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Hypernovae and their nucleosynthesis

  • Ken'ichi Nomoto (a1), Keiichi Maeda (a1), Hideyuki Umeda (a1), Takuya Ohkubo (a1), Jingsong Deng (a1) and Paolo Mazzali (a2)...
Abstract

We review the characteristics of nucleosynthesis in ‘hypernovae’, i.e., core-collapse supernovae with very large explosion energies (≳ 1052 ergs). The hypernova yields show the following characteristics: (i) the mass ratio between the complete and incomplete Si burning regions is larger in hypernovae than normal supernovae. As a result, higher energy explosions tend to produce larger [(Zn, Co, V)/Fe] and smaller [(Mn, Cr)/Fe], which could explain the trend observed in very metal-poor stars; (ii) because of enhanced α-rich freeze-out, 44Ca, 48Ti, and 64Zn are produced more abundantly than in normal supernovae. The large [(Ti, Zn)/Fe] ratios observed in very metal poor stars strongly suggest a significant contribution of hypernovae; and (iii) oxygen burning takes place in more extended regions in hypernovae to synthesize a larger amount of Si, S, Ar, and Ca (‘Si’), which makes the ‘Si’/O ratio larger. The abundance pattern of the starburst galaxy M 82 may be attributed to hypernova explosions. We thus suggest that hypernovae make important contribution to the early Galactic (and cosmic) chemical evolution.

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Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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