Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-qgndx Total loading time: 0.258 Render date: 2021-09-26T13:39:49.777Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations: Pathological Phenomena?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2018

Maurice M. Ohayon*
Affiliation:
Centre de Recherche Philippe Pinel de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
Robert G. Priest
Affiliation:
University of London, Academic Department of Psychiatry, St Mary's Hospital, London
Malijaï Caulet
Affiliation:
Centre de Recherche Philippe Pinel de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada
Christian Guilleminault
Affiliation:
Stanford University School of Medicine, Sleep Disorders Center, Stanford, California, USA
*
Maurice M. Ohayon, Centre de Recherche Philippe Pinel de Montréal, 10905, boulevard Henri-Bourassa Est, Montréal (Québec) H1C 1H1, Canada

Abstract

Background

Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common in narcolepsy. However, the prevalence of these phenomena in the general population is uncertain.

Method

A representative community sample of 4972 people in the UK, aged 15–100, was interviewed by telephone (79.6% of those contacted). Interviews were performed by lay interviewers using a computerised system that guided the interviewer through the interview process.

Results

Thirty-seven per cent of the sample reported experiencing hypnagogic hallucinations and 12.5% reported hypnopompic hallucinations. Both types of hallucinations were significantly more common among subjects with symptoms of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness or mental disorders. According to this study, the prevalence of narcolepsy in the UK is 0.04%.

Conclusions

Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations were much more common than expected, with a prevalence that far exceeds that which can be explained by the association with narcolepsy. Hypnopompic hallucinations may be a better indicator of narcolepsy than hypnagogic hallucinations in subjects reporting excessive daytime sleepiness.

Type
Papers
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 The Royal College of Psychiatrists 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.Google ScholarPubMed
Aneshensel, C. S., Frerichs, R. R., Clark, V. A., et al (1982) Measuring depression in a community: a comparison of telephone and personal interviews. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46, 110121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baillarger, M. (1846) Des hallucinations psycho-sensorielles. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 7, 112.Google Scholar
Belsley, D. A., Kuh, E. & Welsch, R. E. (1980) Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blazer, D. G., Kessler, R. C., McGonaglem, K. A., et al (1994) The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 979986.Google Scholar
Broughton, R. (1982) Neurology and dreaming. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 7, 101110.Google Scholar
Diagnostic Classification Steering Committee (1990) International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual (ICSD). Rochester, Minnesota: American Sleep Disorders Association.Google Scholar
Fenig, S., Levav, I., Kohn, R., et al (1993) Telephone vs face-to-face interviewing in a community psychiatric survey. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 896898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goode, G. B. (1962) Sleep paralysis. Archives of Neurology, 6, 228234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Granek, M., Shalev, A. & Weingarten, A. M. (1988) Khat-induced hypnagogic hallucinations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78, 458461.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hishikawa, Y. (1976) Sleep paralysis. In Narcolepsy (eds Guilleminault, C., Dement, W. C. & Passouant, P.), pp. 97124. New York: Spectrum.Google ScholarPubMed
Hosmer, D. W. & Lemeshow, S. (1989) Applied Logistic Regression. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Hublin, C., Partinen, M., Kaprio, J., et al (1994) Epidemiology of narcolepsy. Sleep, 17, S7S12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kish, L. (1965) Survey Sampling. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Maury, L. F. A. (1848) Des hallucinations hypnagogiques. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 11, 2640.Google Scholar
Moreau de Tours, J. (1845) Du hachish et de l'aliénation mentale. Paris: Fortin et Masson.Google Scholar
Myer, F. W. H. (1918) Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death, pp. 9697. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
Ohayon, M. (1994a) Sleep Disorders Questionnaire and Decision Trees of the Eval System. Montreal: Bibliothèque Nationale du Québec, Dépot légal.Google Scholar
Ohayon, M. (1994b) Use of an expert system (Eval) in mental health epidemiological surveys. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress on Medical Informatics, MIE-94, 174179. Lisbon.Google Scholar
Ohayon, M. (1994c) Validation of a knowledge based system (Adinfer) versus human experts. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress on Medical Informatics, MIE-94, 9095. Lisbon.Google Scholar
Ohayon, M. & Caulet, M. (1992) Adinfer. experience of an expert system in psychiatry. In Medical Informatics (MEDINFO 92) (eds Lun, K. C., et al), pp. 615619. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
Stickgold, R. & Hobson, J. A. (1995) Home monitoring of sleep onset and sleep onset mentation using the “Nightcap”® . In Sleep Onset: Normal and Abnormal Processes (eds Ogilvie, R. D. & Harsh, J. R.), pp. 141160. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Watson, C. G., Anderson, P. E. D., Thomas, D., et al (1992) Comparability of telephone and face to face diagnostic interview schedules. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 534535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weeks, M. F., Kulka, R. A., Lessler, J. T., et al (1983) Personal versus telephone surveys for collecting household health data at the local level. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 13891394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wells, K. B., Burnam, M. A., Leake, B., et al (1988) Agreement between face-to-face and telephone-administered versions of the depression section of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 22, 207220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yoss, R. E. & Daly, D. D. (1960) Criteria for the diagnosis of the narcoleptic syndrome. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 32, 320328.Google Scholar
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.
140
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations: Pathological Phenomena?
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations: Pathological Phenomena?
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations: Pathological Phenomena?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *