Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gq7q9 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-22T13:42:31.807Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools: Validation of a Questionnaire

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 April 2014

Paula C. Neves*
Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra (Portugal)
Rui Paixão
Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal)
Madalena Alarcão
Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal)
A. Duarte Gomes
Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal)
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Paula Costa Neves. Escola Superior de Educação. Rua Dom João, III. Solum. 3030-329. Coimbra (Portugal). E-mail:


The present study examines the psychometric properties (including factorial validity) of an organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) scale in a school context. A total of 321 middle and high school teachers from 59 schools in urban and rural areas of central Portugal completed the OCB scale at their schools. The confirmatory factor analysis validated a hierarchical model with four latent factors on the first level (altruism, conscientiousness, civic participation and courtesy) and a second order factor (OCB). The revised model fit with the data, χ2/gl = 1.97; CFI = .962; GFI = .952, RMSEA = .05. The proposed scale (comportamentos de cidadania organizacional em escolas- Revista CCOE-R)- is a valid instrument to assess teacher’s perceptions of OCB in their schools, allowing investigation at the organizational level of analysis.

Research Article
Copyright © Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Bogler, R., & Somech, A. (2004). Influence of teacher empowerment on teachers’ organizational commitment, professional commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 277289. Google Scholar
Borman, W. C., Penner, L. A., Allen, T. D., & Motowidlo, S. J. (2001). Personality predictors of citizenship performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9, 5269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Cardona, P., Lawrence, B. S., & Bentler, P. M. (2004). The influence of social and work exchange relationships on organizational citizenship behavior. Group & Organization Management, 29, 219247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chiu, S.-F., & Chen, H.-L. (2005). Relationship between job characteristics and organizational citizenship behavior: The meditational role of job satisfaction. Social Behavior and Personality, 33, 523539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christ, O., Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., & Stellmacher, J. (2003). When teachers go the extra mile: Foci of organizational identification as determinants of different forms of organizational citizenship behavior among schoolteachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 329341. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dávila, M. C., & Finkelstein, M. A. (2010). Predicting organizational citizenship behavior from the functional analysis and role identity perspectives: Further evidence in Spanish employees. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13, 277283. Google Scholar
DiPaola, M. F., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). School characteristics that foster organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of School Leadership, 15, 387406.Google Scholar
DiPaola, M. F., & Neves, P. C. (2009). Organizational citizenship behaviors in American and Portuguese public schools: Measuring the construct across cultures. Journal of Educational Administration, 47, 490507. Google Scholar
DiPaola, M. F., Tarter, C. J., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Measuring organizational citizenship of schools: The OCB scale. In Hoy, W. K., & M. C. G. (Eds.), Educational Leadership and Reform (Vol. 4, pp. 319341). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
DiPaola, M. F., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). Organizational citizenship behavior in schools and its relationship to school climate. Journal of School Leadership, 11, 424447.Google Scholar
Farh, J.-L., Zhong, C.-B., & Organ, D. W. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior in the people’s Republic of China. Organization Science, 15, 241253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gimeno, J. (1995). Consciência e acção sobre a prática como libertação profissional [Awareness and action on professional practice as professional liberation]. In Nóvoa, A. (Ed.), Profissão professor [Teaching profession] (2ª Ed., pp. 6392). Porto, Portugal: Porto Editora.Google Scholar
Graham, J. W. (1991). An essay on organizational citizenship behavior. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 4, 249270. Google Scholar
Jarvis, C. B., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2003). Critical review of construct indicators and measurement model misspecification in marketing and consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 199218. Google Scholar
Jarvis, C. B., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2012). The negative consequences of measurement model misspecification: A response to Aguirre-Urreta and Marakas. MIS Quarterly, 36, 139146.Google Scholar
Jex, S. M., Adams, G. A., Bachrach, D. G., & Sorenson, S. (2003). The impact of situational constraints, role stressors, and commitment on employee altruism. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8, 171180. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jimmieson, L., N., Hannam, R. L., & Yeo, G. B. (2010). Teacher organizational citizenship behaviors and job efficacy: Implications for student quality of school life. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 453479. Google Scholar
Kamata, A., Turhan, A., & Darandari, E. (2003, April). Estimating reliability for multidimensional composite scale scores. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), Chicago, IL. Retrieved from∼akamata/papers/MD_rel_paper.pdf Google Scholar
Kidwell, R. E. Jr, Mossholder, K. W., & Bennett, N. (1997). Cohesiveness and organizational citizenship behavior: A multilevel analysis using work groups and individuals. Journal of Management, 23, 775793. Google Scholar
Law, K. S., Wong, C.-S., & Chen, Z. X. (2005). The construct of organizational citizenship behavior: Should we analyze after we have conceptualized. In Turnipseed, D. L. (Ed.), Handbook of organizational citizenship behavior (pp. 4765). New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
Maroco, J. (2003). Análise estatística com utilização do SPSS [Statistical analysis using SPSS] (2 nd Ed.). Lisboa, Portugal: Edições Sílabo.Google Scholar
Maroco, J. (2010). Análise de Equações Estruturais [Structural Equation Analysis]. Pero Pinheiro, Portugal: Reportnumber.Google Scholar
Neves, P. C. (2010). Comportamentos de cidadania organizacional em escolas do ensino secundário [Organizational citizenship behaviors in secondary schools]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra, Portugal.Google Scholar
Oplatka, I. (2006). Going beyond role expectations: Toward an understanding of the determinants and components of teacher organizational citizenship behavior. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42, 385423. Google Scholar
Oplatka, I. (2009). Organizational citizenship behavior in teaching: The consequences for teachers, pupils and the school. International Journal of Educational management, 23, 375389. Google Scholar
Oplatka, I., & Stundi, M. (2011). The components and determinants of preschool teacher organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Educational Management, 25, 223236. Google Scholar
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Organ, D. W. (1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behavior. In Staw, B. M., & Cummings, L. (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 12, pp. 4372). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10, 8597. Google Scholar
Organ, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1995). A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48, 775802. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Passos, A., & Caetano, A. (2000). Comportamento de cidadania organizacional: Factores determinantes [Organizational citizenship behavior: Determinants factors]. Psychologica, 23, 7193.Google Scholar
Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual-and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 122141. Google Scholar
Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1994). Organizational citizenship behaviors and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research, 31, 351363.Google Scholar
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26, 513563. Google Scholar
Rego, A. (2002). Comportamentos de cidadania nas organizações [Citizenship behavior in organizations]. Lisboa, Portugal: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Rioux, S. M., & Penner, L. A. (2001). The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: A motivational analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 13061314. Google Scholar
Robinson, J., Shaver, P., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Skarlicki, D., & Lathan, G. (1995). Organizational citizenship behavior and performance in a university setting. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 12, 175181. Google Scholar
Somech, A., & Bogler, R. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of teacher organizational and professional commitment. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38, 555577. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2000). Understanding extra-role behavior in schools: The relationships between job satisfaction, sense of efficacy, and teachers’ extra-role behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 649659. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Somech, A., & Ron, I. (2007). Promoting organizational citizenship behavior in schools: The impact of individual and organizational characteristics. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43, 3866. Google Scholar
van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 765802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 108119. Google Scholar
van Scotter, J. R., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1996). Interpersonal facilitation and job dedication as separate facets of contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 525531. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601617. Google Scholar
Yilmaz, K., & Taşdan, M. (2009). Organizational citizenship and organizational justice in Turkish primary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 47, 108126. Google Scholar