Published online by Cambridge University Press: 16 December 2008
Electoral campaigns are a distinguishing feature, worldwide, of modern representative democracies. For most citizens in most polities, campaigns provide a compelling incentive to think about government. So campaigns thus are a, perhaps the, main point of contact between officials and the populace over matters of public policy. If, as democratic theorists postulate, rulers are responsible to the ruled, the nexus of responsibility, the time and place that we impose it, is during campaigns and the elections in which they culminate.
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51. When the number of other voters (n − 1) is even, there are n possible divisions of those (n − 1) voters—(n − 1) to zero, (n − 2) to one, …, zero to (n − 1)—of which exactly one is a tie that the nth voter can break in his or her favor. When the (n − 1) other voters is an odd number, there are n possible divisions of which exactly one permits the nth voter to change his or her loss into a tie. So, assuming even and odd are equally likely, the voter has 1/n chance of being decisive, either to win or to tie.
52. Note that, when voting, the voter is expected to get(b − c) with a chance of 1/n and ( −c) with a chance of (n − l)/n. Summing these terms gives E(v) = (b − c)/n + (n − 1)(−c)/n = (b − cn)/n.
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