Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Implicit Semantic Priming in Spanish-Speaking Children and Adults: An Auditory Lexical Decision Task

  • Dolors Girbau (a1) and Richard G. Schwartz (a2)

Abstract

Although receptive priming has long been used as a way to examine lexical access in adults, few studies have applied this method to children and rarely in an auditory modality. We compared auditory associative priming in children and adults. A testing battery and a Lexical Decision (LD) task was administered to 42 adults and 27 children (8;1–10;11 years-old) from Spain. They listened to Spanish word pairs (semantically related/unrelated word pairs and word-pseudoword pairs), and tone pairs. Then participants pressed one key for word pairs, and another for pairs with a word and a pseudoword. They also had to press the two keys alternatively for tone pairs as a basic auditory control. Both groups of participants, children and adults, exhibited semantic priming, with significantly faster Reaction Times (RTs) to semantically related word pairs than to unrelated pairs and to the two word-pseudoword sets. The priming effect was twice as large in the adults compared to children, and the children (not the adults) were significantly slower in their response to word-pseudoword pairs than to the unrelated word pairs. Moreover, accuracy was somewhat higher in adults than children for each word pair type, but especially in the word-pseudoword pairs. As expected, children were significantly slower than adults in the RTs for all stimulus types, and their RTs decreased significantly from 8 to 10 years of age and they also decreased in relation to some of their language abilities development (e.g., relative clauses comprehension). In both age groups, the Reaction Time average for tone pairs was lower than for speech pairs, but only all adults obtained 100% accuracy (which was slightly lower in children). Auditory processing and semantic networks are still developing in 8-10 year old children.

Si bien el “priming” receptivo ha sido ampliamente utilizado como una vía de análisis del acceso léxico en adultos, pocos estudios han aplicado dicho método a la infancia y raramente en la modalidad auditiva. La presente investigación comparó el “priming” asociativo auditivo en población infantil y adulta. Se administró una batería de tests y una tarea de Decisión Léxica a 42 adultos y 27 niños/as (8;1–10;11 años) de España. Dichos participantes escucharon pares de palabras en español (pares de palabras semánticamente relacionadas/no relacionadas y pares de palabra-pseudopalabra), y pares de tonos. A continuación, los participantes pulsaron una tecla para los pares de palabras, y otra para los pares de palabra–pseudopalabra. También tenían que pulsar las dos teclas alternativamente para pares de tonos, como un control auditivo básico. Ambos grupos de participantes, infantil y adulto, mostraron activación semántica, con Tiempos de Reacción (TR) significativamente más rápidos ante los pares de palabras semánticamente relacionadas que ante las palabras no relacionadas y ante las dos series de palabra-pseudopalabra. El efecto facilitador fue el doble en el grupo de adultos respecto al infantil, y dicho grupo infantil (no el adulto) fue significativamente más lento en su respuesta a los pares de palabra-pseudopalabra que a los pares de palabras no relacionadas. Además, la precisión fue algo más alta en el grupo adulto que en el infantil para cada tipo de pares de palabras, pero especialmente en los pares de palabra-pseudopalabra. Como se esperaba, el grupo infantil fue significativamente más lento que el adulto en los TRs para todos los tipos de estímulo, y sus TR disminuyeron significativamente desde los 8 a los 10 años de edad y asimismo disminuyeron en relación con el desarrollo de algunas de sus capacidades lingüísticas (p. ej., comprensión de oraciones relativas). En ambos grupos de edad (infantil y adulto), el tiempo de reacción promedio para los pares de tonos fue menor que para los pares de ítems verbales, pero sólo todos los adultos obtuvieron 100% de precisión (la cual fue ligeramente inferior en el grupo infantil). El procesamiento auditivo y las redes semánticas se están aun desarrollando en los/as niños/as de 8 a 10 años de edad.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dolors Girbau. Departamento de Psicología Básica. Universidad Jaume I. Campus Riu Sec. 12071 Castellón. (Spain). E-mail: girbau@psb.uji.es.

References

Hide All
Brown, L., Sherbenou, R. J., & Johnsen, S. K. (2000). TONI—2. Test de inteligencia no verbal: apreciación de la habilidad cognitiva sin influencia del lenguaje [Test of Nonverbal Intelligence]. Madrid: TEA.
Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J. P., Curran, T. E., & Miller, M. B. (1994). Do children and the elderly show heightened semantic priming? How to answer the question. Developmental Review, 14, 159185. doi:10.1006/drev.1994.1007
Cuetos, F., Rodríguez, B., Ruano, E., & Arribas, D. (2007). PROLEC-R. Evaluación de los procesos lectores revisada [Revised assessment of reading processes]. Madrid: TEA.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (2006). PPVT-III, Peabody Test de Vocabulario en Imágenes [Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, PPVT-III]. Madrid: TEA.
Friedmann, N., & Novogrodsky, R. (2002). BAMBI: Battery for assessment of syntactic abilities in children. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.
Friston, K. J., Zarahn, E., Josephs, O., Henson, R. N. A., & Dale, A. M. (1999). Stochastic designs in event-related fMRI. NeuroImage, 10, 607619. doi:10.1006/nimg.1999.0498
Girbau, D., & Schwartz, R. G. (2007a). Non-word repetition in Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 42(1), 5975. doi:10.1080/13682820600783210
Girbau, D., & Schwartz, R. G. (2007b). Relative Clauses Comprehension in Spanish Children with and without Specific Language Impairment. In Proceedings of the 2007 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Annual Convention (p. 164). Boston, MA.
Girbau, D., & Schwartz, R. G. (2008). Phonological Working Memory in Spanish-English bilingual children with and without Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Communication Disorders, 41(2), 124145. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2007.07.001
Gomes, H., Ritter, W., Tartter, V. C., Herbert, G., Vaughan, H. G., & Rosen, J. J. (1997). Lexical processing of visually and auditorily presented nouns and verbs: evidence from reaction time and N400 priming data. Cognitive Brain Research, 6, 121134. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(97)00023-2
Holcomb, P. J., & Neville, H. J. (1990). Auditory and visual semantic priming in lexical decision: A comparison using event-related brain potentials. Language and Cognitive Processes, 5(4), 281312. doi:10.1080/01690969008407065
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, US.
Justicia, F. (1995). El desarrollo del vocabulario. Diccionario de frecuencias [Development of vocabulary. Dictionary of frequencies]. Granada: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Granada.
Kail, R. (1991). Processing time declines exponentially during childhood and adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 259266. doi:10.1037//0012-1649.27.2.259
Kirk, S. A., McCarthy, J. J., & Kirk, W. D. (2001). ITPA: Test Illinois de Aptitudes Psicolingüísticas [Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities]. Madrid: TEA.
Laver, G. D., & Burke, D. M. (1993). Why do semantic priming effects increased in old age? A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 8(1), 3443. doi:10.1037//0882-7974.8.1.34
Martínez, J. A., & García, E. (2004). Diccionario de frecuencias del castellano escrito de 6 a 12 años [Dictionary of frequencies of written Castilian from 6 to 12 years of age]. Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca.
McGhee, R. L., Ehrler, D. J., & DiSimoni, F. (2007). Test de Token para niños. TTFC-2. [The Token Test for Children]. Madrid: Psymtec.
Mendoza, E., Carballo, G., Muñoz, J., & Fresneda, D. (2005). CEG, Test de comprensión de estructuras gramaticales. Madrid: TEA.
Nakamura, E., Ohta, K., Okita, Y., Ozaki, J., & Matsushima, E. (2006). Increased inhibition and decreased facilitation effect during a lexical decision task in children. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60, 232239. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2006.01491.x
Nelson, D. L., McEvoy, C. L., & Schreiber, T. A. (2004). The University of South Florida word association, rhyme, and word fragment norms. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(3), 402407. doi:10.3758/BF03195588
Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97113. doi:10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4
Plaut, D. C., & Booth, J. R. (2000). Individual and developmental differences in semantic priming: Empirical and computational support for a single-mechanism account of lexical processing. Psychological Review, 107, 786823. doi:10.1037//0033-295X.107.4.786
Psychological Software Tools. (2002). E-Prime (Version 1.1). [Computer software]. Pittsburgh, PA: Author.
Radeau, M. (1983). Semantic priming between spoken words in adults and children. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 37(4), 547556. doi:10.1037/h0080756
Rissman, J., Eliassen, J. C., & Blumstein, S. E. (2003). An eventrelated fMRI investigation of implicit semantic priming. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(8), 11601175. doi:10.1162/089892903322598120
Rodriguez-Fornells, A., Rotte, M., Heinze, H. J., Nosselt, T., & Munte, T. F. (2002). Brain potential and functional MRI evidence for how to handle two languages with one brain. Nature, 415, 10261029. doi:10.1038/4151026a
Sánchez-Casas, R., Ferré, P., García-Albea, J., & Guasch, M. (2006). The nature of semantic priming: Effects of the degree of semantic similarity between primes and targets in Spanish. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 18(2), 161184.
Simpson, G. B., & Foster, M. R. (1986). Lexical ambiguity and children's word recognition. Developmental Psychology, 22(2), 147154. doi:10.1037//0012-1649.22.2.147
Simpson, G. B., & Lorsbach, T. C. (1983). The Development of automatic and conscious components of contextual facilitation. Child Development, 54(3), 760772. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1983.tb00501.x
Syntrillium Software Corporation (2002). Cool Edit Pro [Computer software: digital audio editor, recorder, and mixer]. Phoenix, AZ: Syntrillium Software Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2007). WISC-IV, Escala de Inteligencia de Wechsler para Niños-IV [Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children]. Madrid: TEA.
Wehner, D. T., Ahlfors, S. P., & Mody, M. (2007). The influence of semantic processing on phonological decisions in children and adults: a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(3), 716731. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2007/050)
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Spanish Journal of Psychology
  • ISSN: 1138-7416
  • EISSN: 1988-2904
  • URL: /core/journals/spanish-journal-of-psychology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed