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Assessment of Free Time Motivation on a Sample of 11 to 18 Year-Old Catalan-Speaking Spanish Adolescents

  • Sara Malo (a1), Ferran Viñas (a1), Mònica González-Carrasco (a1), Ferran Casas (a1) and Carles Alsinet (a2)...

Free time is considered to be a very important aspect of adolescents’ psychosocial development. One of the instruments that has been developed to explore motivation in relation to free time activities is Baldwin and Caldwell’s (2003) Free Time Motivation Scale for Adolescents (FTMS-A), based on Ryan and Deci (2000) Self-Determination Theory. The main aim of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the FTM S-A after its translation and adaptation to Catalan, administering it to a sample of 2,263 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 (M = 14.99; SD = 1.79) from Catalonia, Spain. To explore structural validity we follow two steps: Firstly, we analyze how the scale fits with the original model by conducting a CFA on the whole sample; secondly, we conduct an EFA on one half of the sample and a CFA on the other half in order to identify which structure best suits the sample. We also analyze convergent validity using three indicators of subjective well-being: The Personal Well-Being Index (PWI), the Satisfaction with Life scale (SWLS) and the Overall Life Satisfaction scale (OLS). The initial CFA produces a 5-factor model like the original, but with goodness of fit indices that do not reach the acceptable minimum. The EFA and the second CFA show a good fit for a 3-dimensional model (χ2(90) = 320.293; RMSEA = .048; NNFI = .92; CFI = .94) comprising introjected motivation, intrinsic motivation and amotivation. The correlations obtained between the FTMS-A and the three measures of subjective well-being scales show an association between free time motivations and this construct. Due to the model of scale used in the present study differs from the original, it is proposed that the new scale structure with 16 items be tested in the future in different cultural contexts.

Corresponding author
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sara Malo. Universitat de Girona. Departamet de Psicologia. Plaça Sant Domèneç, 9, 17004, Girona (Spain). Telephone: +34-972419792. Fax: +34-972418301. E-mail:
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This article is based on data collected in the research project with reference number SEJ2007-62813/PSIC, founded by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC) through the National Plan of Scientific Research, Development and Technological Innovation of Economy and Competitiveness. Particular thanks are due to Barney Griffiths for editing English

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The Spanish Journal of Psychology
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