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Why Negative Campaigning Is Rational: The Rhetoric of the Ratification Campaign of 1787–1788*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 December 2008

William H. Riker
Affiliation:
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

Extract

Electoral campaigns are a distinguishing feature, worldwide, of modern representative democracies. For most citizens in most polities, campaigns provide a compelling incentive to think about government. So campaigns thus are a, perhaps the, main point of contact between officials and the populace over matters of public policy. If, as democratic theorists postulate, rulers are responsible to the ruled, the nexus of responsibility, the time and place that we impose it, is during campaigns and the elections in which they culminate.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1991

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29. Incidentally over half of the weight of the Federalist is five subjects: standing army, 77,246; national defense, 76,069; advantages of federation, 121,764; advantages of union, 130,121; and separation of powers, 39,181; or 494,381 weighted words, about 55% of the Federalist in my sample.

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52. Note that, when voting, the voter is expected to get(bc) with a chance of 1/n and ( −c) with a chance of (n − l)/n. Summing these terms gives E(v) = (bc)/n + (n − 1)(−c)/n = (bcn)/n.

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