Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Adaptation and Validation of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a Sample of Male Drug Users

  • Pablo Vallejo-Medina (a1) and Juan Carlos Sierra (a2)

The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a sample of male drug users. A sample of 326 male drug users and 322 non-clinical males was selected by cluster sampling and convenience sampling, respectively. Results showed that the scale had good psychometric properties and adequate internal consistency reliability (Initiation = .66, Refusal = .74 and STD-P = .79). An evaluation of the invariance showed strong factor equivalence between both samples. A high and moderate effect of Differential Item Functioning was only found in items 1 and 14 (∆R2 Nagelkerke = .076 and .037, respectively). We strongly recommend not using item 1 if the goal is to compare the scores of both groups, otherwise the comparison will be biased. Correlations obtained between the CSFQ-14 and the safe sex ratio and the SAS subscales were significant (CI = 95%) and indicated good concurrent validity. Scores of male drug users were similar to those of non-clinical males. Therefore, the adaptation of the SAS to drug users provides enough guarantees for reliable and valid use in both clinical practice and research, although care should be taken with item 1.

Corresponding author
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Pablo Vallejo-Medina. Facultad de Psicología. Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz. Carrera 9 Bis No. 62–43 Bogotá (Colombia). E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

B. A. Auslander , M. M. Perfect , P. A. Succop , & S. L Rosenthal . (2007). Perceptions of sexual assertiveness among adolescent girls: Initiation, refusal, and use of protective behaviors. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 20, 157162.

J. Baele , E. Dusseldorp , & S Maes . (2001). Condom use self-efficacy: Effect on intended and actual condom use in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 421431.

J Bang-Ping . (2009). Sexual dysfunction in men who abuse illicit drugs: A preliminary report. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 6, 10721080.

J Baseman . (1999). Sale of sex for drugs and drugs for sex: An economic context of sexual risk behavior for STDs. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 26, 444449.

M. A. Bellis , K. Hughes , A. Calafat , M. Juan , A. Ramon , J. A. Rodriguez , … P. Phillips-Howard (2008). Sexual uses of alcohol and drugs and the associated health risks: A cross sectional study of young people in nine European cities. BMC Public Health, 8, 155166.

M. G. Bertens , B., E. M. Eiling , B. van den Borne , & H. P Schaalma . (2009). Uma Tori! Evaluation of an STI/HIV-prevention intervention for Afro-Caribbean women in the Netherlands. Patient Education and Counseling, 75, 7783.

R. E. Booth , C. F. Kwiatkowski , & D. D Chitwood . (2000). Sex related HIV risk behaviors: Differential risks among injection drug users, crack smokers, and injection drug users who smoke crack. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 58, 219226.

G. W. Cheung , & R. B Rensvold . (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233255.

T. L Crowell . (2004). Seropositive individuals’ willingness to communicate, self-efficacy, and assertiveness prior to HIV infection. Journal of Health Communication, 9, 395424.

D. M Dimitrov . (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43, 121149.

J. Di Noia , & S. P Schinke . (2007). Gender–specific HIV prevention with urban early-adolescent girls: Outcomes of the keepin’ it safe program. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19, 479488.

M. M. Dolcini , & J. A Catania . (2000). Psychosocial profiles of women with risky sexual partners: The national AIDS behavioral surveys (NABS). AIDS and Behavior, 4, 297308.

K. H. Ford , P. M. Diamond , S. H. Kelder , K. L. Sterling , & A. L McAlister . (2009). Validation of scales measuring attitudes, self-efficacy, and intention related to smoking among middle school students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 271278.

C. S. Hendershot , R. E. Magnan , & A. D Bryan . (2010). Associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with HIV/STD risk behavior in high-risk adolescents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 404414.

M. D. Hidalgo , & J. A López-Pina . (2004). Differential item functioning detection and effect size: A comparison between logistic regression and Mantel-Haenszel procedures. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 903915.

D Hurlbert . (1991). The role of assertiveness in female sexuality: A comparative study between sexually assertive and sexually nonassertive women. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 17, 183190.

M. G. Jodoin , & M. J Gierl . (2001). Evaluating type I error and power rates using an effect size measure with the logistic regression procedure for DIF detection. Applied Measurement in Education, 14, 329349.

A. Keller , E. L. McGarvey , & A. H Clayton . (2006). Reliability and construct validity of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire short-form (CSFQ-14). Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 32, 4352.

J. A. Livingston , M. Testa , & C VanZile-Tamsen . (2007). The reciprocal relationship between sexual victimization and sexual assertiveness. Violence Against Women, 13, 298313.

U. Lorenzo-Seva , & P. J Ferrando . (2006). FACTOR: A computer program to fit the exploratory factor analysis model. Behavior Research Methods, 38, 8891.

G. H. Lubke , C. V. Dolan , H. Kelderman , & G. J Mellenberg . (2003). On the relationship between sources of within- and between-group differences and measurement invariance in the common factor model. Intelligence, 31, 543566.

G. J Mellenbergh . (1995). Conceptual notes on models for discrete polytomous item responses. Applied Psychological Measurement, 19, 91100.

T. R. Miller , & J. A Spray . (1993). Logistic discriminant function analysis for DIF identification of polytomously scored items. Journal of Educational Measurement, 30, 107122.

P. J. Morokoff , K. Quina , L. L. Harlow , L. Whitmire , D. M. Grimley , P. R. Gibson , & G. J Burkholder . (1997). Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) for women: Development and validation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 790804.

P. J. Morokoff , C. A. Redding , L. L. Harlow , S. Cho , J. S. Rossi , K. S. Meier , … P. Brown-Peterside (2009). Associations of sexual victimization, depression, and sexual assertiveness with unprotected sex: A test of the multifaceted model of HIV risk across gender. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 14, 3054.

S. M. Noar , K. Carlyle , & C Cole . (2006). Why communication is crucial: Meta-analysis of the relationship between safer sexual communication and condom use. Journal of Health Communication, 11, 365390.

S. M. Noar , P. J. Morokoff , & C. A Redding . (2002). Sexual assertiveness in heterosexually active men: A test of three samples. AIDS Education and Prevention, 14, 330342.

P. D. Quinn , & K Fromme . (2010). Self-regulation as a protective factor against risky drinking and sexual behavior. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 376385.

A. Raj , R. Saitz , D. B. Cheng , M. Winter , & J. H Samet . (2007). Associations between alcohol, heroin, and cocaine use and high risk sexual behaviors among detoxification patients. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33, 169178.

E. K. Reynolds , J. F. Magidson , M. A. Bornovalova , M. Gwadz , C. K. Ewart , S. B. Daughters , & C. W Lejuez . (2010). Application of the Social Action Theory to understand factors associated with risky Sexual behavior among individuals in residential substance abuse treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 311321.

V. Rickert , R. Sanghvi , & C Wiemann . (2002). Is lack of sexual assertiveness among adolescent and young adult women a cause for concern? Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 34, 178183.

S. T. Roberts , & B. L Kennedy . (2006). Why are young college women not using condoms? Their perceived risk, drug use, and developmental vulnerability may provide important clues to sexual risk. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 20, 3240.

M. M. Sánchez-Fuentes , P. Santos-Iglesias , & J. C Sierra . (2014). A systematic review of sexual satisfaction. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 14, 6775.

P. Santos-Iglesias , J. C. Sierra , & P Vallejo-Medina . (2013). Predictors of sexual assertiveness: The role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42, 10431052.

V. R. Schick , A. N. Zucker , & L. Y Bay-Cheng . (2008). Safer, better sex through feminism: The role of feminist ideology in women's sexual well-being. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 225232.

E. Shacham , & L. B Cottler . (2010). Sexual behaviors among club drug users: Prevalence and reliability. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 13311341.

S. G. Sherman , C. Sutcliffe , B. Srirojn , C. A. Latkin , A. Aramratanna , & D. D Celentano . (2009). Evaluation of a peer network intervention trial among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 6979.

K. Stenius , & R Room . (2004). Measuring “addiction” in Europe: The diffusion of the addiction severity index, and its purposes and functions. Journal of Substance Use, 9, 105119.

S. A. Stoner , J. Norris , W. H. George , D. M. Morrison , T. Zawacki , K. C. Davis , & D. M Hessler . (2008). Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: Effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 11671176.

P. Vallejo-Medina , A. Guillén-Riquelme , & J. C Sierra . (2010). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire-Short-Form (CSFQ-14) in a sample of males with drug abuse history. Sexuality and Disability, 28, 105118.

P. Vallejo-Medina , & J. C Sierra . (2013). Effect of drug use and influence on abstinence on sexual functioning in a Spanish male drug-dependent simple: A multisite study. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10, 333341.

L. S. Weinhardt , M. P. Carey , K. B. Carey , & R. N Verdecias . (1998). Increasing assertiveness skills to reduce HIV risk among women living with a severe and persistent mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 680684.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Spanish Journal of Psychology
  • ISSN: 1138-7416
  • EISSN: 1988-2904
  • URL: /core/journals/spanish-journal-of-psychology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 14 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 189 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.