Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Psychological Inflexibility Mediates the Effects of Self-Efficacy and Anxiety Sensitivity on Worry

  • Francisco J. Ruiz (a1)
Abstract

Recent research has found low levels of general self-efficacy (GSE: beliefs about the ability to appropriately handle a wide range of stressors) and high levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS: fear of the negative consequences of experiencing anxiety) to be relevant predictors of pathological worry. This study examined the role of psychological inflexibility (PI: the dominance of private experiences over chosen values and contingencies in guiding action), the central component of the acceptance and commitment therapy model of psychopathology, in the effect of GSE and AS on worry. A total of 132 nonclinical participants completed questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Partial correlations and regression analyses showed that both GSE and AS were independent predictors of pathological worry after controlling for each other. However, mediation analyses revealed that psychological inflexibility completely mediated the independent effects of both GSE and AS on pathological worry. Theoretical and treatment implications of the results are discussed.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Francisco J. Ruiz. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas. Ciudad Escolar s/n. 4. Universidad de Zaragoza. 44003 Teruel (Spain). E-mail: franruiz@unizar.es
References
Hide All
Baessler, J., & Schwarzer, R. (1996). Evaluación de la autoeficacia: Adaptación española de la Escala de Autoeficacia General [Self-efficacy evaluation: Spanish adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale]. Ansiedad y Estrés, 2, 18.
Berenbaum, H. (2010). An initiation-termination two-phase model of worrying. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 962975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.06.011
Berenbaum, H., Thompson, R. J., & Bredemeier, K. (2007). Perceived threat: Exploring its association with worry and its hypothesized antecedents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 24732482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2007.03.015
Blais, M. A., Otto, M. W., Zucker, B. G., McNally, R. M., Schmidt, N. B., Fava, M., & Pollack, M. H. (2001). The anxiety sensitivity index: Item analysis and suggestions for refinement. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77, 272294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA7702_10
Bond, F. W., Hayes, S. C., Baer, R. A., Carpenter, K. M., Guenole, N., Orcutt, H. K., … Zettle, R. D. (2011). Preliminary psychometric properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II: A revised measure of psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance. Behavior Therapy, 42, 676688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2011.03.007
Borkovec, T. D. (1994). The nature, functions and origins of worry. In Davey, G. & Tallis, F. (Eds.), Worrying: Perspectives on theory, assessment and treatment (pp. 533). Sussex, UK: Wiley & Son.
Floyd, M., Garfield, A., & LaSota, M. T. (2005). Anxiety sensitivity and worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 12231229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.08.005
Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. An experiential approach to behavior change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & Strosahl, K. D. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 11521168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.6.1152
Kenny, D. A. (2013, October 21). Mediation. Unpublished instrument. Retrieved from http://davidakenny.net/cm/mediate.htm
Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(90)90135-6
Peterson, R. A., & Reiss, R. J. (1992). Anxiety sensitivity index manual (2 nd Ed.). Worthington, OH: International Diagnostic Systems.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717731. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03206553
Preacher, K. J., & Kelley, K. (2011). Effect size measures for mediation models: Quantitative strategies for communicating indirect effects. Psychological Methods, 16, 93115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022658
Rector, N. A., Szacun-Shimizu, K., & Leybman, M. (2007). Anxiety sensitivity within the anxiety disorders: Disorder-specific sensitivities and depression comorbidity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 19671975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.09.017
Reiss, S., & McNally, R. J. (1985). The expectancy model of fear. In Reiss, S. & Bootzin, R. R. (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy (pp. 107121). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 5468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clipsy/9.1.54
Roemer, L., Salters, K., Raffa, S. D., & Orsillo, S. M. (2005). Fear and avoidance of internal experiences in GAD: Preliminary tests of a conceptual model. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 7188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-1650-2
Ruiz, F. J. (2010). A review of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) empirical evidence: Correlational, experimental psychopathology, component and outcome studies. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10, 125162.
Ruiz, F. J. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy versus traditional cognitive behavioral therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 12.
Ruiz, F. J., Langer, A. I., Luciano, C., Cangas, A. J., & Beltrán, I. (2013). Measuring experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility: The Spanish translation of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire. Psicothema, 25, 123129.
Sandín, B., Chorot, P., & McNally, R. J. (2001). Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Normative data and its differentiation from trait anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 213219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00009-7
Sandín, B., Chorot, P., Valiente, R. M., & Lostao, L. (2009). Validación española del cuestionario de preocupación PSWQ: Estructura factorial y propiedades psicométricas [Spanish validation of the PSWQ worry questionnaire: Factor structure and psychometric properties]. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 14, 107122.
Santanello, A. W., & Gardner, F. L. (2007). The role of experiential avoidance in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and worry. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31, 319332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9000-6
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. In Weinman, J., Wright, S., & Johnston, M. (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio (pp. 3537). Windsor, UK: Nefer-Nelson.
Taylor, S., & Cox, B. J. (1998). An expanded anxiety sensitivity index: Evidence for a hierarchic structure in a clinical sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12, 463483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(98)00028-0
Waters, A. M., & Craske, M. G. (2005). Generalized anxiety disorder. In Antony, M. M., Ledley, D. R., & Heimberg, R. G. (Eds.), Improving outcomes and preventing relapse in cognitive behavioral therapy (pp. 77127). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Spanish Journal of Psychology
  • ISSN: 1138-7416
  • EISSN: 1988-2904
  • URL: /core/journals/spanish-journal-of-psychology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score