Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-rz424 Total loading time: 0.535 Render date: 2021-03-03T00:43:21.595Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in People affected by Home Eviction in Spain

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 October 2017

Humbelina Robles-Ortega
Affiliation:
Universidad de Granada (Spain)
Pedro Guerra
Affiliation:
Universidad de Granada (Spain)
Isis González-Usera
Affiliation:
Universidad de Granada (Spain)
José Luis Mata-Martín
Affiliation:
Universidad de Granada (Spain)
M. Carmen Fernández-Santaella
Affiliation:
Universidad de Granada (Spain)
Jaime Vila
Affiliation:
Universidad de Granada (Spain)
Julia Bolívar-Muñoz
Affiliation:
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública (EASP) (Spain)
Mariola Bernal-Solano
Affiliation:
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública (EASP) (Spain)
Inmaculada Mateo-Rodríguez
Affiliation:
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública (EASP) (Spain)
Antonio Daponte-Codina
Affiliation:
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública (EASP) (Spain)
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Despite the higher proportion of foreclosures and home evictions executed in Spain, compared to other countries, and the known link between social exclusion and mental health problems, studies exploring this association in Spain remain scarce. This study investigated the link between the process of home eviction and the appearance of symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Two hundred and five people affected by the process of home eviction were assessed using a structured interview that included three validated assessment instruments for PTSD, perceived stress, anxiety and depression. Analysis involved comparison with the normative groups that formed the validation studies together with regression analysis to determine the major psychological and socio-demographic predictors of perceived stress. Of the participants, 95.1% reported that they were experiencing the process of home eviction with fear, helplessness, or horror. In PTSD symptomatology, they scored higher than the normative PTSD group in symptoms of avoidance (t = 5.01; p < .05), activation (t = 5.48; p < .01), and total score (t = 4.15; p < .05). Of this subgroup, 72.5% fulfilled the DSM-IV symptom criteria for PTSD. The major predictor of perceived stress was PTSD symptomatology (B = .09; p < .001). The process of home eviction in Spain is having an alarming impact on mental health of affected people calling for effective measures to provide psychological and social support.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

We thank Stop-Eviction representatives in Granada their availability and assistance to facilitate the study. We also thank the volunteer collaboration of the professionals and students who have helped to its completion.

How to cite this article:

Robles-Ortega, H., Guerra, P., González-Usera, I., Mata-Martín, J. L., Fernández-Santaella, M. C., Vila, J., Bolívar-Muñoz, J., Bernal-Solano, M., Mateo-Rodríguez, I., & Daponte-Codina, A. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology in people affected by home eviction in Spain. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 20. e57. Doi:10.1017/sjp.2017.56

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (DSM-5). Washington, DC: APA.
Banco de España (2015). Nota informativa sobre los procesos de ejecución hipotecaria sobre viviendas [Information note on the processes of home foreclosure]. Madrid, Spain: Author.
Bennett, G. G., Scharoun-Lee, M., & Tucker-Seeley, R. (2009). Will the public’s health fall victim to the home foreclosure epidemic? PLoS Medicine, 6, e1000087. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000087 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bolívar Muñoz, J., Bernal Solano, M., Mateo Rodríguez, I., Daponte Codina, A., Escudero Espinosa, C., Sánchez Cantalejo, C., ... Vila Castellar, J. (2016). La salud de las personas adultas afectadas por un proceso de desahucio [The health of adults undergoing an eviction process]. Gaceta Sanitaria 30, 410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2015.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cacioppo, J. T., Norris, C. J., Decety, J., Monteleone, G., & Nusbaum, H. (2009). In the eye of the beholder: Individual differences in perceived isolation predict regional brain activation to social stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 8392. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 24, 385396. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136404 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de las Cuevas, C., González de Rivera, J. L., Henry, M., & Gracia, R. (1991). Análisis factorial de la versión española del SCL-90-R en la población general [Factorial analysis of the Spanish version of the SCL-90-R in the general population]. Anales de Psiquiatría, 7, 9396.Google Scholar
Derogatis, L. R. (1994). Symptom checklist 90. administration scoring and procedures manual. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems Inc.Google Scholar
Desmond, M. (2012). Eviction and the reproduction of urban poverty. American Journal of Sociology, 118, 88133. https://doi.org/10.1086/666082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eagle, G., & Kaminer, D. (2013). Continuous traumatic stress: Expanding the lexicon of traumatic stress. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 19, 8599. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Echeburúa, E., Corral, P., Amor, P. J., Zubizarreta, I., & Sarasua, B. (1997). Escala de gravedad de síntomas del trastorno de estrés postraumático: Propiedades psicométricas [symptom severity scale posttraumatic stress disorder: Psychometric properties]. Análisis y Modificación de Conducta, 23, 503526.Google Scholar
Eisenberger, N. I., & Cole, S. W. (2012). Social neuroscience and health. Neurophysiological mechanisms linking social ties with physical health. Nature Neuroscience, 15, 669674. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3086 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberger, N. I., Master, S. L., Inagaki, T. K., Taylor, S. E., Shirinyan, D., Lieberman, M. D., & Naliboff, B. D. (2011). Attachment figures activate a safety signal-related neural region and reduce pain experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118, 1172111726. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1108239108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández Durán, R. (2006). El Tsunami urbanizador español y mundial [The Spanish and global developer Tsunami]. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Virus.Google Scholar
Fowler, K. A., Gladden, R. M., Vagi, K. J., Barnes, J., & Frazier, L. (2015). Increase in suicides associated with home eviction and foreclosure during the US housing crisis: Findings from 16 national violent death reporting system states, 2005–2010. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 311316. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.301945 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gili, M., Roca, M., Basu, S., McKee, M., & Stuckler, D. (2013). The mental health risks of economic crisis in Spain: Evidence from primary care centers, 2006 and 2010. European Journal of Public Health, 23, 103108. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cks035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guerra, P., Sánchez-Adam, A., Anllo-Vento, L., Ramírez, I., & Vila, J. (2012). Viewing loved faces inhibits defense reactions: A health-promotion mechanism? PLoS One, 7, e41631. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041631 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacDonald, G., & Leary, M. R. (2005). Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 202223. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.2.202 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McHenry, J., Carrier, N., Hull, E., & Kabbaj, M. (2014). Sex differences in anxiety and depression: Role of testosterone. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 35, 4257. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2013.09.001 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Nandi, A., Keyes, K. M., Uddin, M., Aiello, A. E., Galea, S., & Koenen, K. C. (2012). Home foreclosure and risk of psychiatric morbidity during the recent financial crisis. Psychological Medicine, 42, 14411448. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711002613 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ngun, T. C., Ghahramani, N., Sánchez, F. J., Bocklandt, S., & Vilain, E. (2011). The genetics of sex differences in brain and behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32, 227246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.10.001 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Novoa, A. M., Bosch, J., Díaz, F., Malmusi, D., Darnell, M., & Trilla, C. (2014). Impact of the crisis on the relationship between housing and health. Policies for good practice to reduce inequalities in health related to housing conditions. Gaceta Sanitaria, 28, 4450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2014.02.018 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Osypuk, T. L., Caldwell, C. H., Platt, R. W., & Misra, D. P. (2012). The consequences of foreclosure for depressive symptomatology. Annals of Epidemiology, 22, 379387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.04.012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pevalin, D. J. (2009). Housing repossessions, evictions and common mental illness in the UK: Results from a household panel study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63, 949951. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2008.083477 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramis-Pujol, J. (2014). Una aproximación multidisciplinar al desahucio hipotecario basada en estudios de caso [A multidisciplinary approach to mortgage eviction based on case studies]. Mallorca, Spain: Fundación Innovación, Acción y conocimiento. Universidad Ramón Llull. http://www.fiayc.org/fileserver2/61753948DesahuciosHipotecarios.EstudiosCaso.Ramis.Vcorta.pdf Google Scholar
Remor, E. (2006). Psychometric properties of an European Spanish Version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 9, 8693. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600006004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Remor, E., & Carrobles, J. A. (2001). Versión española de la Escala de Estrés Percibido (PSS-14): Estudio psicométrico en una muestra de VIH+ [Spanish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14): Psychometric study in a sample of HIV +]. Ansiedad y Estrés, 7, 195201.Google Scholar
Robles Ortega, H. (2014). Trastornos adaptativos [Adjustment disorders]. In Caballo, V. E., Salazar, I. C., & Carrobles, J. A. (Eds.), Manual de psicopatología y trastornos psicológicos [Manual of Psychopathology and Psychological Disorders] (2 nd Ed.). Madrid, Spain: Ediciones Pirámide.Google Scholar
Tolin, D., & Foa, E. (2006). Sex differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative review of 25 years of research. Psychologial Bulletin, 132, 959992. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.959 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Way, B. M., & Taylor, S. E. (2010). The serotonin transporter polymorphism is associated with cortisol response to psychosocial stress. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 487492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.10.021 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 25
Total number of PDF views: 174 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 27th October 2017 - 3rd March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in People affected by Home Eviction in Spain
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in People affected by Home Eviction in Spain
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in People affected by Home Eviction in Spain
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *