Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-h2mp8 Total loading time: 0.348 Render date: 2021-08-01T22:54:16.676Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

The Biochemistry of Affective Disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 January 2018

Alec Coppen
Affiliation:
Medical Research Council Neuropsychiatric Research Unit, Carshalton and Greenbank, West Park Hospital, Epsom, Surrey

Extract

The title of this review would be regarded by some psychiatrists as provocative; they would relegate the biochemical concomitants of depression and mania to a secondary position and deny that biochemical changes have any place in the aetiology of these conditions. However, in my view, the weight of evidence, although it is by no means conclusive, suggests that biochemical changes are most important in the aetiology of affective disorders. A biochemical aetiology implies that there are certain biochemical changes in the brain which need to be restored to normal before the patient's clinical condition will improve. This does not deny that psychological and environmental events may precipitate and maintain the biochemical events which in turn lead to the affective disorder. The study of these biochemical events is clearly at too early a stage for speculations about the interrelationship between environmental and endogenous elements to be fruitful; this study must wait until the biochemical aetiology is clearer than at present.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1967 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. Abood, L. G., Kimizuka, H., Rogeness, G., and Biel, J. M. (1963). “Anti-depressants and their mechanism of action on membranes.” Ann. NY. Acad. Sci., 107, 1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2. Achor, R. W. P., Hanson, N. O., and Gifford, R. W. (1955). “Hypertension treated with Rauwolfia Serpentina (whole root) and with reserpine.” J. Amer. med. Ass, 159, 841.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Allers, R. (1914). “Ergebnisse stoffwechselpathologischer Untersuchungen bei Psychosen: III. das manisch-depressive Irresein.” Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat., 9, 585.Google Scholar
4. Altschule, M. D., and Tillotson, K. J. (1949). “Effect of electroconvulsive therapy on water metabolism in psychotic patients.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 105, 829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5. Anderson, W. McC., and Dawson, J. (1962). “The clinical manifestations of depressive illness with abnormal acetyl methyl carbinol metabolism.” J. ment. Sci., 108, 80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Anderson, W. McC., and Dawson, J. (1963). “Verbally retarded depression and sodium metabolism.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 109, 225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7. Anderson, W. McC., and Dawson, J. (1965). “The variability of plasma 17-OHCS levels in affective illness and schizophrenia.” J. psychosom. Res., 9, 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. Ashcroft, G. W., Eccleston, D., Knight, F., McDougall, E. J., and Waddell, J. L. (1965). “Changes in amine metabolism produced by anti-depressive drugs.” J. psychosom. Res., 9, 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Ashcroft, G. W., and Sharman, D. F. (1960). “5-hydroxyindoles in human cerebrospinal fluids.” Nature (Lond., 186, 1050.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Asher, R. (1949). “Myxoedematous madness.” Brit. med. J., ii, 555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Axelrod, J., and Inscoe, J. K. (1963). “The uptake and binding of circulating serotonin and the effect of drugs.” J. Pharmacol. exp. Therap., 141, 161.Google ScholarPubMed
12. Baastrup, P. C., and Schou, M. (1967). “Lithium as a prophylactic agent against recurrent depressions and manic-depressive psychosis.” To be published.Google Scholar
13. Beckett, A. H., Rowland, M., and Turner, P. 1965). “Influence of urinary pH on excretion of amphetamine.” Lancet, i, 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14. Bellak, L. (1952). Manic-Depressive Psychosis and Allied Conditions. New York.Google Scholar
15. Bergsman, A. (1959). “The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline in some mental diseases.” Acta psychiat. neurol. Scand., 33, suppl. 133.Google Scholar
16. Blackwell, B. (1963). “Hypertensive crises due to monoamine-oxidase inhibitors.” Lancet, ii, 849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17. Bleuler, M. (1954). Endokrinologische Psychiatric. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
18. Bliss, E. L., Migeon, C. J., Branch, C. H. H., and Samuels, L. T. (1956). “Reaction of the adrenal cortex to emotional stress.” Psychosom. Med., 18, 56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19. Board, F., Wadeson, R., and Persky, H. (1957). “Depressive affect and endocrine function.” Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.), 78, 612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20. Bowman, K. M., Miller, E. R., Dailey, M. E., Simon, A., and Mayer, B. F. (1950). “Thyroid function in mental disease.” J. nerv. ment. Dis., 112, 404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21. Brambilla, F., and Nuremberg, T. (1963). “Adrenal cortex function of cyclothymic patients in depressive phase.” Dis. nerv. Syst., 24, 727.Google Scholar
22. Brodie, B. B., Corner, M. S., Costa, E., and Dlabac, A. (1966). “The role of brain serotonin in the mechanism of the central action of reserpine.” J. Pharmacol. exper. Therap., 152, 340.Google Scholar
23. Brodie, B. B., and Costa, E. (1962). “Some current views on brain monoamines.” Psychopharmacology Service Centre Bulletin, 1, 1.Google Scholar
24. Brodie, B. B., and Shore, P. A. (1957). “A concept for a role of serotonin and norepinephrine as chemical mediators in the brain.” Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 66, 631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25. Brody, E. B., and Man, E. B. (1950). “Thyroid function measured by serum precipitable iodine determinations in schizophrenic patients.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 107, 356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26. Brooksbank, B. W. L., and Coppen, A. (1967). “Plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in affective disorders.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 113, 395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27. Brooksbank, B. W. L., and Pryse-Philips, W. (1964). “Urinary Δ16 androsten-3α-ol, 17-oxosteroids and mental illness.” Brit. med. J., i, 1602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28. Browning, T. B., Atkins, R. W., and Weiner, H. (1954). “Cerebral metabolic disturbances in hypothyroidism.” Arch. int. Med., 93, 938.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29. Bruce, J., and Russell, G. F. M. (1962). “Weight changes and balance of water, sodium and potassium in women with premenstrual tension symptoms.” Lancet, ii, 267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30. Bunney, W. E., and Davis, J. M. (1965). “Norepinephrine in depressive reaction.” Arch. gen. Psychiat. (Chic.), 13, 483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31. Bunney, W. E., Mason, J. W., and Hamburg, D. (1965). “Correlations between behavioural variables and urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in depressed patients.” Psychosom. Med., 27, 299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32. Bursten, B. (1961). “Psychosis associated with thyrotoxicosis.” Arch. gen. Psychiat. (Chic.), 4, 267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33. Büssow, H. (1950). “Uber die Wirkung des Wasser-toncphin-vcrsuches auf manisch-depressive Zustandsbilder.” Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 184, 357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34. Cade, J. F. L. (1964). “A significant elevation of plasma magnesium levels in schizophrenia and depressive states.” Med. J. Australia, 1, 195.Google ScholarPubMed
35. Campbell, H. J., and Eayrs, J. T. (1965). “Influence of hormones on the central nervous system.” Brit. med. Bull., 21, 81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36. Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M., Magnusson, T. (1957). 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists.” Nature, 180, 1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37. Carney, M. W. P., Roth, M., and Garside, R. F. (1965). “The diagnosis of depressive syndromes and the prediction of E.C.T. response.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 111, 659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38. Christensen, H. N. (1960). “Reactive sites and biological transport.” Advanc. Protein Chem., 15, 239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
39. Christensen, H. N., Inui, Y., Wheeler, K. P., and Eavenson, E. (1966). “Amino acid transport and the sodium ion.” Fed. Proc., 25, 592.Google Scholar
40. Cleghorn, R. A. (1952). CibaColloq. Endocrin., 3, 141.Google Scholar
41. Conn, J. W. (1965). “Hypertension, the potassium ion and impaired carbohydrate tolerance.” New Eng. J. Med., 273, 1135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42. Cope, C. L. (1965). Adrenal Steroids and Disease. London.Google Scholar
43. Coppen, A. (1960). “Abnormality of the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier of patients suffering from a depressive illness.” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 23, 156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44. Coppen, A. (1965a). “Mineral metabolism in affective disorders.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 111, 1133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
45. Coppen, A. (1965b). “The prevalence of menstrual disorders in psychiatric patients.” Ibid., 111, 155.Google ScholarPubMed
46. Coppen, A., Fry, D., Julian, T., and Marks, V. (1967). “Body build and urinary steroid excretion in mental illness.” Ibid., 113, 269276.Google ScholarPubMed
47. Coppen, A., and Kessel, N. (1963). “Menstruation and personality.” Ibid., 109, 711.Google Scholar
48. Coppen, A., Malleson, A., and Shaw, D. M. (1965). “Effect of lithium carbonate on electrolyte distribution in man.” Lancet, i, 682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49. Coppen, A., and Mezey, A. G. (1960a). “The effects of sodium amytal on the respiratory abnormalities of anxious patients.” J. psychosom. Res., 5, 52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
50. Coppen, A., and Mezey, A. G. (1960b). “Metabolic effect of venepuncture in man.” Ibid., 5, 56.Google ScholarPubMed
51. Coppen, A., and Shaw, D. M. (1963). “Mineral metabolism in melancholia.” Brit. med. J., ii, 1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
52. Coppen, A., and Shaw, D. M. (1967a). “Factors affecting the distribution of electrolytes in man.” To be published.Google Scholar
53. Coppen, A., and Shaw, D. M. (1967b). “Further observations on 5-hydroxytryptophan metabolism in patients suffering from depression.” To be published.Google Scholar
54. Coppen, A., Shaw, D. M., and Farrell, J. P. (1963). “Potentiation of the antidepressive effect of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor by tryptophan.” Lancet, i, 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
55. Coppen, A., and Malleson, A. (1965). “Changes in 5-hydroxytryptophan metabolism in depression.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 111, 105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
56. Coppen, A., and Costain, R. (1966). “Mineral metabolism in mania.” Brit. med. J., i, 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
57. Coppen, A., Eccleston, E., and Gundy, G. (1965). “Tryptamine metabolism in depression.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 111, 993.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
58. Coppen, A., and Mangoni, A. (1962). “Total exchangeable sodium in depressive illness.” Brit. med. J., ii, 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
59. Crammer, J. L. (1959). “Water and sodium in two psychotics.” Lancet, i, 1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
60. Crossland, J. (1963). “The role of the monoamines in excitation and depression of the central nervous system.” In: The Clinical Chemistry of Monoamines (ed. Varley, H. and Gowenlock, A. H.). Amsterdam.Google Scholar
61. Curtis, G. C., Cleghorn, R. A., and Sourkes, T. L. (1960). “The relationship between affect and the excretion of adrenaline, norepinephrine and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids.” J. psychosom. Res., 4, 176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62. Davis, V. E. (1963). “Effect of Cortisol and thyroxine on aromatic amino acid decarboxylation.” Endocrinology, 72, 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
63. Dawson, J., Hullin, R. P., and Crocket, B. M. (1956). “Metabolic variations in manic depressive psychosis.” J. ment. Sci., 102, 168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
64. Degkwitz, R., Frowein, R., Kulenkampff, C., and Mohs, V. (1960). “The influence of reserpine, chlorpromazine, iproniazid and vitamin B6 on the effects of L-Dopa in men.” Klin. Wchnschr., 38, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
65. Dewhurst, W. G. (1965). “On the chemical basis of mood.” J. psychosom. Res., 9, 115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
66. Doe, R. P., Vennes, J. A., and Ulstrom, R. A. (1960). “Diurnal variation of 17-OHCS, sodium, potassium, magnesium and creatinine in normal subjects and in cases of treated adrenal insufficiency and Cushing's syndrome.” J. clin. Endocrin. Metab., 20, 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
67. Doe, R. P., Zinneman, H. H., Flink, E. B., and Ulstrom, R. A. (1960). “Significance of the concentration of non-protein-bound plasma Cortisol in normal subjects, Cushing's syndrome, pregnancy and during oestrogen therapy.” J. clin. Endocrin., 20, 1484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
68. Dongier, M., Wittkower, E. D., Stephens-Newsham, L., and Hoffman, M. M. (1956). “Psychophysiological studies in thyroid function.” Psychosom. Med., 18, 310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
69. Driver, M. V., and Eilenberg, M. D. (1960). Photoconvulsive threshold in depressive illness and the effect of E.C.T.” J. ment. Sci., 106, 611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
70. Dunlap, H. F., and Moersch, F. B. (1935). “Psychic manifestations associated with hyperthyroidism.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 91, 1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
71. Eichhorn, O. (1954). “Zur Frage der Elektrolyt-funktionen bei Geisteskrankheiten.” Nervenarzt., 25, 207.Google Scholar
72. Ekman, H., Håkansson, B., McCarthy, J. D., Lehmann, J., and Sjögren, B. (1961). “Plasma 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in Cushing's syndrome.” J. clin. Endocrin. Metab., 21, 684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
73. Elmadijan, F. (1962). “Aldosterone excretion in behavioural disorders.” Res. Publ. Ass. Res. nerv. ment. Dis., 40, 414.Google Scholar
74. Feldstein, A., Hoagland, H., Wong, K. K., Oktem, M. R., and Freeman, H. (1965). “MAO activity in relation to depression.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 120, 1192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
75. Ferguson, H. C., Bartram, A. C. G., Fowlie, H. C., Cathro, D. M., Birchall, K., and Mitchell, F. L. (1964). “A preliminary investigation of steroid excretion in depressed patients before and after electroconvulsive therapy.” Acta endocrin. Kbh., 47, 58.Google Scholar
76. Fishman, J., Hamburg, D., Handlon, J., Mason, J. W., and Sachar, E. (1962). “Emotional and adrenal cortical responses to a new experience.” Arch. gen. Psychiat. (Chic.), 6, 271.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
77. Flach, F. F. (1964). “Calcium metabolism in states of depression.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 110, 588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
78. Flach, F. F. (1966). “Psychopharmacologic and metabolic studies on states of depression.” Excerpta Medica. International Congress Series No. 117. IV World Congress of Psychiatry. p. 184.Google Scholar
79. Fleminger, J. J. (1955). “Differential effect of ACTH and cortisone on mood.” J. ment. Sci., 101, 123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
80. Fotherby, K., Ashcroft, G. W., Affleck, J. W., and Forrest, A. D. (1962). “Studies on sodium transfer and 5-hydroxyindoles in depressive illness.” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 26, 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
81. Furger, R. (1961). “Psychiatric investigation in Cushing's syndrome.” Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 88, 9.Google Scholar
82. Gershon, S., Holmberg, G., Mattsson, E., Mattsson, N., and Marshall, A. (1962). “Imipramine hydrochloride.” Arch. gen. Psychiat. (Chic.), 6, 96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
83. Gibbons, J. L. (1960). “Total body sodium and potassium in depressive illness.” Clin Sci., 19, 133.Google ScholarPubMed
84. Gibbons, J. L. (1963). “Electrolytes and depressive illness.” Postgrad. Med. J., 39, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
85. Gibbons, J. L. (1964). “Cortisol secretion rate in depressive illness.” Arch. gen. Psychiat. (Chic), 10, 572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
86. Gibbons, J. L. (1965). “Endocrine changes in depressive illness.” Proc. roy Soc. Med., 58, 519.Google Scholar
87. Gibbons, J. L., Gibson, J., Maxwell, H., and Willcox, D. (1960). “An endocrine study of depressive illness.” J. psychosom. Res., 5, 32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
88. Gibbons, J. L. and McHugh, P. (1962). “Plasma Cortisol in depressive illness.” J. psychiat. Res., 1, 162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
89. Gjessing, , (1932). “Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Pathophysiologic des katatonen Stupors.” Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 96, 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
90. Glaser, G. H. (1953). “Psychotic reactions induced by corticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisone.” Psychosom. Med., 15, 280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
91. Gour, K. N., and Chaudrey, H. M. (1957). “Study of calcium metabolism in electroconvulsive therapy in certain mental diseases.” J. ment. Sci., 103, 275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
92. Greene, R., and Dalton, K. (1953). “The premenstrual syndrome.” Brit. med. J., i, 1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
93. Hartigan, G. P. (1963). “The use of lithium salts in affective disorder.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 109, 810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
94. Henneman, D. H., Altschule, M. D., and Goncz, R. M. (1954). “Carbohydrate metabolism in brain disease. II. Glucose metabolism in schizophrenic, manic-depressive and involutional psychoses.” Arch. int. Med., 94, 402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
95. Hertting, G., Axelrod, J., and Whitby, L. G. (1961). “Effect of drugs on the uptake and metabolism of H3-norepinephrine.” J. Pharmacol. and exper. Therap., 134, 146.Google Scholar
96. Herzberg, B., Coppen, A., and Marks, V. (1968). “Glucose tolerance in depression.” Brit. J. Psychiat. (in press).Google Scholar
97. Hess, S. M., and Doepfner, W. (1961). “Behavioural effects and brain amine content in rats.” Arch. intern. Pharmacodyn., 134, 89.Google ScholarPubMed
98. Hetzel, B. S., de la Haba, D. S., and Hinkle, L. E. (1952). “Life stress and thyroid function in human subjects.” J. clin. Endocrin. Metab., 12, 941.Google Scholar
99. Himwich, H. E., and Himwich, W. A. (1964). Progress in Brain Research. Vol. VIII. Biogenic Amines. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
100. Hodges, J. R., Jones, M., Elithorn, A., and Bridges, P. (1964). “Effect of electroconvulsive therapy on plasma Cortisol levels.” Nature, 204, 754.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
101. Holmberg, G. (1963). “Biological aspects of electroconvulsive therapy.” Internat. Rev. Neurobiol., 5, 389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
102. Howarth, E. (1961). “Possible synergistic effects of the new thymoleptics in connection with poisoning.” J. ment. Sci., 107, 100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
103. Hurxthal, L. M., and O'Sulltvan, J. B. (1959). Ann. intern. Med., 51, 1.Google Scholar
104. Hutter, O. F., and Kostial, K. (1954). “The effect of magnesium and calcium ions on the release of acetylcholine.” J. Physiol., 124, 234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
105. Iacobellis, M., Muntwyler, E., and Dodgen, C. L. (1956). “Free amino acid patterns of certain tissues from potassium and/or protein-deficient rats.” Amer. J. Physiol., 185, 275.Google ScholarPubMed
106. Jakobson, T., Stenbäck, A., Strandström, L., and Rimón, R. (1966). “The excretion of urinary 11-deoxy and 11-oxy-17-hydroxycorticosteroids in depressive patients during basal conditions and during the administration of methopyrapone.” J. psychosom. Res., 9, 363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
107. Jensen, K. (1959). “Depression in patients treated with reserpine for arterial hypertension.” Acta psychiat. neurol. Scand., 34, 195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
108. Karstens, P. (1951). “Über die Beeinflussung des psychischen Zustandes normaler durch Aufnahme und Retention unphysiologisch grosser Wassermengen.” Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 186, 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
109. Kernan, R. P. (1965). Cell K. London.Google Scholar
110. Kessel, N., and Coppen, A. (1963). “The prevalence of common menstrual symptoms.” Lancet, ii, 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
111. Kety, S. S. (1963). “Aminoacids, amines and behaviour.” Ass. Res. Nerv. and Ment. Dis. Proc., 40, 311.Google Scholar
112. Kety, S. S. (1966). “Catecholamines in neuropsychiatric states.” Pharmacol. Rev., 18, 787.Google ScholarPubMed
113. Keynes, R. D., and Swan, R. C. (1959). “The permeability of frog muscle fibres to lithium ions.” J. Physiol., 147, 626.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
114. Klein, R. (1950). “Clinical and biochemical investigations in a manic-depressive with short cycles.” J. ment. Sci., 96, 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
115. Klein, L., and Carey, J. (1957). “Total exchangeable sodium in the menstrual cycle.” Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec., 74, 956.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
116. Klein, R., and Nunn, R. F. (1945). “Clinical and biochemical analysis of a case of manic-depressive psychosis showing regular weekly cycles.” J. ment. Sci., 91, 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
117. Kleinschmidt, H. J., Waxenberg, S. E., and Cuker, R. (1956). “Psychophysiology and psychiatric management of thyrotoxicosis: a two year follow-up study.” J. Mt. Sinai Hosp., 23, 131.Google ScholarPubMed
118. Klerman, G. L., Schildkraut, J. J., Hasenbush, L. L., Greenblatt, M., and Friend, D. G. (1963). “Clinical experience with dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) in depression.” J. psychiat. Res., 1, 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
119. Kline, N. S., and Sacks, W. (1963). “Relief of depression within one day using an MAO inhibitor with 5-HTP.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 120, 274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
120. Kline, N. S., and Simpson, G. M. (1964). “Further studies on one day treatment of depression with 5-HTP.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 121, 379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
121. Kopin, I. J. (1964). “Storage and metabolism of catecholamines: the role of monoamine oxidase.” Pharmacol. Rev., 16, 179.Google ScholarPubMed
122. Kuhn, R. (1958). “The treatment of depressive states with G22355 (imipramine hydrochloride).” Amer. J. Psychiat., 115, 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
123. Kurland, H. D. (1964). “Steroid excretion in depressive disorders.” Arch. gen. Psychiat. (Chic.), 10, 554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
124. Lauer, J. W., Inskip, W. M., Bernsohn, J., and Zeller, E. A. (1958). “Observations in schizophrenic patients after iproniazid and tryptophan.” Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.), 80, 122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
125. Lemieux, G., Davionon, H., and Genest, J. (1956). “Depressive states during Rauwolfia therapy for arterial hypertension.” Canad. med. Assoc. J., 74, 522.Google ScholarPubMed
126. Lidz, T., and Whitehorn, J. (1949). “Psychiatric problems in a thyroid clinic.” J. Amer. med. Ass., 139, 698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
127. Lingjaerde, O. (1963). “Tetrabcnazine (Nitoman) in the treatment of psychosis.” Acta psychiat. Scand. Suppl., 170.Google Scholar
128. Lingjaerde, P., Skaug, D. E., and Lingjaerde, O. (1960). “The determination of thyroid function with radio-iodine (I131) in mental patients.” Acta psychiat. neurol. Scand., 35, 498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
129. Loomer, H. P., Saunders, J. C., and Kline, N. S. (1957). “A clinical and pharmacodynamic evaluation of iproniazid as a psychic energizer.” In: Research in Affect (ed. Cleghorn, R. A.) Psychiatric Research Reports No. 8 of the American Psychiatric Association, p. 129.Google Scholar
130. Lubin, M., and Ennis, H. L. (1964). “On the role of intracellular potassium in protein synthesis.” Biochem. biophys. Acta, 81, 614.Google Scholar
131. Maggs, R. (1963). “Treatment of manic illness with lithium carbonate.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 109, 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
132. Mandell, A. J., and Ruben, R. T. (1966). “ACTH-induced changes in tryptophan turnover along induceable pathways in man.” Life Sciences, 5, 1153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
133. Mason, J. W. (1959). “Psychological influences on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system.” Recent Prog. in Hormone Research, 15, 345.Google Scholar
134. Mason, J. W., Harwood, C. T., and Rosenthal, N. (1957). “Influence of some environmental factors on plasma and urinary 17-hydroxycortico-steroid levels in Rhesus monkeys.” Amer. J. Physiol., 190, 429.Google Scholar
135. Mayer-Gross, W., Slater, E., and Roth, M. (1960). Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. London.Google Scholar
136. Mendel, J. (1965). “Electroconvulsive therapy and depression.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 111, 675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
137. Mezey, A. G., and Coppen, A. (1960). “The influence of isoprenaline and prednisone on the respiratory adaptation of normal subjects.” J. psychosom. Res., 5, 60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
138. Mezey, A. G., and Coppen, A. (1961). “Respiratory adaptation to exercise in anxious patients.” Clin. Sci., 20, 171.Google ScholarPubMed
139. Michael, R. P. (1965). “Oestrogens in the central nervous system.” Brit. med. Bull., 21, 87.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
140. Michael, R. P. and Gibbons, J. L. (1963). “Interrelationships between the endocrine system and neuropsychiatry.” Internat. Rev. Neurobiol., 5, 243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
141. Morse, W. I., Clarke, A. F., MacLeod, S. C., Ernst, W. A., and Gosse, C. L. (1964). “Urine oestrogen responses to human chorionic gonadotrophin in young, old and hypogonadal men.” J. clin. Endocrin. Metab., 22, 678.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
142. Mosher, L. R., Klerman, G. L., and Greanly, J. F. (1966). “A clinical trial of alpha-methyl dopa in elated states.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 122, 1185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
143. Muller, J. C., Pryor, W. W., Gibbons, J. E., and Orgain, E. S. (1955). “Depression and anxiety occurring during Rauwolfia therapy.”’ J. Amer. med. Ass., 159, 836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
144. Oates, J. A., and Sjoerdsma, A. (1960). “Neurological effects of tryptophan in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitor.” Neurology, 10, 1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
145. Pace, N., and Rathbun, E. N. (1945). “Studies on body composition III. The body water and chemically combined nitrogen content in relation to fat content.” J. biol. Chem., 158, 685.Google Scholar
146. Pare, C. M. B. (1965). “Some clinical aspects of antidepressant drugs.” In: The Scientific Basis of Drug Therapy in Psychiatry (ed. Marks, J. and Pare, C. M. B.). Oxford.Google Scholar
147. Persky, H., Grosz, H. J., Norton, J. A., and McMurty, M. (1959). “Effect of hypnotically induced anxiety on the plasma Cortisol of normal subjects.” J. clin. Endocrin. Metab., 19, 700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
148. Pitts, F. N., and Guze, S. B. (1961). “Psychiatric disorders and myxoedema.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 118, 142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
149. Pletscher, A. (1965). “Pharmacology of monoamine oxidase inhibitors.” In: The Scientific Basis of Drug Therapy (ed. Marks, J. and Pare, C. M. B.). Oxford.Google Scholar
150. Pollin, W., Cardon, P. V., and Kety, S. S. (1961). “Effects of amino acid feedings in schizophrenic patients treated with iproniazid.” Science, 133, 104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
151. Pollitt, J. D. (1965). “Suggestions for a physiological classification of depression.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 111, 489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
152. Pryce, I. G. (1958). “Melancholia, glucose tolerance and body weight.” J. ment. Sci., 104, 421 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
153. Pryce, I. G. (1964). “The relationship between 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid excretion and glucose utilization in depressions.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 110, 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
154. Quarton, G. C., Clark, L. D., Cobb, S., and Bauer, W. (1955). “Mental disturbances associated with ACTH and cortisone: a review of explanatory hypotheses.” Medicine, 34, 13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
155. Rees, L. (1960). “Constitutional factors and abnormal behaviour.” In: Handbook of Abnormal Psychology (ed. Eysenck, H. J.). London.Google Scholar
156. Rey, J. H., and Coppen, A. (1959). “Distribution of androgyny in a psychiatric population.” Brit. med. J., ii, 1445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
157. Rodnight, R. (1961). “Body fluid indoles in mental illness.” Internat. Rev. Neurobiol., 3, 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
158. Rosenblatt, S., and Chanley, J. D. (1965). “Differences in the metabolism of norepinephrine in depression.” Arch. gen, Psychiat. (Chic.), 13, 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
159. Rosenblatt, S., Chanley, J. D., Sobotka, H., and Kaufman, M. R. (1960). “Interrelationships between electroshock and the blood-brain barrier and catecholamines.” J. Neurochem., 5, 172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
160. Russell, G. F. M. (1960). “Body weight and balance of water, sodium and potassium in depressed patients given electroconvulsive therapy.” Clin. Sci., 19, 327.Google Scholar
161. Schapiro, S., Yuwiler, A., and Geller, E. (1964). “Stress-activated inhibition of the Cortisol effect on hepatic transaminase.” Life Sciences, 3, 1221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
162. Scheckel, C. L., and Boff, E. (1964). “Behavioural effects of interacting imipramine and other drugs with d-amphetamine, cocaine and tetrabenazine.” Psychopharmacologia, 5, 198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
163. Schildkraut, J. J. (1965). “The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: a review of the supporting evidence.” Amer. J. Psychiat., 122, 509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
164. Schottstaedt, W. W., Grace, W. J., and Wolff, H. G. (1956). “Life situations, behaviour, attitudes, emotions and renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes. I to V.” J. psychosom. Res., 1, 75, 147, 203, 287, 292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
165. Schou, M. (1957). “Biology and pharmacology of the lithium ion.” Pharmacol. Rev., 9, 17.Google ScholarPubMed
166. Schou, M. (1963). “Normothymotics, ‘mood-normalizers’. Are lithium and the imipramine drugs specific for affective disorders?Brit. J. Psychiat., 109, 803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
167. Shagass, C., and Schwartz, M. (1962). In: Physiological Correlates of Psychological Disorder (ed. by Roessler, R. and Greenfield, N. S.). p. 45. Madison.Google Scholar
168. Shagass, C., and Schwartz, M. (1966). “Somatosensory cerebral evoked responses in psychotic depression.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 111, 799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
169. Shaw, D. M. (1966). “Hind-brain 5-hydroxytryptamine in people who have committed suicide.” Excerpta Medica. International Congress Series No. 117, p. 392.Google Scholar
170. Shaw, D. M. and Coppen, A. (1966). “Potassium and water distribution in depression.” Brit. J. Psychiat., 112, 269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
171. Sigg, E. B. (1959). “Pharmacological studies with Tofranil.” Canad. Psychiat. A. J. Suppl. 1, 4, 75.Google Scholar
172. Sjoerdsma, A., Engelman, K., Spector, S., and Udenfriend, S. (1965). “Inhibition of catecholamine synthesis in man with alpha-methyltyrosine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase.” Lancet, ii, 1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
173. Sloane, R. B., Saffron, M., and Cleghorn, R. A. (1958). “Autonomic and adrenal responsivity in psychiatric patients.” Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 79, 549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
174. Smith, B., and Prockop, D. J. (1962). “Central nervous system effects of ingestion of L-tryptophan by normal subjects.” New England J. Med., 267, 1338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
175. Sourkes, T. L. (1962). Biochemistry of Mental Disease. New York,Google Scholar
176. Sperry, W. M. (1954). “The biochemistry of depressions.” In: Depression (ed. Hoch, P. H. and Zubin, J.). New York.Google Scholar
177. Stenbäck, A., Jakobson, T., and Rimón, R. (1966). “Depression and anxiety ratings in relation to the excretion of urinary total 17-OHCS in depressive subjects.” J. psychosom. Res., 9, 355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
178. Stoll, W. A. (1953). Die Psychiatrie des Morbus Addison. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
179. Ström-Olsen, R., and Weil-Malherbe, H. (1958). “Humoral changes in manic-depressive psychosis with particular reference to the excretion of catecholamines in urine.” J. ment. Sci., 104, 696.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
180. Tedeschi, D. H., Tedeschi, R. E., and Fellows, E. J. (1959). “The effects of tryptamine on the central nervous system, including a pharmacological procedure for the evaluation of iproniazid-like drugs.” J. Pharmacol. and exp. Therap., 126, 223.Google ScholarPubMed
181. Trethowan, W. H., and Cobb, S. (1952). “Neuropsychiatric aspects of Cushing's syndrome.” Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 67, 283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
182. Veall, N., and Vetter, H. (1958). Radio-isotope Techniques in Clinical Research and Diagnosis. London.Google Scholar
183. Vidaver, G. A. (1964). “Some tests of the hypothesis that the sodium ion furnishes the energy for glycine active transport by pigeon red cells.” Biochemistry, 3, 803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
184. Wasserman, M. J., Belton, N. R., and Millichap, J. G. (1965). “Effect of corticotrophin (ACTH) on experimental seizures.” Neurology, 15, 1136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
185. Weissbach, H., King, W., Sjoerdsma, A., and Udenfriend, S. (1959). “Formation of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptamine in animals.” J. biol. Chem., 234, 81.Google ScholarPubMed
186. Woodbury, D. M. (1958). “Relation between adrenal cortex and the central nervous system.” Pharmacol. Rev., 10, 275.Google ScholarPubMed
187. Woodbury, D. M., Timiras, P. S., and Vernadakis, A. (1957). “Influence of adrenocortical steroids on brain function and metabolism.” In: Hormones, Brain Function and Behaviour (ed. by Hoagland, H.). New York.Google Scholar
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.
784
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Biochemistry of Affective Disorders
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The Biochemistry of Affective Disorders
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The Biochemistry of Affective Disorders
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *