Varese, F, Smeets, F, Drukker, M, Lieverse, R, Lataster, T, Viechtbauer, W, et al. Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophr Bull
2012; 38: 661–71.
Morgan, C, Fisher, H. Environment and schizophrenia: environmental factors in schizophrenia: childhood trauma – a critical review. Schizophr Bull
2007; 33: 3–10.
van Dam, DS, van der Ven, E, Velthorst, E, Selten, JP, Morgan, C, de Haan, L. Childhood bullying and the association with psychosis in non-clinical and clinical samples: a review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med
2012; 42: 2463–74.
Fisher, H, Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Craig, TK, Morgan, K, Hutchinson, G, et al. Gender differences in the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. Br J Psychiatry
2009; 194: 319–25.
van Winkel, R, Stefanis, NC, Myin–Germeys, I. Psychosocial stress and psychosis. A review of the neurobiological mechanisms and the evidence for gene-stress interaction. Schizophr Bull
2008; 34: 1095–105.
Borges, S, Gayer-Anderson, C, Mondelli, V. A systematic review of the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in first episode psychosis. Psychoneuroendocrinology
2013; 38: 603–11.
Bentall, RP, Fernyhough, C. Social predictors of psychotic experiences: specificity and psychological mechanisms. Schizophr Bull
2008; 34: 1012–20.
Fisher, H, Schreier, A, Zammit, S, Maughan, B, Munafo, MR, Lewis, G, et al. Pathways between childhood victimisation and psychosis–like symptoms in the ALSPAC birth cohort. Schizophr Bull
2013; 39: 1045–55.
Beards, S, Gayer-Anderson, C, Borges, S, Dewey, ME, Fisher, HL, Morgan, C. Life events and psychosis: a review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull
2013; 39: 740–7.
Moore, TH, Zammit, S, Lingford-Hughes, A, Barnes, TR, Jones, PB, Burke, M, et al. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet
2007; 370: 319–28.
Lataster, J, Myin-Germeys, I, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J. Adversity and psychosis: a 10-year prospective study investigating synergism between early and recent adversity in psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2012; 125: 388–99.
Harley, M, Kelleher, I, Clarke, M, Lynch, F, Arseneault, L, Connor, D, et al. Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence. Psychol Med
2010; 40: 1627–34.
Morgan, C, Reininghaus, U, Fearon, P, Hutchinson, G, Morgan, K, Dazzan, P, et al. Modelling the interplay between childhood and adult adversity in pathways to psychosis: initial evidence from the AESOP study. Psychol Med
2014; 44: 407–19.
Fisher, HL, Caspi, A, Poulton, R, Meier, MH, Houts, R, Harrington, H, et al. Specificity of childhood psychotic symptoms for predicting schizophrenia by 38 years of age: a birth cohort study. Psychol Med
2013; 43: 2077–86.
van Os, J, Linscott, RJ, Myin-Germeys, I, Delespaul, P, Krabbendam, L. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychol Med
2009; 39: 179–95.
Kelleher, I, Lynch, F, Harley, M, Molloy, C, Roddy, S, Fitzpatrick, C, et al. Psychotic symptoms in adolescence index risk for suicidal behavior: findings from 2 population-based case-control clinical interview studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2012; 69: 1277–83.
Hatch, SL, Frissa, S, Verdecchia, M, Stewart, R, Fear, NT, Reichenberg, A, et al. Identifying socio-demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities in a diverse London community: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study. BMC Public Health
2011; 11: 861.
Hatch, SL, Woodhead, C, Frissa, S, Fear, NT, Verdecchia, M, Stewart, R, et al. Importance of thinking locally for mental health: data from cross-sectional surveys representing South East London and England. PLoS One
2012; 7: e48012.
Bebbington, P, Nayani, V. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Int J Soc Psychiatr Res
1995; 5: 11–9.
Naroo, JY. Ethnicity and Mental Health: Findings from a National Community Survey.
Policy Studies Institute, 1997.
Singleton, N, Bumpstead, R, O'Brien, M, Lee, A, Meltzer, H. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Adults Living in Private Households 2000. TSO (The Stationery Office), 2001.
Morgan, C, Fisher, H, Hutchinson, G, Kirkbride, J, Craig, TK, Morgan, K, et al. Ethnicity, social disadvantage and psychotic-like experiences in a healthy population based sample. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2009; 119: 226–35.
Frissa, S, Hatch, SL, Gazard, B, SELCoH study team, Fear, NT, Hotopf, M. Trauma and current symptoms of PTSD in a South East London community. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2013; 48: 1199–209.
Rose, M. Official Social Classifications in the UK.
University of Surrey, 1998.
Lewis, G, Pelosi, AJ, Araya, R, Dunn, G. Measuring psychiatric disorder in the community: a standardized assessment for use by lay interviewers. Psychol Med
1992; 22: 465–86.
Rothman, KJ, Greenland, S, Lash, TL. Modern Epidemiology (3rd edn). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.
Schwartz, S, Susser, E. Relationships among causes. In Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders (eds Susser, E, Schwartz, S, Morabia, A, Bromet, EJ): 62–74. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Knol, MJ, van der Tweel, I, Grobbee, DE, Numans, ME, Geerlings, MI. Estimating interaction on an additive scale between continuous determinants in a logistic regression model. Int J Epidemiol
2007; 36: 1111–8.
Rothman, KJ, Greenland, S, Walker, AM. Concepts of interaction. Am J Epidemiol
1980; 112: 467–70.
Kendler, KS, Gardner, CO. Interpretation of interactions: guide for the perplexed. Br J Psychiatry
2010; 197: 170–1.
Weich, S, Brugha, T, King, M, McManus, S, Bebbington, P, Jenkins, R, et al. Mental well-being and mental illness: findings from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey for England 2007. Br J Psychiatry
2011; 199: 23–8.
Knudsen, AK, Hotopf, M, Skogen, JC, Overland, S, Mykletun, A. The health status of nonparticipants in a population-based health study: the Hordaland Health Study. Am J Epidemiol
2010; 172: 1306–14.
Susser, E, Widom, CS. Still searching for lost truths about the bitter sorrows of childhood. Schizophr Bull
2012; 38: 672–5.
Das-Munshi, J, Bécares, L, Boydell, JE, Dewey, ME, Morgan, C, Stansfeld, SA, et al. Ethnic density as a buffer for psychotic experiences: findings from a national survey (EMPIRIC). Br J Psychiatry
2012; 201: 282–90.
Clarke, MC, Tanskanen, A, Huttunen, M, Leon, DA, Murray, RM, Jones, PB. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study. Am J Psychiatry
2011; 168: 1295–302.
Bebbington, P, Jonas, S, Kuipers, E, King, M, Cooper, C, Brugha, T, et al. Childhood sexual abuse and psychosis: data from a cross-sectional national psychiatric survey in England. Br J Psychiatry
2011; 199: 29–37.
Houston, JE, Murphy, J, Adamson, G, Stringer, M, Shevlin, M. Childhood sexual abuse, early cannabis use, and psychosis: testing an interaction model based on the National Comorbidity Survey. Schizophr Bull
2008; 34: 580–5.
Murphy, J, Houston, JE, Shevlin, M, Adamson, G. Childhood sexual trauma, cannabis use and psych osis: statistically controlling for pre-trauma psychosis and psychopathology. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2013; 48: 853–61.
Konings, M, Stefanis, N, Kuepper, R, de Graaf, R, ten Have, M, van Os, J, et al. Replication in two independent population-based samples that childhood maltreatment and cannabis use synergistically impact on psychosis risk. Psychol Med
2012; 42: 149–59.
Kuepper, R, Henquet, C, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J. Non-replication of interaction between cannabis use and trauma in predicting psychosis. Schizophr Res
2011; 131: 262–3.
Morgan, C, Charalambides, M, Hutchinson, G, Murray, RM. Migration, ethnicity, and psychosis: toward a sociodevelopmental model. Schizophr Bull
2010; 36: 655–64.
Hatch, SL. Conceptualizing and identifying cumulative adversity and protective resources: implications for understanding health inequalities. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
2005; 60 (special issue 2): s130–4.