the Unthinkable: Think-Tanks and the Economic Counter-Revolution, 1931–1983. London: HarperCollins.
Crosland, C. Anthony R. (1956) The Future of Socialism. London: Camelot.
Cuperus, René Kandel, Johannes (1998) Social Democratic Think Tanks Explore the Magical Return of Social Democracy in a Liberal Era. Amsterdam: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung/Wiardi Beckman Stichting.
Dahl, Robert A., ed. (1966) Political Oppositions in Western Democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dalton, Russell J. Wattenberg, Martin P., eds. (2002) Parties without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Davis, Allen F. (1964) “The Social workers and the Progressive Party, 1912–1916.” American Historical Review 69 (3): 67188.
Dezalay, Yves Garth, Bryant (1998) “Sociology of the hegemony of neoliberalism.” Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 121: 322.
Dezalay, Yves Garth, Bryant (2002) The Internationalization of Palace Wars: Lawyers, Economists, and the Contest to Transform Latin American States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dezalay, Yves Garth, Bryant (2008) “National usages for a ‘global’ science: The dissemination of new economic paradigms as a hegemonic global strategy and a national strategy for the reproduction of governing elites,” in Mallard, Grégoire Paradeise, Catherine Peerbaye, Ashveen (eds.) Global Science and National Sovereignty: Studies in Historical Sociology of Science. London: Routledge: 14367.
Dobbin, Frank Simmons, Beth, and Garrett, Geoffrey (2007) “The global diffusion of public policies: Social construction, coercion, competition, or learning?Annual Review of Sociology 33: 44972.
Domínguez, Jorge I., ed. (1997) Technopols: Freeing Politics and Markets in Latin America in the 1990s. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Driver, Steven Martell, Luke (1998) New Labour: Politics after Thatcherism. Cambridge: Polity.
Duverger, Maurice (1954) Political Parties. New York: Wiley.
Eley, Geoff (2002) Forging Democracy: The History of the Left in Europe, 1850–2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (1994) “Welfare states and the economy,” in Smelser, Neil J. Swedberg, Richard (eds.) The Handbook of Economic Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Russell Sage Foundation: 71132.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (1997) “After the golden age? Welfare state dilemmas in a global economy,” in Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (ed.) Welfare States in Transition: National Adaptations in Global Economies. London: Sage: 132.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (1999) The Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, ed. (2002) Why We Need a New Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Evans, Peter (2005) “Counterhegemonic globalization: Transnational social movements in the contemporary global economy,” in Janoski, Thomas Alford, Robert R. Hicks, Alexander M. Schwartz, Mildred A. (eds.) The Handbook of Political Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 65570.
Favretto, Ilaria (2003) The Long Search for a Third Way: The British Labour Party and the Italian Left since 1945. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Finlayson, Alan (2003) Making Sense of New Labour. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
Fiorina, Morris P. (2002) “Parties and partisanship: A forty-year retrospective political behavior.” Political Behavior 24 (2): 93115.
Fligstein, Neil (1996) “Markets as politics: A political-cultural approach to market institutions.” American Sociological Review 61 (4): 65673.
Fligstein, Neil (2001) “Social skill and the theory of fields.” Sociological Theory 19 (2): 10525.
Fligstein, Neil Sweet, Alec Stone (2002) “Constructing polities and markets: An institutionalist account of European integration.” American Journal of Sociology 107 (5): 120643.
Flora, Peter Heidenheimer, Arnold, eds. (1984) The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Fourcade, Marion (2006) “The construction of a global profession: The transnationalization of economics.” American Journal of Sociology 112 (1): 14594.
Fourcade, Marion (2009) Economists and Societies: Discipline and Profession in the United States, Britain, and France, 1890s to 1990s. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fourcade, Marion Healy, Kieran (2007) “Moral views of market society.” Annual Review of Sociology 33: 285311.
Fourcade-Gourinchas, Marion Babb, Sarah (2002) “The rebirth of the liberal creed: Paths to neoliberalism in four countries.” American Journal of Sociology 108 (3): 53379.
Freeden, Michael (1999a) “The ideology of New Labour.” Political Quarterly 70 (1): 4251.
Freeden, Michael (1999b) Liberal Languages: Ideological Imaginaries and Twentieth-Century Progressive Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Friedan, Jeffrey Rogowski, Ronald (1996) “The impact of the international economy on national policies,” in Keohane, Robert O. Milner, Helen V. (eds.) Internationalization and Domestic Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 2547.
Friedman, M. Friedman, D. R. (1980) Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. London: Secker and Warburg.
Fukayama, Francis (2006 [1992]) The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press.
Garrett, Geoffrey (1998) Partisan Politics in the Global Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Garrett, Geoffrey (2001) “Globalization and government spending around the world.” Studies in Comparative International Development 35 (4): 329.
Giddens, Anthony (1994) Beyond Left and Right. Cambridge: Polity.
Giddens, Anthony (1998) The Third Way. Cambridge: Polity.
Giddens, Anthony (1999) The Director’s Lectures: Politics after Socialism. London: London School of Economics.
Giddens, Anthony (2000) The Third Way and Its Critics. Cambridge: Polity.
Giddens, Anthony, ed. (2001) The Global Third Way Debate. Cambridge: Polity.
Glyn, Andrew (2001) Social Democracy in Neoliberal Times: The Left and Economic Policy since 1980. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gramsci, Antonio (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks, ed. and trans. Hoare, Quintin Smith, Geoffrey Nowell. New York: International.
Hale, Jon F. (1995) “The making of the New Democrats.” Political Science Quarterly 110 (2): 20732.
Hall, Peter A. (2002) “The comparative political economy of the ‘third way,’” in Schmidtke, Oliver (ed.) The Third Way Transformation of Social Democracy: Normative Claims and Policy Initiatives in the Twenty-First Century. Hampshire: Ashgate: 3158.
Hall, Peter A., ed. (1989) The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hall, Stuart (1998) “The great moving nowhere show.” Marxism Today, November–December, 9–14.
Hargreaves, Ian Christie, Ian, eds. (1998) Tomorrow’s Politics: The Third Way and Beyond. London: Demos.
Hartman, Yvonne (2005) “In bed with the enemy: Some ideas on the connections between neoliberalism and the welfare state.” Current Sociology 53 (1): 5773.
Harvey, David (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hawley, James P. (1980) “Antonio Gramsci’s Marxism: Class, state, and work.” Social Problems 27 (5): 584600.
Hay, Colin (1998) The Political Economy of New Labour. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Hayek, Friedrich A. (2005 [1945]) The Road to Serfdom, with “The Intellectuals and Socialism.” London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Hayek, Friedrich A. (2007 [1944]) The Road to Serfdom: Text and Documents; The Definitive Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Heffernan, Richard (2000) New Labour and Thatcherism: Political Change in Britain. Basingstoke: St. Martin’s.
Henisz, Witold J. Zelner, Bennet A. Guillén, Mauro F. (2005) “The worldwide diffusion of market-oriented infrastructure reform, 1977–1999.” American Sociological Review 70 (6): 87197.
Hermele, Kenneth (1993) “The end of the middle road: What happened to the Swedish model?Monthly Review 44 (10): 1425.
Hetherington, Marc J. (2001) “Resurgent mass partisanship: The role of elite polarization.” American Political Science Review 95 (3): 61931.
Hira, Anil (1998) Ideas and Economic Policy in Latin America: Regional, National, and Organizational Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Hira, Anil (2007) “Should economists rule the world?International Political Science Review/Revue internationale de science politique 28 (3): 32560.
Hix, Simon (1999) “Dimensions and alignments in European Union politics: Cognitive constraints and partisan responses.” European Journal of Political Research 35 (1): 69106.
Huber, Evelyne Stephens, John D. (2001) Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jessop, Bob (2002) The Future of the Capitalist State. Cambridge: Polity.
Johnson, Carol Tonkiss, Fran (2002) “The third influence: The Blair government and Australian Labor.” Policy and Politics 30 (1): 518.
Johnson, Chalmers A. (1982) MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Katz, Richard S. Mair, Peter (2009) “The cartel party thesis: A restatement.” Perspectives on Politics 7 (4): 75366.
Kirchheimer, Otto (1966) “The transformation of the Western European party systems,” in LaPalombara, Joseph Weiner, Myron (eds.) Political Parties and Political Development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press: 177200.
Kitschelt, Herbert (1994) The Transformation of European Social Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter Andrea Volkens, Judith Bara Budge, Ian McDonald, Michael, eds. (2006) Mapping Policy Preferences II: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, European Union, and OECD, 1990–2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lafontaine, Oskar (2000) The Heart Beats on the Left. Malden, MA: Polity.
LaPalombara, Joseph Weiner, Myron (1990 [1966]) “The origin of political parties,” in Mair, Peter (ed.) The West European Party System. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 2530.
Lemke, Christiane Marks, Gary, eds. (1992) The Crisis of Socialism in Europe. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Lewis, Jane Surender, Rebecca (2004) Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Li, Cheng (2001) China’s Leaders: The New Generation. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Lipset, Seymour Martin (1960) Political Man. London: Heinemann.
Lipset, Seymour Martin Rokkan, Stein (1967) Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives. New York: Free Press.
Mair, Peter (2004 [1997]) Party System Change: Approaches and Interpretations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mair, Peter, ed. (1990) The West European Party System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Markoff, John Montecinos, Verónica (1993) “The ubiquitous rise of economists.” Journal of Public Policy 13 (1): 3768.
Marquand, David (2004) Decline of the Public: The Hollowing Out of Citizenship. Cambridge: Polity.
Martin, Isaac (2008) The Permanent Tax Revolt: How the Property Tax Transformed American Politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Martin, John Levi (2003) “What is field theory?American Journal of Sociology 109 (1): 149.
Massey, Douglas S. Sanchez, R. Magaly Behrman, Jere R. (2006) “Of myths and markets.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 606 (1): 831.
Medvetz, Thomas Matthew (2007) “Think tanks and the production of policy knowledge in America.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.
Merkel, Wolfgang Alexander Petring, Christian Henkes Egle, Christoph, eds. (2008) Social Democracy in Power: The Capacity to Reform. London: Routledge.
Michels, Robert (1962) Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy, trans. Paul, Eden Paul, Cedar. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Miliband, David, ed. (1994) Reinventing the Left. Cambridge: Polity.
Montecinos, Verónica (1998) Economists, Politics, and the State: Chile, 1958–1994. Amsterdam: Centre for Latin American Research and Documentation.
Mudge, Stephanie Lee (2008) “What is neoliberalism?Socioeconomic Review 6 (4): 70331.
Newman, Otto de Zoysa, Richard (2001) The Promise of the Third Way: Globalization and Social Justice. Houndmills: Palgrave.
Peck, Jamie (2002) “Political economies of scale: Fast policy, interscalar relations, and neoliberal workfare.” Economic Geography 78 (3): 33160.
Pierson, Paul (1996) “The new politics of the welfare state.” World Politics 48 (2): 14379.
Pontusson, Jonas (1992) The Limits of Social Democracy: Investment in Politics in Sweden. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Pontusson, Jonas (1994) “Sweden: After the golden age,” in Anderson, Perry Camiller, Patrick (eds.) Mapping the West European Left. London: Verso: 2354.
Prasad, Monica (2006) The Politics of Free Markets: The Rise of Neoliberal Economic Policies in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Quinn, Dennis P. Toyoda, A. Maria (2007) “Ideology and voter preferences as determinants of financial globalization.” American Journal of Political Science 51 (2): 34463.
Reich, Robert B. (1999) “We are all third wayers now.” American Prospect, March 1, (accessed June 24, 2008).
Rodgers, D. T. (1998) Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rose, Nikolas Miller, Peter (1992) “Political power beyond the state: Problematics of government.” British Journal of Sociology 43 (2): 173205.
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich Skocpol, Theda (1996) States, Social Knowledge, and the Origins of Modern Social Policies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ryner, J. Magnus (2002) Capitalist Restructuring, Globalisation, and the Third Way: Lessons from the Swedish Model. London: Routledge.
Sartori, Giovanni (1968) “The sociology of parties: A critical review,” in Stammer, Otto(ed.) Party Systems, Party Organisations, and the Politics of the Masses. Berlin: Institut für Politische Wissenschaft an der Freien Universität: 125.
Sassoon, Donald (1996) One Hundred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century. London: Tauris.
Sassoon, Donald, ed. (1997) Looking Left: European Socialism after the Cold War. London: Tauris.
Scanlon, Christopher (2001) “A step to the left? Or just a jump to the right? Making sense of the third way on government and governance.” Australian Journal of Political Science 36 (3): 48198.
Schmidtke, Oliver, ed. (2002) The Third Way Transformation of Social Democracy: Normative Claims and Policy Initiatives in the Twenty-First Century. Hampshire: Ashgate.
Simmons, Beth A. Dobbin, Frank Garrett, Geoffrey (2006) “Introduction: The international diffusion of liberalism.” International Organization 60 (4): 781810.
Somers, Margaret R. Block, Fred (2005) “From poverty to perversity: Ideas, markets, and institutions over two hundred years of debate.” American Sociological Review 70 (2): 26087.
Steinmo, Sven (1988) “Social democracy vs. socialism: Goal adaptation in social democratic Sweden.” Politics and Society 16 (4): 40346.
Steinmo, Sven (1989) Taxation and Democracy: Swedish, British, and American Approaches to Financing the Modern State. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Stiglitz, J. E. (2002) Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: Norton.
Sutton, John R. (2004) “The political economy of imprisonment in affluent Western democracies, 1960–1990.” American Sociological Review 69 (2): 17089.
Teles, Steven Kenney, Daniel A. (2008) “Spreading the word: The diffusion of American conservatism in Europe and beyond,” in Kopstein, Jeffrey Steinmo, Sven (eds.) Growing Apart? America and Europe in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 13569.
Valdés, Juan G. (1995) Pinochet’s Economists: The Chicago School in Chile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Visser, Jelle Hemerijck, Anton (1997) A Dutch Miracle: Job Growth, Welfare Reform, and Corporatism in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Vogel, S. (1996) Freer Markets, More Rules. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Volkens, Andrea (2001) “Quantifying the election programmes,” in Budge, Ian Klingemann, Hans-Dieter Volkens, Andrea Bara, Judith, and Tanenbaum, Eric (eds.) Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments, 1945–1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 93110.
Wacquant, Loïc (2006) “Pierre Bourdieu,” in Stones, Rob (ed.) Key Contemporary Thinkers. London: Macmillan: 21529.
Wacquant, Loïc (2008) “Deadly symbiosis: When ghetto and prison meet and mesh.” Punishment and Society 3 (1): 95134.
Wacquant, Loïc (2009) Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Wade, R. (1990) Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Waxman, Chaim I., ed. (1968) The End of Ideology Debate. New York: Funk and Wagnall.
Weber, Max (1946) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. Gerth, H. H. Mills, C. Wright. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Western, Bruce (2007) Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

What's Left of Leftism?: Neoliberal Politics in Western Party Systems, 1945–2004

  • Stephanie Lee Mudge


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed